Inge Scholl

Inge Aicher-Scholl (11 August 1917 – 4 September 1998), born in present-day Crailsheim, Germany, was the daughter of Robert Scholl, mayor of Forchtenberg, and elder sister of Hans and Sophie Scholl, who studied at the University of Munich in 1942, and were core members of the White Rose student resistance movement in Nazi Germany. Inge Scholl wrote several books about the White Rose after the war. However, according to the Center for White Rose Studies, she did not even "so much as listen to her siblings' talk", when they tried to convince her to take part in 1942.[1]

Inge Aicher-Scholl
Weingarten Geschwister-Scholl-Schule Grundstufe 2
Commemorative plaque to Inge Aicher-Scholl.
Born
Inge Scholl

11 August 1917
Ingersheim, Germany
Died4 September 1998 (aged 81)
Cause of deathCancer
Spouse(s)Otl Aicher
Parent(s)Robert Scholl
Magdalena Müller
RelativesHans Scholl (brother)
Sophie Scholl (sister)

The White Rose and the Scholl family during the war

The White Rose was a student group that printed and distributed leaflets highly critical of Nazi war crimes, particularly against the Jews on the eastern front. They said the war could not be won and were mostly active after the Wehrmacht's disastrous reverse at the Battle of Stalingrad and the collapse of Operation Barbarossa. They warned that the German people might become "forever the nation hated and rejected by all mankind".[2] Sophie and Hans were caught distributing the leaflets, tried for treason and executed by guillotine, along with another White Rose member, Christoph Probst. Inge and other Scholl family members were arrested and interrogated, but later released.

After the war

Inge, her husband, Otl Aicher, and Max Bill (a former student at the Bauhaus) founded in 1953 the Ulm School of Design (German: Hochschule für Gestaltung (HfG Ulm)) in Ulm, Germany. She was heavily involved in the peace movement in the later half of the 20th century.

She wrote a number of books about the White Rose organization.

She died of cancer on 4 September 1998 in Leutkirch im Allgäu.

References

  1. ^ http://white-rose-studies.org/Their_Story.html
  2. ^ Inge Scholl, Students Against Tyranny: The Resistance of the White Rose, Munich, 1942–1943, translated by Arthur R. Schultz (Middletown CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1970), pp. 77–84, 89–90. (Via: Stackelberg, Roderick; Winkle, Sally Anne (2002). The Nazi Germany sourcebook: an anthology of texts p. 307. ISBN 978-0-415-22214-3)
Antal Pusztai

Antal Pusztai (born 7 May 1978) is a classical guitarist who is known as both a jazz musician and a classical guitarist.

He was born in Győr, Hungary, in 1978, and he started guitar at the age of seven. He received his first guitar lessons from his father and later studied at the Konservatorium Wien (1990-1995) with Inge Scholl Kremmel, the Hochschule Gyõr (1995-1999) with Ede Róth and at the Universität für Musik und darstellende Kunst with Konrad Ragossnig (2000-2001) and Álvaro Pierri (2001-2003). He was awarded the 2003/2004 Herbert von Karajan scholarship. He has also won first prize at numerous international jazz and classical competitions. He frequently performs in ensembles such as jazz bands and has performed in duo with Miguel Delaquin.

Christoph Probst

Christoph Ananda Probst (born 6 November 1919, Murnau am Staffelsee – 22 February 1943, Munich) was a German student of medicine and member of the White Rose (Weiße Rose) resistance group.

Hans G. Conrad

Hans G. Conrad (*11 June 1926 in Remetschwil, Switzerland as Johann Gerold Konrad; † 26 December 2003 in Cologne, Germany) was a photographer and graphic designer in the 20th century.

Hans Scholl

Hans Fritz Scholl (22 September 1918 – 22 February 1943) was a founding member of the White Rose resistance movement in Nazi Germany. He was executed by the Nazi regime during time of war.

Ilse Aichinger

Ilse Aichinger (1 November 1921 – 11 November 2016) was an Austrian writer known for her accounts of her persecution by the Nazis because of her Jewish ancestry. She wrote poems, short stories and radio plays, and won multiple European literary prizes.

