Inlet

An inlet is an indentation of a shoreline, usually long and narrow, such as a small bay or arm,[1] that often leads to an enclosed body of salt water, such as a sound, bay, lagoon, or marsh.

Bucht am Golf von Neapel
Bay at the Gulf of Salerno

Overview

In sea coasts, the term "inlet" usually refers to the actual connection between a bay and the ocean and is often called an "entrance" or a recession in the shore of a sea, lake, or river. A certain kind of inlet created by glaciation is a fjord, typically but not always in mountainous coastlines and also in montane lakes.

Complexes of large inlets or fjords may be called sounds, e.g., Puget Sound, Howe Sound, Karmsund (sund is Scandinavian for "sound"). Some fjord-type inlets are called canals, e.g., Portland Canal, Lynn Canal, Hood Canal, and some are channels, e.g., Dean Channel and Douglas Channel.

Tidal amplitude, wave intensity, and wave direction are all factors that influence sediment flux in inlets.[2]

On low slope sandy coastlines, inlets often separate barrier islands and can form as the result of storm events.[3] Alongshore sediment transport can cause inlets to close if the action of tidal currents flowing through an inlet do not flush accumulated sediment out of the inlet.[4]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "inlet". Dictionary.com. Ask.com. Retrieved July 6, 2014.
  2. ^ Chen, Jia-Lin; Hsu, Tian-Jian; Shi, Fengyan; Raubenheimer, Britt; Elgar, Steve (2015-06-01). "Hydrodynamic and sediment transport modeling of New River Inlet (NC) under the interaction of tides and waves". Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. 120 (6): 4028–4047. doi:10.1002/2014JC010425. ISSN 2169-9291.
  3. ^ Safak, Ilgar; Warner, John C.; List, Jeffrey H. (2016-12-01). "Barrier island breach evolution: Alongshore transport and bay-ocean pressure gradient interactions". Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. 121 (12): 8720–8730. doi:10.1002/2016jc012029. hdl:1912/8812. ISSN 2169-9291.
  4. ^ Swart, H. E. de; Zimmerman, J. T. F. (2009). "Morphodynamics of Tidal Inlet Systems". Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics. 41 (1): 203–229. doi:10.1146/annurev.fluid.010908.165159.

References

  • Bruun, Per; A.J. Mehta (1978). Stability of Tidal Inlets: Theory and Engineering. Amsterdam: Elsevier Scientific Pub. Co. p. 510. ISBN 978-0-444-41728-2. be pub co

External links

Bathurst Inlet (rock)

Bathurst Inlet is a rock on the surface of Aeolis Palus, between Peace Vallis and Aeolis Mons ("Mount Sharp"), in Gale crater on the planet Mars. The rock was encountered by the Curiosity rover on the way from Bradbury Landing to Glenelg Intrique on September 30, 2012 and was named after Bathurst Inlet, a deep inlet located along the northern coast of the Canadian mainland. The "approximate" site coordinates are: 4.59°S 137.44°E / -4.59; 137.44.

The NASA rover team had assessed the rock to be a suitable target for one of the first uses of Curiosity's contact instruments, the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) and the Alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS). The rock is dark gray and seems to contain grains or crystals, if any at all, that are finer than Curiosity's cameras can resolve - less than 80 µm in size.

Body of water

A body of water or waterbody (often spelled water body) is any significant accumulation of water, generally on a planet's surface. The term most often refers to oceans, seas, and lakes, but it includes smaller pools of water such as ponds, wetlands, or more rarely, puddles. A body of water does not have to be still or contained; rivers, streams, canals, and other geographical features where water moves from one place to another are also considered bodies of water.Most are naturally occurring geographical features, but some are artificial. There are types that can be either. For example, most reservoirs are created by engineering dams, but some natural lakes are used as reservoirs. Similarly, most harbors are naturally occurring bays, but some harbors have been created through construction.

Bodies of water that are navigable are known as waterways. Some bodies of water collect and move water, such as rivers and streams, and others primarily hold water, such as lakes and oceans.

The term body of water can also refer to a reservoir of water held by a plant, technically known as a phytotelma.

Bodies of water are affected by gravity which is what creates the tidal effects on Earth.

