In Central Europe, towards the end of the last glacial period (about 12,000 years ago), it was about 10 degrees colder than today. There was therefore no forest cover but only patchy vegetation in the form of tundra. In addition, in the areas covered by the ice sheet, the vegetation had to re-establish itself as the glaciers melted. As a result, the winds could blow almost unhindered. Light, fine-grained soil particles, especially of silt and sand were plucked up by air currents, often transported for miles and then deposited at another location. The wind also had a sorting effect - silt is transported significantly faster than sand - and this resulted, over time, in areas of aeolian sand and sand dunes being formed, while the silt was transported much further and redeposited, for example, on the northern edge of highlands.
In high winds the dunes had a tendency to "wander". Most of the currently existing inland dunes were created at this time. With the end of the glacial period, the mobility of the dunes quickly came to a halt as a result of reforestation.
The shape of inland dunes varies depending on the prevailing wind direction and strength. Most of them are rather irregular dunes or shifting belts of sand. But there are also occur very well-formed parabolic dunes and longitudinal dunes.
Nearly all recent phases of the development of inland dunes are affected by human intervention on the vegetation cover. By the deliberate or unintentional clearing of the forest, dunes became mobile again in areas where they had become static.
The analysis of charcoal particles in the dunes using radiocarbon dating has established that the activity of settlers in the Neolithic period caused the dunes to become mobile again. But even in the Bronze and Iron Age there is evidence of man-induced dune activity.
The sands of the inland dunes of El Vizcaíno Desert, Baja California, Mexico, come from nearby alluvial sources. Originally the sands are thought to have derived from granitoids, schists as well as sedimentary and volcanic rocks. While composition suggest that dune sands come from a craton setting geochemistry indicates an active continental margin setting for the origin of the sand.
Large fossil dune fields or paleo-dune field exist in La Pampa Province of Argentina. These dune are vestiges of past climatic conditions that allowed for movement of sand. The dunes are not active any longer as result of the stabilizing effect of grasses. However the dunes have been degraded by cattle grassing and agriculture. A particular dune field covers the floor of a 40 km-long and 5 km broad NE-SW valley. It is made up of very large parabolic dunes with lesser blowout dunes built on top.
Near Copiapó in the southern reaches of the Atacama Desert the largest dunes of Chile exists. Based on an analysis of sediments it has been suggested that the dunes derive from fluvial sediments. A previous explanation suggests that the dunes originated from coastal sand in marine terraces that were uplifted, then deflation would have caused this sand to migrate inland. At present the dunes are active but starved of sediment supply.
Within Central Europe, therefore, inland dunes exclude the belts of coastal dunes on the North Sea and Baltic Sea coasts. Unlike their coastal cousins, inland dunes are aeolian formations of sand (dunes) transported and then deposited by wind. They were predominantly created under cold climatic, periglacial conditions at the end of the Weichselian and Würm ice ages, i.e. roughly more than 10,000 years ago. Their development during the post-glacial period has been heavily influenced by mankind.
Best example of such continental sandfields is Deliblato Sands which is sometimes called the “Sahara of Europe”. It is mainly afforested today, and open sand surface is rare, although the sand is still moving (gradual aeolian blasting).
In northern Sweden numerous inactive dunes exists. These dunes were formed in a Holocene periglacial context when the Weichsel Ice Sheet was retreating. At present smaller parabolic dunes are forming in northern Sweden due to redeposition of deflated dunes. As recorded by dune stratification the wind the formed the larger and older dunes blew from northwestern directions.
The Bodaruwitj (alternatively Bedaruwidj/Potaruwutj), also referred to in some early sources as the Tatiara, are an indigenous Australian people of the state of South Australia. Some authorities believe they are extinct. David Horton believed they were the group his sources referred to as the Bindjali people.Botanical Garden of the University of Heidelberg
The Botanischer Garten der Universität Heidelberg (2 hectares), also known as the Botanischer Garten Heidelberg, is a botanical garden maintained by the University of Heidelberg. It is located at Im Neuenheimer Feld 340, New Campus, Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany; portions are open to the public daily except Saturday without charge.
The garden was established in 1593 as a hortus medicus for the University of Heidelberg. As such, it is the third oldest botanical garden in Germany, but has moved seven times since its establishment. The present site was created in 1915 by Georg Albrecht Klebs and head gardener Erich Behnick. It was severely damaged in World War II but has subsequently been rebuilt.
Today the garden contains over 14,000 plant taxa, with a primary focus on its greenhouse collections (4000 m² total area), with strengths in succulents, orchids, and bromeliads. The following 11 special collections form its core holdings:
Bromeliaceae (2854 accessions, 1145 spp.)
Succulents of Madagascar (1501 accessions, 847 ssp.)