Index of World War II articles (I)

I'll Remember April

I Airborne Corps (United Kingdom)

I Armored Corps (United States)

I Canadian Corps

I Corps (Australia)

I Corps (France)

I Corps (Germany)

I Corps (United Kingdom)

I Corps (United States)

I Kikan

I See a Dark Stranger

I SS Panzer Corps

I Was Monty's Double (film)

I.Ae. 25 Mañque

Iaşi pogrom

Iain Macleod

Iain Moncreiffe of that Ilk

Iain Tennant

Iakovos Kambanelis

Ian Carmichael

Ian Edward Fraser

Ian Fleming

Ian Frank Bowater

Ian Gilmour, Baron Gilmour of Craigmillar

Ian Hacking

Ian Hawkins

Ian Hogg (Royal Navy officer)

Ian Jacob

Ian Johnson (cricketer)

Ian Keith, 12th Earl of Kintore

Ian Kershaw

Ian MacAlister Stewart

Ian McGeoch

Ian Oswald Liddell

Ian Robertson, Lord Robertson

Ian Smith

Ian Stanley Ord Playfair

Ian Stuart Donaldson

Ian V. Hogg

Ian Willoughby Bazalgette

Iannis Xenakis

IAR 80

Ibō Takahashi

IBM and the Holocaust

Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia

Ibrahima Sonko

Icchak Cukierman

Ice-Cold in Alex

Icebreaker (Suvorov)

Ichinohe Hyoe

Ida Jenbach

Identification in Nazi camps

Idflieg

Idris I of Libya

If This Is a Man

Iftikhar Khan

IG Farben Building

IG Farben Trial

IG Farben

Ignace Dubus-Bonnel

Ignacio Corleto

Ignacy Jeż

Ignacy Oziewicz

Ignatius J. Galantin

Ignatius Wolfington

Ignatz Waghalter

Ignaz Maybaum

Ignaz Pleyel

Ignazio Silone

Igo Sym

Igor Newerly

Igor Yanovskiy

II Canadian Corps

II Corps (Poland)

II Corps (United Kingdom)

II Corps (United States)

II SS Panzer Corps

II. Jagdkorps

III (Germanic) SS Panzer Corps

III Corps (Germany)

III Corps (India)

III Corps (United Kingdom)

III Corps (United States)

IJA 11th Independent Mixed Brigade

IJA 144th Division

IJA 145th Division

IJA 18th Independent Mixed Brigade

IJA 1st Cavalry Brigade

IJA 1st Independent Mixed Brigade

IJA 2nd Independent Mixed Brigade

IJA 3rd Cavalry Brigade

IJA 4th Cavalry Brigade

IJA Cavalry Group

IJA Independent Mixed Brigades

IJN 10th Area Fleet

IJN 2nd Fleet

IJN 3rd Fleet

IJN 4th Fleet

IJN 5th Fleet

IJN 6th Fleet

IJN 7th Fleet

IJN 8th Fleet

Ijuin Gorō

Ikazuchi-class destroyer

Ike Franklin Andrews

Ike: Countdown to D-Day

IL-2 Sturmovik (video game series)

IL-2 Sturmovik (video game)

IL-2 Sturmovik: Forgotten Battles

IL-2 Sturmovik: 1946

IL-2 Sturmovik: Cliffs of Dover

IL-2 Sturmovik: Battle of Stalingrad

Il Cuore nel Pozzo

Ilag

Ilarie Voronca

Ilija Pantelić

Ilija Trifunović-Birčanin

Ill Met by Moonlight

Illustrious-class aircraft carrier

Ilmari Juutilainen

Ilse Koch

Ilse Weber

Ilya Wolston

Ilyushin Il-10

Ilyushin Il-2

Ilyushin Il-4

Images of the Last Battalion

IMAM Ro.51

IMAM Ro.57

Imants Sudmalis

Imed Mhedhebi

Imeson Field

Imitation General

Immanuel J. Klette

Immokalee Airport

Immortal Sergeant

Imperial General Headquarters

Imperial Guard of Japan

Imperial Japanese Army Academy

Imperial Japanese Army Air Force

Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office

Imperial Japanese Army politics and background

Imperial Japanese Army Railways and Shipping Section

Imperial Japanese Army Uniforms

Imperial Japanese Army

Imperial Japanese colonialism in Manchukuo

Imperial Japanese Naval Academy

Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service

Imperial Japanese Navy Armor Units

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation Bureau

Imperial Japanese Navy fuel

Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff

Imperial Japanese Navy Land Forces

Imperial Japanese Navy of World War II

Imperial Japanese Navy of World War Two

Imperial Japanese Navy submarines

Imperial Japanese Navy

Imperial Japanese rations

Imperial Klans of America

Imperial Prince Kuniyoshi Kuni

Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors

Imperial Way Faction

Imperialism

Implacable-class aircraft carrier

Imre Ámos

Imre Kertész

In Defense of Internment

In Harm's Way

In Love and War (1958 film)