British Columbia Coast

The British Columbia Coast or BC Coast is Canada's western continental coastline on the North Pacific Ocean. The usage is synonymous with the term West Coast of Canada.

In a sense excluding the urban Lower Mainland area adjacent to the Canada–United States border, which is considered "The Coast," the British Columbia Coast refers to one of British Columbia's three main regions, the others being the Lower Mainland and The Interior.

The aerial distance from Victoria on the Strait of Juan de Fuca to Stewart, British Columbia on the Alaska border at the head of the Portland Canal is 965 kilometres (600 mi) in length. However, because of its many deep inlets and complicated island shorelines—and 40,000 islands of varying sizes, including Vancouver Island and Haida Gwaii —the total length of the British Columbia Coast is over 25,725 kilometres (15,985 mi), making up about 10% of the Canadian coastline at 243,042 kilometres (151,019 mi). The coastline's geography, which is shared with Southeast Alaska and adjoining parts of northwest Washington, is most comparable to that of Norway and its heavily indented coastline of fjords, a landscape also found in southern Chile. The dominant landforms of the BC Coast are the Insular Mountains, comprising most of Vancouver Island and Haida Gwaii, and the Coast Mountains, which extend beyond into Alaska and the Yukon.

The British Columbia Coast is mostly part of the Pacific temperate rain forests ecoregion as defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature. In the system used by Environment Canada, established by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), the area is defined as the Pacific Maritime Ecozone. In the geoclimatic zones system used by the British Columbia Ministry of Forests the bulk of the region comprises the Coastal Western Hemlock biogeoclimatic zone, although small areas flanking the Strait of Georgia at the coast's southern extremity are classed in the Coastal Douglas-fir zone.

Burrard Inlet

For other places with the same name, see Burrard (disambiguation).

Burrard Inlet is a relatively shallow-sided coastal fjord in southwestern British Columbia, Canada. Formed during the last Ice Age, it separates the City of Vancouver and the rest of the low-lying Burrard Peninsula (to the south) from the slopes of the North Shore Mountains, home to the communities of West Vancouver and the City and District of North Vancouver.

Bute Inlet

Bute Inlet is one of the principal inlets of the British Columbia Coast. It is 80 km long from the estuaries of the Homathko and Southgate Rivers at the head of the inlet, to the mouth, where it is nearly blocked by Stuart Island, and it averages about 4 km in width. Bute Inlet is in a spectacular wilderness setting and is one of the most scenic waterways in the world. In the upper reaches of the inlet mountains rise 9000 feet above sea level. Bute Inlet is a spectacular wilderness that is visited by very few people. In more recent years tourists are travelling from around the world to view grizzly bears in a natural setting and explore the wilderness of Bute Inlet.

Cook Inlet

Cook Inlet (Dena'ina: Tikahtnu) stretches 180 miles (290 km) from the Gulf of Alaska to Anchorage in south-central Alaska. Cook Inlet branches into the Knik Arm and Turnagain Arm at its northern end, almost surrounding Anchorage. On its south end merges with Shelikof Strait, Stevenson Entrance, Kennedy Entrance and Chugach Passage.The watershed covers about 100,000 km² of southern Alaska, east of the Aleutian Range, south and east of the Alaska Range, receiving water from its tributaries the Knik River, the Little Susitna River, and the Susitna and Matanuska rivers. The watershed includes the drainage areas of Denali (formerly named Mount McKinley). Within the watershed there are several national parks and the active volcano Mount Redoubt, along with three other historically active volcanoes. Cook Inlet provides navigable access to the port of Anchorage at the northern end, and to the smaller Homer port further south. Before the growth of Anchorage, Knik was the destination for most marine traffic in upper Cook Inlet. Approximately 400,000 people live within the Cook Inlet watershed.

Inlet manifold

In automotive engineering, an inlet manifold or intake manifold (in American English) is the part of an engine that supplies the fuel/air mixture to the cylinders. The word manifold comes from the Old English word manigfeald (from the Anglo-Saxon manig [many] and feald [repeatedly]) and refers to the multiplying of one (pipe) into many.In contrast, an exhaust manifold collects the exhaust gases from multiple cylinders into a smaller number of pipes – often down to one pipe.