Succulents of the New World (2342 accessions, 1695 spp.)
Succulents of the Old World (3563 accessions, 2314 spp.)
Tropical Orchids (4852 accessions, 3510 spp.)The garden's outdoor sections contains plants from bogs and heath, an alpine garden, fern ravine and inland dune, weedy vineyard, and a systematic collection. The herbarium contains over 250,000 specimens representing more than 50,000 taxa.Bremen Switzerland
Bremen Switzerland (German: Bremer Schweiz) is an undulating geest landscape in the north of Bremen (Bremen Nord) and the adjacent district of Osterholz, and forms the western portion of the Osterholz Geest.
In comparison to the rather flat land on which the city of Bremen is built and its surrounding area which is built on marsh and bog, Bremen Switzerland reaches heights of up to about 30 m above sea level (NN).
The region of the Bremen Switzerland is framed by the Weser tributary of Lesum to the south, the Weser to the west, the marsh region of Osterstade to the northwest, the forest of Düngel to the north (Garlstedt-Meyenburg line), the former B 6 federal route to Bremerhaven (now the L135) to the east and the adjoining heath of Lange Heide.
Bremen Switzerland is divided into nature reserves, meadows, woods, heathland and depressions like the Ihle valley and the valleys of the Schönebecker Aue, the Blumenthaler Aue and the Beckedorfer Beeke. As a result, it is a favourite destination for many leisure pursuits like walking, cycling, jogging or riding. Facilities include the Bremen Switzerland Golf Course.Entradasuchus
Entradasuchus (meaning "Entrada [Sandstone and Ranch] crocodile") is a genus of crocodyliform, an early member of the group including crocodilians. The only known specimen was found in rocks of the Middle Jurassic Entrada Sandstone of Entrada Ranch, Grand County, Utah. Middle Jurassic terrestrial tetrapods are very rare, and Entradasuchus was the first unequivocal North American Middle Jurassic nonmarine tetrapod known from body fossils when it was described (1995).Holmer Sandberge
The Holmer Sandberge is an inland dune area in the municipality of Holm in the district of Pinneberg in Schleswig-Holstein (Germany). They form the largest inland dune area of Schleswig-Holstein. The area is part of two larger protected areas: the "Holmer Sandberge und Moorbereiche" protected landscape area, and the "Holmer Sandberge und Buttermoor" Special Area of Conservation.
The Holmer Sandberge consists of former dunes, formed during the last ice age from the former glacial valley of the River Elbe.
Large open sand dunes with "tree islands" of bizarre pine regrowth makes this a unique landscape. Heaths and dry grasslands are spreading, and rare animal and plant species are finding habitats.
The Holmer Sandberge are largely used as a recreational area for the surrounding area.Klövensteen
The Klövensteen is a woodland area west of Hamburg, Germany.The forest covers an area of more than 513 ha (1,270 acres). The Klövensteen is located in the districts of Hamburg in Rissen and Sülldorf and also has parts in Schleswig-Holstein namely in the towns of Pinneberg and Wedel and in the communities of Appen and Holm.
Originally the Klövensteen was part of a 100 km (62 mi) long inland dune, which lasted from the last Ice age and extended over an area from the northern Elbe, from the present-day Kiel Canal over the Haseldorf marsh to Geesthacht. The forest was created through afforestation in the 19th century.La Pampa Province
La Pampa (Spanish pronunciation: [la ˈpampa]) is a sparsely populated province of Argentina, located in the Pampas in the center of the country. Neighboring provinces are from the north clockwise San Luis, Córdoba, Buenos Aires, Río Negro, Neuquén and Mendoza.Lichens and nitrogen cycling
Some types of lichen are able to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere. This process relies on the presence of cyanobacteria as a partner species within the lichen. The ability to fix nitrogen enables lichen to live in nutrient-poor environments. Lichen can also extract nitrogen from the rocks on which they grow.
Nitrogen fixation, and hence the abundance of lichen and their host plants, may be decreased by application of nitrogen-based agricultural fertilizer and by atmospheric pollution.List of nature parks in Germany
Ninety eight official nature parks (German: Naturparks) have been established in Germany under section 22, paragraph 4 of that country's Federal Nature Conservation Act (BNatSchG). They comprise about 25 percent of the total land area of Germany and are brought together under the Association of German Nature Parks. Parks that overlap into neighbouring countries are led by Europarc. The oldest is Lüneburg Heath Nature Park, whose core area was established in 1921 as a nature reserve; by 2007 it had expanded to more than four times its original area. The largest nature reserve in Germany, with 3,750 square kilometres (1,450 sq mi) is the Nature Park of the Central and Northern Black Forest and the smallest is Siebengebirge with an area of 48 square kilometres (19 sq mi).