In the Navy (film)

In the Presence of Mine Enemies

In the Shadow of Your Wings

In Which We Serve

INA Defence Committee

INA trials

Incheon

Incident At Vichy

Independence-class aircraft carrier

Independence Municipal Airport (Kansas)

Independent Operational Group Narew

Independent Operational Group Polesie

Independent State of Croatia

India in World War II

Indian 26th Infantry Division

Indian 6th Infantry Division

Indian Army Act,1911

Indian Independence League

Indian National Army

Indian National Council

Indian Ocean raid

Indiana Jones et le Temple du Péril

Indicator net

Indische Legion

Indochina Expedition order of battle

Indochina Expeditionary Army

Industrial plans for Germany

Inessa Armand

Infamy Speech

Infantry Assault Badge

Infantry Regiment Großdeutschland

Infoage Science/History Learning Center

Informationsdienst gegen Rechtsextremismus

Ingar Nielsen

Inge Scholl

Ingeborg Refling Hagen

Inger Aufles

Ingleburn Army Camp

(The) Inglorious Bastards

Inglourious Basterds

Ingo Zechner

Ingram de Ketenis

Inner Mongolian Army

Inoue Yoshika

Insect-class gunboat

Inside Hitler's Bunker

Inside the Third Reich

Inspectorate General of Aviation

Inspectorate General of Military Training

Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris

Institut d'études politiques de Grenoble

Institut de France

Institut de radioastronomie millimétrique

Institut für Sexualwissenschaft

Institut Laue-Langevin

Institute for Historical Review

Intelligence and the Japanese Civilian

Interim Committee

Interim Peace

International Commission on Holocaust Era Insurance Claims

International Conference to Review the Global Vision of the Holocaust

International Holocaust Cartoon Competition

International Holocaust Remembrance Day

International Military Tribunal for the Far East

International Refugee Organization

International response to the Holocaust

International Third Position

International Tracing Service

Into the Arms of Strangers: Stories of the Kindertransport

INTRIA (Nazi Germany)

Invalides (Paris Métro and RER)

Invasion and Occupation of the Andaman Islands during World War II

Invasion and occupation of the Andaman Islands during World War II

Invasion of French Indochina

Invasion of Iceland

Invasion of Lingayen Gulf

Japanese invasion of Manchuria

Soviet invasion of Manchuria

Invasion of Normandy

Invasion of Palawan

Invasion of Poland (1939)

Invasion of Tulagi (May 1942)

Invasion of Yugoslavia

Invasion stripes

Invisible Agent

Invisible Eagle

Involvement of Croatian Catholic clergy with the Ustaša regime

Ioan Cantacuzino

Ioan Dumitrache

Ioan Hristea

Ioan Mihail Racoviţă

Ioan P. Culianu

Ioan Pălăghiţă

Ioannis Metaxas

Ioannis Rallis

Ion Antonescu

Ion Calvocoressi

Ion Gheorghe Maurer

Ion Gigurtu

Ion Ionescu de la Brad

Ion Mihalache

Ion Minulescu

Ion Panţuru

Ion Pillat

Ion Valentin Anestin

Ion Vincze

Iona Nikitchenko

Iordan Chimet

Ios Teper

Iosif Stalin-class passenger ship

Iosif Stalin tank

Iowa-class battleship

Ip massacre

IRA-Abwehr collaboration in World War II

IRA Abwehr World War II

Ira C. Eaker

Ira Hayes

Iraqforce

Irena Iłłakowicz

Irena Sendler

Irene Galitzine

Irene Gut Opdyke

Irene Tanner

Irgun and Lehi internment in Africa

Irina Livezeanu

IRIS-T

Iris Chang

Iris Clert Gallery

Irish neutrality during World War II

Irma Grese

Irmfried Eberl

Irmgard Huber

Iron Cross

Iron Duke-class battleship

Iron Guard

Iron Range National Park

Iron Wolf (Lithuania)

Irvan Perez

Irving Baxter

Irving Davis

Irving Farmer Kennedy

Irving Kristol

Irving Wiltsie

Irwin Shaw

Irène Jacob

Irène Joliot-Curie

Irène Némirovsky

Is Paris Burning?