The primary function of the intake manifold is to evenly distribute the combustion mixture (or just air in a direct injection engine) to each intake port in the cylinder head(s). Even distribution is important to optimize the efficiency and performance of the engine. It may also serve as a mount for the carburetor, throttle body, fuel injectors and other components of the engine.

Due to the downward movement of the pistons and the restriction caused by the throttle valve, in a reciprocating spark ignition piston engine, a partial vacuum (lower than atmospheric pressure) exists in the intake manifold. This manifold vacuum can be substantial, and can be used as a source of automobile ancillary power to drive auxiliary systems: power assisted brakes, emission control devices, cruise control, ignition advance, windshield wipers, power windows, ventilation system valves, etc.

This vacuum can also be used to draw any piston blow-by gases from the engine's crankcase. This is known as a positive crankcase ventilation system, in which the gases are burned with the fuel/air mixture.

The intake manifold has historically been manufactured from aluminium or cast iron, but use of composite plastic materials is gaining popularity (e.g. most Chrysler 4-cylinders, Ford Zetec 2.0, Duratec 2.0 and 2.3, and GM's Ecotec series).

Jervis Inlet

Jervis Inlet locally is one of the principal inlets of the British Columbia Coast, about 95 km (59 mi) northwest of Vancouver, and the third of such inlets north of the 49th parallel north, the first of which is the Burrard Inlet, Vancouver's harbour.

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Jupiter, Florida

Jupiter is the northernmost town in Palm Beach County, Florida, United States. According to a 2017 Census Bureau estimate, the town had a population of 64,976. It is 87 miles north of Miami, and the northernmost community in the Miami metropolitan area, home to 6,012,331 people in a 2015 Census Bureau estimate. Jupiter was rated as the 12th Best Beach Town in America by WalletHub in 2018, and as the 9th Happiest Seaside Town in America by Coastal Living in 2012.

Kivalliq Region

The Kivalliq Region (Inuktitut syllabics: ᑭᕙᓪᓕᖅ) is an administrative region of Nunavut, Canada. It consists of the portion of the mainland to the west of Hudson Bay together with Southampton Island and Coats Island. The regional seat is Rankin Inlet. The population was 10,413 in the 2016 Census, an increase of 16.3% from the 2011 Census.Before 1999, Kivalliq Region existed under slightly different boundaries as Keewatin Region, Northwest Territories. Although the Kivalliq name became official in 1999, Statistics Canada has continued to refer to the area as Keewatin Region, Nunavut in publications such as the Census. Most references to the area as "Keewatin" have generally been phased out by Nunavut-based bodies, as that name was originally rooted in a region of northwestern Ontario derived from a Cree dialect, and only saw application onto Inuit-inhabited lands because of the boundaries of the now-defunct District of Keewatin.

Klewnuggit Inlet Marine Provincial Park

Klewnuggit Inlet Marine Provincial Park is a provincial park that covers 1,773 hectares (4,380 acres) in British Columbia, Canada. It was established on 14 June 1993.

List of rivers of British Columbia

The following is a partial list of rivers of British Columbia, organized by watershed. Some large creeks are included either because of size or historical importance

(See Alphabetical List of British Columbia rivers ). Also included are lakes that are "in-line" connecting upper tributaries of listed rivers, or at their heads.

Lowe Inlet Marine Provincial Park

Lowe Inlet Marine Provincial Park is a provincial park in British Columbia, Canada located on the Inside Passage of the North Coast, 118 km south of Prince Rupert and 75 km north of Butedale.

Northwest Angle

The Northwest Angle, known simply as the Angle by locals, and coextensive with Angle Township, is a part of northern Lake of the Woods County, Minnesota. Except for minor surveying errors, it is the only place in the contiguous United States that is north of the 49th parallel, which forms the border between the U.S. and Canada from the Northwest Angle westward to the Strait of Georgia (between the state of Washington and the province of British Columbia). The land area of the Angle is separated from the rest of Minnesota by Lake of the Woods, but shares a land border with Canada. It is one of only six non-island locations in the 48 contiguous states that are practical exclaves of the U.S. It is the northernmost township in Minnesota and contains the northernmost point in the contiguous 48 states. The unincorporated community of Angle Inlet is located in the Northwest Angle.