The 14 national parks of Germany, under paragraph 24 of the Federal Nature Conservation Act, are not listed here. See List of national parks of Germany.Mecklenburg Elbe Valley Nature Park
The Mecklenburg Elbe Valley Nature Park (German: Mecklenburgisches Elbetal) is part of the UNESCO biosphere reserve of Elbe River Landscape, which is over 400 river kilometres long and which runs through the five German states of Saxony-Anhalt, Brandenburg, Lower Saxony, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Schleswig-Holstein. It lies in the district of Ludwigslust-Parchim in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The nature park was called into existence in 1990 and legally established by act of state in 1998. It has an area of 426 km2 (164 sq mi).
Characteristic is the original riparian landscape of the Elbe stream with its tributaries, the Schaale, Sude, Krainke, Rögnitz, Löcknitz and the Müritz-Elde Waterway. One feature is the areas of inland dune with sandy calcareous grassland, woods and heaths as well as the steep sides of the Elbe valley near Boizenburg and Rüterberg (Dömitz), whose observation towers offer panoramic view of the Elbe water meadows.
The nature park lies on the right bank of the Elbe near Elbe km 502-511 and 555-565 and between the state borders of Schleswig-Holstein and Brandenburg. Within the region are the villages of Boizenburg, Lübtheen and Dömitz.
Places of interest are the Lübtheen Reedbed Educational Path, the Dunes Educational Path in the nature reserve near Klein Schmölen, the educational path on the Rüterberg clay pit and another one in the Dammereeze Landscape Park. Of cultural-historical importance is the fortification in Dömitz and unique is the First German Tile Museum (Erstes Deutsches Fliesenmuseum) in the tiled town of Boizenburg/Elbe.
Since 1 January 2009 the nature park management has been aligned with the Schaalsee Biosphere Reserve in order to run it better as a biosphere reserve.Penambol Conservation Park
Penambol Conservation Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia located in the state's south-east in the gazetted locality of Caroline about 22 kilometres (14 mi) south-east of the city centre in Mount Gambier.The conservation park occupies land in sections 382, 383, 384 and 701 of the cadastral unit of the Hundred of Caroline which is located to the north of the Glenelg River Road. The land is sections 382, 383 and 384 are bounded by Cameron Road to the west, Honeysuckle Road to the north and Carba Road to the east while the land in section 701 is located on the north side of Honeysuckle Road at the intersection with Carba Road. As of 1992, a fire water supply tank and a windmill were located in the “central section” (presumably section 383) while an airfield operated by the Department of Primary Industries and Resources South Australia was located in section 701.The land was “acquired for conservation purposes in 1984” and was constituted as the Penambol Conservation Park under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 on 4 November 1993 with access permitted for the purpose of “entry, prospecting, exploration and mining” under the Mining Act 1971 and the Petroleum Act 1940. Its name is derived from the Booandik language word recorded by the missionary, Christina Smith, for “Stringybark Forest” and was approved for the conservation park's name in 1987 over the proposed name of Pond Flat Conservation Park. As of July 2016, the conservation park covered an area of 1.8 square kilometres (0.69 sq mi).In 1992, the conservation park was described as being located on a “consolidated inland dune system” which contains the “three significant karst features” that located in the ‘central section”, the “south-east section” (presumably section 382) and section 701 which is described as “a large cenote (a collapsed doline), known locally as the Caroline Sinkhole.” It was described as supporting the following major vegetation associations:
An “open woodland” of messmate stringybark dominates most of the conservation park and supports an understorey including the following species - clover glycine, Derwent speedwell, golden-tip, hop wattle, ivy-leaved violet, rough bush-pea and tiger-orchid.
The “central section” which cleared for agricultural purposes prior to 1984 is dominated by introduced grass species, although native species dominated by blackwood were “beginning to regenerate in this area.”The conservation park was also reported in 1992 as having the following “locally significant fauna” within its boundaries - bush rat, common brushtail possum, common wombat, eastern grey kangaroo, red-necked wallaby, ring tailed possum, short-beaked echidna, yellow-bellied glider and the following bird species which were listed as being “rare” in South Australia in 1992 - gang-gang cockatoo and red-tailed black cockatoo.The conservation park is classified as an IUCN Category VI protected area.Przemków Landscape Park
Scenic Park of Przemkow (Przemkowski Park Krajobrazowy) is a protected area (Landscape Park) in south-western Poland, established in 1997, covering an area of 223.38 square kilometres (86.25 sq mi).
The Park lies within Lower Silesian Voivodeship: in Bolesławiec County (Gmina Gromadka) and Polkowice County (Gmina Chocianów, Gmina Gaworzyce, Gmina Przemków, Gmina Radwanice).