Isaac C. Kidd, Jr.

Isaac C. Kidd

Isaac D. White

Isaac de Benserade

Isaac Klein

Isaac Pierre de Villiers

Isaac Westergren

Isabella of France

Isabelle Mir

Isabelle Severino

Isabelle White

Isacque Graeber

Isadora Duncan

Isadore S. Jachman

Isamu Chō

Isamu Noguchi

Isamu Takeshita

Isao Harimoto

Isaías Medina Angarita

Ischa Meijer

Ise-class battleship

Ishimoto Shinroku

Ishinosuke Uwano

Isidor Zuckermann

Isidore Cohen

Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire

Isidore Goudeket

Island at War

Isle Louvier, Paris

Ismar Isidor Boas

Ismet Muftić

Isoroku Yamamoto's sleeping giant quote

Isoroku Yamamoto

Israel's Department Store

Israel Brodie

Israel Eldad

Israel Gelfand

Israel Gutman

Israel Halperin

Israel Holmgren

Israel Shahak

Israfil Mamedov

Issei Japanese American

Issen gorin

Issey Miyake

Istjude

István Barta

István Bárány

István Horthy

István Nyers

ISU-122

ISU-152

It's Everybody's War

It Ain't Half Hot Mum

It Happened Here

Itagaki Taisuke

Italia irredenta

Italian-occupied France

Italian 101 Motorised Division Trieste

Italian 102 Motorised Division Trento

Italian 24 Infantry Division Gran Sasso

Italian 26 Infantry Division Assiette

Italian 29 Division Peloritana

Italian 30 Infantry Division Sabauda

Italian 5 Infantry Division Cosseria

Italian American internment

Italian Army equipment in World War II

Italian Army in Russia

Italian battleship Andrea Doria

Italian battleship Caio Duilio

Italian battleship Conte di Cavour

Italian battleship Giulio Cesare

Italian battleship Littorio

Italian battleship Roma (1940)

Italian battleship Vittorio Veneto

Italian bombings on Palestine in World War II

Italian Campaign (World War II)

Italian Co-Belligerent Air Force

Italian Co-Belligerent Army

Italian Co-Belligerent Navy

Italian colonial ship Eritrea

Italian concentration camps

Italian conquest of British Somaliland

Italian cruiser Alberico da Barbiano

Italian cruiser Alberto da Giussano

Italian cruiser Armando Diaz

Italian cruiser Bartolomeo Colleoni

Italian cruiser Duca degli Abruzzi

Italian cruiser Emanuele Filiberto Duca d'Aosta

Italian cruiser Eugenio di Savoia

Italian cruiser Giovanni delle Bande Nere

Italian cruiser Giuseppe Garibaldi (1936)

Italian cruiser Gorizia

Italian cruiser Luigi Cadorna

Italian cruiser Muzio Attendolo

Italian cruiser Raimondo Montecuccoli

Italian cruiser Zara

Italian Expeditionary Corps in Russia

Italian guerrilla war in Ethiopia

Italian invasion of France

Italian Libyan Colonial Division

Italian resistance movement

Italian ship Ramb I

Italian ship Ramb II

Italian ship Ramb III

Italian ship Ramb IV

Italian Social Republic

Italian submarine Alagi

Italian submarine Axum

Italian submarine Console Generale Liuzzi

Italian submarine Enrico Toti

Italian submarine Iride

Italian submarine Scirè (1938)

Italian submarine Vettor Pisani

Italian war in Soviet Union, 1941-1943

Italian war prisoners in Soviet Union 1942-1954

Italie 13

Italie 2

Italo Calvino

Italo Gariboldi

Italo Santelli

Ithaca 37

Ito Toshiyoshi

Itō Sukeyuki

Itzchak Tarkay

Itzhak Katzenelson

Itzhak Stern

Iuliu Maniu

Œuvre de secours aux enfants

IV Corps (United Kingdom)

IV Corps (United States)