Seventy percent of the land of the Angle is held in trust by the Red Lake Indian Reservation (Ojibwa).Although the Angle is listed as one of several distinct regions of Minnesota, its total population was 119 at the 2010 census. The area is mostly water and the land is mostly forest.

Pond Inlet

Pond Inlet (Inuktitut: Mittimatalik, in English the place where the landing place is) is a small, predominantly Inuit community in the Qikiqtaaluk Region of Nunavut, Canada, and is located in northern Baffin Island. At the 2016 census the population was 1,617, an increase of 4.4% from the 2011 census Pond Inlet was named in 1818 by explorer John Ross for John Pond, an English astronomer. The mayor is Charlie Inuarak. Tununiq Sauniq Cooperative Limited, most often referred to simply as the Co-op, also operates a local hotel and other endeavours.

Rankin Inlet

Rankin Inlet (Inuktitut: Kangiqliniq; Inuktitut syllabics: ᑲᖏᕿᓂᖅ or Kangirliniq, ᑲᖏᖅᖠᓂᖅ, or Kangir&iniq meaning deep bay/inlet) is an Inuit hamlet on Kudlulik Peninsula in Nunavut, Canada. Located on the northwestern Hudson Bay, between Chesterfield Inlet and Arviat, it is the regional centre for the Kivalliq Region.

In the 1995 Nunavut capital plebiscite, Iqaluit defeated Rankin Inlet to become territorial capital of Nunavut.

Sechelt Inlets Marine Provincial Park

Sechelt Inlets Marine Provincial Park is a provincial park in British Columbia, Canada, at various locations on Sechelt Inlet, Salmon Inlet and Narrows Inlet, near Sechelt (Salmon Inlet and Narrows Inlet are side arms of Sechelt Inlet). Established initially as a recreation area in 1980, it was converted to a park in 1999, containing approximately 140 hectares (350 acres).

Individual sites within the park are:

Halfway Beach site; W side Sechelt Inlet; 6.4 hectares (16 acres).

Tuwanek Point site; E side Sechelt Inlet; 7.4 hectares (18 acres).

Thornhill Creek site; S side Salmon Inlet; 3.3 hectares (8.2 acres).

Nine Mile Point site; E side Sechelt Inlet; 6.1 hectares (15 acres).

Kunechin Point site; junction of Sechelt and Salmon Inlets, on N side; 2.3 hectares (5.7 acres).

Tzoonie Narrows site; Narrows Inlet; 42.6 hectares (105 acres).

Piper Point site; W side Sechelt Inlet; 5.2 hectares (13 acres).

Skaiakos Point site; W side Sechelt Inlet; .4 hectares (0.99 acres).

Two-stroke engine

A two-stroke (or two-cycle) engine is a type of internal combustion engine which completes a power cycle with two strokes (up and down movements) of the piston during only one crankshaft revolution. This is in contrast to a "four-stroke engine", which requires four strokes of the piston to complete a power cycle during two crankshaft revolutions. In a two-stroke engine, the end of the combustion stroke and the beginning of the compression stroke happen simultaneously, with the intake and exhaust (or scavenging) functions occurring at the same time.

Two-stroke engines often have a high power-to-weight ratio, power being available in a narrow range of rotational speeds called the "power band". Compared to four-stroke engines, two-stroke engines have a greatly reduced number of moving parts, and so can be more compact and significantly lighter.

Valve

A valve is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways. Valves are technically fittings, but are usually discussed as a separate category. In an open valve, fluid flows in a direction from higher pressure to lower pressure. The word is derived from the Latin valva, the moving part of a door, in turn from volvere, to turn, roll.

The simplest, and very ancient, valve is simply a freely hinged flap which drops to obstruct fluid (gas or liquid) flow in one direction, but is pushed open by flow in the opposite direction. This is called a check valve, as it prevents or "checks" the flow in one direction. Modern control valves may regulate pressure or flow downstream and operate on sophisticated automation systems.

Valves have many uses, including controlling water for irrigation, industrial uses for controlling processes, residential uses such as on/off and pressure control to dish and clothes washers and taps in the home. Even aerosols have a tiny valve built in. Valves are also used in the military and transport sectors. In HVAC ductwork and other near-atmospheric air flows, valves are instead called dampers. In compressed air systems, however, valves are used with the most common type being ball valves.

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