Infragravity wave

Infragravity waves are surface gravity waves with frequencies lower than the wind waves – consisting of both wind sea and swell – thus corresponding with the part of the wave spectrum lower than the frequencies directly generated by forcing through the wind.

Infragravity waves are ocean surface gravity waves generated by ocean waves of shorter periods. The amplitude of infragravity waves is most relevant in shallow water, in particular along coastlines hit by high amplitude and long period wind waves and ocean swells. Wind waves and ocean swells are shorter, with typical dominant periods of 1 to 25 s. In contrast, the dominant period of infragravity waves is typically 80 to 300 s,[1] which is close to the typical periods of tsunamis, with which they share similar propagation properties including very fast celerities in deep water. This distinguishes infragravity waves from normal oceanic gravity waves, which are created by wind acting on the surface of the sea, and are slower than the generating wind.

Whatever the details of their generation mechanism, discussed below, infragravity waves are these subharmonics of the impinging gravity waves.[2]

Munk ICCE 1950 Fig1
Classification of the spectrum of ocean waves according to wave period.[3]

Technically infragravity waves are simply a subcategory of gravity waves and refer to all gravity waves with periods greater than 30 s. This could include phenomena such as tides and oceanic Rossby waves, but the common scientific usage is limited to gravity waves that are generated by groups of wind waves.

The term "infragravity wave" appears to have been coined by Walter Munk in 1950.[3][4]

Generation

Beacon - geograph.org.uk - 129502
Surf can be seen breaking as it crosses the sand bar offshore. Sandbars aid in generating infragravity waves and in turn are shaped by them.

Two main processes can explain the transfer of energy from the short wind waves to the long infragravity waves, and both are important in shallow water and for steep wind waves. The most common process is the subharmonic interaction of trains of wind waves which was first observed by Munk and Tucker and explained by Longuet-Higgins and Stewart.[5] Because wind waves are not monochromatic they form groups. The Stokes drift induced by these groupy waves transports more water where the waves are highest. The waves also push the water around in a way that can be interpreted as a force: the divergence of the radiation stresses. Combining mass and momentum conservation, Longuet-Higgins and Stewart give, with three different methods, the now well-known result. Namely, the mean sea level oscillates with a wavelength that is equal to the length of the group, with a low level where the wind waves are highest and a high level where these waves are lowest. This oscillation of the sea surface is proportional to the square of the short wave amplitude and becomes very large when the group speed approaches the speed of shallow water waves. The details of this process are modified when the bottom is sloping, which is generally the case near the shore, but the theory captures the important effect, observed in most conditions, that the high water of this 'surf beat' arrives with the waves of lowest amplitude.

Another process was proposed later by Graham Symonds and his collaborators.[6] To explain some cases in which this phase of long and short waves were not opposed, they proposed that the position of the breaker line in the surf, moving towards deep water when waves are higher, could act like a wave maker. It appears that this is probably a good explanation for infragravity wave generation on a reef.

In the case of coral reefs, the infragravity periods are established by resonances with the reef itself.[7][8]

Glacier-ice shelf interactions
Ice shelf processes.

Impact

Infragravity waves generated along the Pacific coast of North America have been observed to propagate transoceanically to Antarctica and there to impinge on the Ross Ice Shelf. Their frequencies more closely couple with the ice shelf natural frequencies and they produce a larger amplitude ice shelf movement than the normal ocean swell of gravity waves. Further, they are not damped by sea ice as normal ocean swell is. As a result, they flex floating ice shelves such as the Ross Ice Shelf; this flexure contributes significantly to the breakup on the ice shelf.[2][9]

References

  1. ^ Ardhuin, Fabrice; Arshad Rawat; Jerome Aucan (2014), "A numerical model for free infragravity waves: Definition and validation at regional and global scales", Ocean Modelling, 77, Elsevier, pp. 20–32
  2. ^ a b Bromirski, Peter D.; Olga V. Sergienko; Douglas R. MacAyeal (2010). "Transoceanic infragravity waves impacting Antarctic ice shelves". Geophysical Research Letters. 37 (L02502): n/a. Bibcode:2010GeoRL..37.2502B. doi:10.1029/2009GL041488.
  3. ^ a b Munk, Walter H. (1950), "Origin and generation of waves", Proceedings 1st International Conference on Coastal Engineering, Long Beach, California: ASCE, pp. 1–4, ISSN 2156-1028
  4. ^ Kinsman, Blair (1965). Wind Waves: Their Generation and Propagation on the Ocean Surface. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. pp. 22–23. OCLC 489729.
  5. ^ Longuet-Higgins, Michael; R.W. Stewart (1962), "Radiation stress and mass transport in gravity waves, with application to 'surf beats", Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 13, Cambridge University Press, pp. 481–504
  6. ^ Symonds, Graham; D. A. Huntley; A. J. Bowent (1982), "Two-dimensional surf beat: Long wavegeneration by a time-varying breakpoint", Journal of Geophysical Research, 87 (C1): 492–498, Bibcode:1982JGR....87..492S, CiteSeerX 10.1.1.474.7148, doi:10.1029/JC087iC01p00492
  7. ^ Lugo-Fernández, A.; H. H. Roberts; W. J. Wiseman Jr.; B. L. Carter (December 1998). "Water level and currents of tidal and infragravity periods at Tague Reef, St. Croix (USVI)". Coral Reefs. 17 (4): 343–349. doi:10.1007/s003380050137.
  8. ^ Péquignet, A. C.; J. M. Becker; M. A. Merrifield; J. Aucan (2009). "Forcing of resonant modes on a fringing reef during tropical storm Man-Yi" (PDF). Geophys. Res. Lett. 36 (L03607): n/a. Bibcode:2009GeoRL..36.3607P. doi:10.1029/2008GL036259.
  9. ^ "Breaking waves: The coup de grace that shatters ice shelves is administered by ocean waves". The Economist. The Economist. February 18, 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-25.

External links

Media related to Gravity waves at Wikimedia Commons

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Carbonate platform

A carbonate platform is a sedimentary body which possesses topographic relief, and is composed of autochthonic calcareous deposits. Platform growth is mediated by sessile organisms whose skeletons build up the reef or by organisms (usually microbes) which induce carbonate precipitation through their metabolism. Therefore, carbonate platforms can not grow up everywhere: they are not present in places where limiting factors to the life of reef-building organisms exist. Such limiting factors are, among others: light, water temperature, transparency and pH-Value. For example, carbonate sedimentation along the Atlantic South American coasts takes place everywhere but at the mouth of the Amazon River, because of the intense turbidity of the water there. Spectacular examples of present-day carbonate platforms are the Bahama Banks under which the platform is roughly 8 km thick, the Yucatan Peninsula which is up to 2 km thick, the Florida platform, the platform on which the Great Barrier Reef is growing, and the Maldive atolls. All these carbonate platforms and their associated reefs are confined to tropical latitudes. Today's reefs are built mainly by scleractinian corals, but in the distant past other organisms, like archaeocyatha (during the Cambrian) or extinct cnidaria (tabulata and rugosa) were important reef builders.

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