IV SS Panzer Corps

Iva Toguri D'Aquino

Ivan's Childhood

Ivan Chernyakhovsky

Ivan Šarić (archbishop)

Ivan Šubašić

Ivan Ewart

Ivan Fedyuninsky

Ivan Flyorov

Ivan Golubets

Ivan Goran Kovačić

Ivan Hirst

Ivan Hrynokh

Ivan Ivanov Bagryanov

Ivan Joseph Martin Osiier

Ivan Konev

Ivan Lyon

Ivan Nikitovich Kozhedub

Ivan Ribar

Ivan Riley

Ivan Selin

Ivan Sidorenko

Ivan Simson

Ivan Stedman

Ivan Tyulenev

Ivan Vasilyevich Smirnov

Ivan Yefimovich Petrov

Ivanoe Bonomi

Ivar Eriksen

Iven Giffard Mackay

Iver C. Olsen

Ivica Šurjak

Ivica Todorov

Ivo Herenčić

Ivo Lola Ribar

Ivor Campbell

Ivor Dent

Ivor Parry Evans

Ivor Porter

Ivor Rees

Iván Hindy

Iwaichi Fujiwara

Iwane Matsui

Iwao Takamoto

Iwo Jima

IX Corps (United Kingdom)

IX Corps (United States)

IX Troop Carrier Command

IX Waffen Alpine Corps of the SS (Croatian)

Izieu

Izumo-class cruiser

Izzy Cohen

Inge

See INGE for the International Noble Gas Experiment

Inge is a given name in various Germanic language-speaking cultures. In Swedish and Norwegian, it is mostly used as a masculine, but less often also as a feminine name, sometimes as a short form of Ingeborg, while in Danish, Estonian, Frisian, German and Dutch it is exclusively feminine. The feminine name has the variant Inga.

The name is in origin a hypocorism of names beginning in the element Ing- (such as Ingar, Inger, Ingrid, Ingeborg, Ingram, Ingvild, Ingunn etc.). These Germanic names made reference to either the god Ing or to the tribe of the Ingvaeones (who were presumably in turn named for the god).

Inge is also encountered as a surname in the English-speaking world; the surname is usually pronounced in England to rhyme with "ring"; alternatively (especially in the United States) some families pronounce it to rhyme with "hinge."

Jochen Claussen-Finks

Jochen Claussen-Finks is a German designer, photographer and filmmaker.

Lilo Ramdohr

Lieselotte ″Lilo″ Fürst-Ramdohr (11 October 1913 – 13 May 2013) was a member of the Munich branch of the student resistance group White Rose (Weiße Rose) in Nazi Germany. She was born in Aschersleben.

Otl Aicher

Otto "Otl" Aicher (13 May 1922 – 1 September 1991) was a German graphic designer and typographer. He is best known for having designed pictograms for the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich that proved influential on the use of stick figures for public signage, as well as designing the typeface Rotis. Aicher also co-founded the Ulm School of Design.

Scholl

Scholl is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Andreas Scholl (born 1967), German countertenor

Aurélien Scholl (1833–1902), French journalist and writer

Chiara Scholl (born 1992), American tennis player

Elisabeth Scholl (born 1966), German soprano

Hans Scholl (1918–1943), member of the White Rose resistance movement in Nazi Germany

Hans Scholl (astronomer) (born 1942), German astronomer

Inge Scholl (1917–1998), German activist

Mehmet Scholl (born 1970), German footballer

Robert Scholl (1891–1973), German politician

Roland Scholl (1865–1945), Swiss-German chemist

Sophie Scholl (1921–1943), member of the White Rose resistance movement in Nazi Germany

William Scholl (1882–1968), US chiropodist and inventor of Dr. Scholl's brand footwear

Sophie Scholl

Sophia Magdalena Scholl (9 May 1921 – 22 February 1943) was a German student and anti-Nazi political activist, active within the White Rose non-violent resistance group in Nazi Germany.She was convicted of high treason after having been found distributing anti-war leaflets at the University of Munich (LMU) with her brother, Hans. As a result, she was executed by guillotine. Since the 1970s, Scholl has been extensively commemorated for her anti-Nazi resistance work.

Traute Lafrenz

Traute Lafrenz (born May 3, 1919) is a German-American physician and anthroposophist, who was a member of the White Rose anti-Nazi group during World War II.She was born in Hamburg. Together with Heinz Kucharski, Lafrenz studied under Erna Stahl at the Lichtwark-Gymnasium, a liberal arts school in Hamburg. When coeducation was abolished in 1937, Lafrenz moved to a convent school, where she and classmate Margaretha Rothe graduated in Easter 1938. Together with Rothe, Lafrenz began to study medicine at the University of Hamburg in the summer semester of 1939. After the semester she worked in Pomerania, where she met Alexander Schmorell who had begun studying in the summer of 1939 at the Hamburg University's Medical School but continued his studies from 1939/40 in Munich.

In May 1941 Lafrenz moved to Munich to study there, where she got to know Hans Scholl and Christoph Probst. In her opposition to the Nazi regime, she found inspiration in the writings of Rudolf Steiner. She attended many talks and discussions of the White Rose group, including those with Kurt Huber. In late 1942 she brought the third White Rose flyer to Hamburg and redistributed them via her former classmate Heinz Kucharski. When on 18 February 1943 Hans and Sophie Scholl were arrested in Munich University, Traute Lafrenz also was put under investigation by the Gestapo. She was arrested shortly afterwards on 15 March, together with Alexander Schmorell and Kurt Huber and sentenced to one year in prison on 19 April 1943. During her interrogation by the Gestapo Lafrenz succeeded in disguising the full extent of her involvement in the leaflet distribution. After her release she was arrested again by the Gestapo and imprisoned again.In 1947 she emigrated to the United States, completing her medical studies at Saint Joseph's Hospital in San Francisco, California. After moving to Chicago, she served from 1972 to 1994 as head of Esperanza School, a private, therapeutic day school serving students with developmental disabilities between the ages of 5 and 21. She has been involved in the anthroposophical movement in the United States for more than half a century. She is now retired and lives on Yonges Island near Meggett, South Carolina.

Ulm School of Design

The Ulm School of Design (Hochschule für Gestaltung Ulm) was a college of design based in Ulm, Germany.

Founded in 1953 by Inge Aicher-Scholl, Otl Aicher and Max Bill, the latter being first rector of the school and a former student at the Bauhaus. The HfG quickly gained international recognition by emphasizing the holistic, multidisciplinary context of design beyond the Bauhaus approach of integrating art, craft and technology. The subjects of sociology, psychology, politics, economics, philosophy and systems-thinking were integrated with aesthetics and technology. During HfG operations from 1953–1968, progressive approaches to the design process were implemented within the departments of Product Design, Visual Communication, Industrialized Building, Information and Filmmaking.

The HfG building was designed by Max Bill and remains intact today as a historically important and functional building under the auspices of Foundation Ulm. The HfG was the most progressive educational institution of design in the 1950s and 1960s and a pioneer in the study of semiotics. It is viewed as one of the world's significant design schools, equal in influence to the Bauhaus.The history of HfG evolved through innovation and change, in line with their own self-image of the school as an experimental institution. This resulted in numerous changes in the content, organization of classes and continuing internal conflicts that influenced the final decision of closing the HfG in 1968. Although the school ceased operation after fifteen years, the ′Ulm Model′ continues to have a major influence on international design education.

White Rose

The White Rose (German: die Weiße Rose) was a non-violent, intellectual resistance group in the Third Reich led by a group of students and a professor at the University of Munich. The group conducted an anonymous leaflet and graffiti campaign that called for active opposition to the Nazi party regime. Their activities started in Munich on 27 June 1942, and ended with the arrest of the core group by the Gestapo on 18 February 1943. They, as well as other members and supporters of the group who carried on distributing the pamphlets, faced show trials by the Nazi People's Court (Volksgerichtshof), and many of them were sentenced to death or imprisonment.

The group wrote, printed and initially distributed their pamphlets in the greater Munich region. Later on, secret carriers brought copies to other cities, mostly in the southern parts of Germany. In total, the White Rose authored six leaflets, which were multiplied and spread, in a total of about 15,000 copies. They denounced the Nazi regime's crimes and oppression, and called for resistance. In their second leaflet, they openly denounced the persecution and mass murder of the Jews. By the time of their arrest, the members of the White Rose were just about to establish contacts with other German resistance groups like the Kreisau Circle or the Schulze-Boysen/Harnack group of the Red Orchestra. Today, the White Rose is well-known both within Germany and worldwide.

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