Information technology

Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data,[1] or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.[2] IT is considered to be a subset of information and communications technology (ICT). An information technology system (IT system) is generally an information system, a communications system or, more specifically speaking, a computer system – including all hardware, software and peripheral equipment – operated by a limited group of users.

Humans have been storing, retrieving, manipulating, and communicating information since the Sumerians in Mesopotamia developed writing in about 3000 BC,[3] but the term information technology in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review; authors Harold J. Leavitt and Thomas L. Whisler commented that "the new technology does not yet have a single established name. We shall call it information technology (IT)." Their definition consists of three categories: techniques for processing, the application of statistical and mathematical methods to decision-making, and the simulation of higher-order thinking through computer programs.[4]

The term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it also encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones. Several products or services within an economy are associated with information technology, including computer hardware, software, electronics, semiconductors, internet, telecom equipment, and e-commerce.[5][a]

Based on the storage and processing technologies employed, it is possible to distinguish four distinct phases of IT development: pre-mechanical (3000 BC – 1450 AD), mechanical (1450–1840), electromechanical (1840–1940), and electronic (1940–present).[3] This article focuses on the most recent period (electronic), which began in about 1940.

History of computer technology

Z3 Deutsches Museum
Zuse Z3 replica on display at Deutsches Museum in Munich. The Zuse Z3 is the first programmable computer.

Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years, probably initially in the form of a tally stick.[7] The Antikythera mechanism, dating from about the beginning of the first century BC, is generally considered to be the earliest known mechanical analog computer, and the earliest known geared mechanism.[8] Comparable geared devices did not emerge in Europe until the 16th century, and it was not until 1645 that the first mechanical calculator capable of performing the four basic arithmetical operations was developed.[9]

Electronic computers, using either relays or valves, began to appear in the early 1940s. The electromechanical Zuse Z3, completed in 1941, was the world's first programmable computer, and by modern standards one of the first machines that could be considered a complete computing machine. Colossus, developed during the Second World War to decrypt German messages, was the first electronic digital computer. Although it was programmable, it was not general-purpose, being designed to perform only a single task. It also lacked the ability to store its program in memory; programming was carried out using plugs and switches to alter the internal wiring.[10] The first recognisably modern electronic digital stored-program computer was the Manchester Baby, which ran its first program on 21 June 1948.[11]

The development of transistors in the late 1940s at Bell Laboratories allowed a new generation of computers to be designed with greatly reduced power consumption. The first commercially available stored-program computer, the Ferranti Mark I, contained 4050 valves and had a power consumption of 25 kilowatts. By comparison the first transistorised computer, developed at the University of Manchester and operational by November 1953, consumed only 150 watts in its final version.[12]

Electronic data processing

Data storage

PaperTapes-5and8Hole
Punched tapes were used in early computers to represent data.

Early electronic computers such as Colossus made use of punched tape, a long strip of paper on which data was represented by a series of holes, a technology now obsolete.[13] Electronic data storage, which is used in modern computers, dates from World War II, when a form of delay line memory was developed to remove the clutter from radar signals, the first practical application of which was the mercury delay line.[14] The first random-access digital storage device was the Williams tube, based on a standard cathode ray tube,[15] but the information stored in it and delay line memory was volatile in that it had to be continuously refreshed, and thus was lost once power was removed. The earliest form of non-volatile computer storage was the magnetic drum, invented in 1932[16] and used in the Ferranti Mark 1, the world's first commercially available general-purpose electronic computer.[17]

IBM introduced the first hard disk drive in 1956, as a component of their 305 RAMAC computer system.[18]:6 Most digital data today is still stored magnetically on hard disks, or optically on media such as CD-ROMs.[19]:4–5 Until 2002 most information was stored on analog devices, but that year digital storage capacity exceeded analog for the first time. As of 2007 almost 94% of the data stored worldwide was held digitally:[20] 52% on hard disks, 28% on optical devices and 11% on digital magnetic tape. It has been estimated that the worldwide capacity to store information on electronic devices grew from less than 3 exabytes in 1986 to 295 exabytes in 2007,[21] doubling roughly every 3 years.[22]

Databases

Database management systems emerged in the 1960s to address the problem of storing and retrieving large amounts of data accurately and quickly. One of the earliest such systems was IBM's Information Management System (IMS),[23] which is still widely deployed more than 50 years later.[24] IMS stores data hierarchically,[23] but in the 1970s Ted Codd proposed an alternative relational storage model based on set theory and predicate logic and the familiar concepts of tables, rows and columns. The first commercially available relational database management system (RDBMS) was available from Oracle in 1981.[25]

All database management systems consist of a number of components that together allow the data they store to be accessed simultaneously by many users while maintaining its integrity.[26] A characteristic of all databases is that the structure of the data they contain is defined and stored separately from the data itself, in a database schema.[23]

The extensible markup language (XML) has become a popular format for data representation in recent years. Although XML data can be stored in normal file systems, it is commonly held in relational databases to take advantage of their "robust implementation verified by years of both theoretical and practical effort".[27] As an evolution of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), XML's text-based structure offers the advantage of being both machine and human-readable.[28]

Data retrieval

The relational database model introduced a programming-language independent Structured Query Language (SQL), based on relational algebra.

The terms "data" and "information" are not synonymous. Anything stored is data, but it only becomes information when it is organized and presented meaningfully.[29]:1–9 Most of the world's digital data is unstructured, and stored in a variety of different physical formats[30][b] even within a single organization. Data warehouses began to be developed in the 1980s to integrate these disparate stores. They typically contain data extracted from various sources, including external sources such as the Internet, organized in such a way as to facilitate decision support systems (DSS).[31]:4–6

Data transmission

Data transmission has three aspects: transmission, propagation, and reception.[32] It can be broadly categorized as broadcasting, in which information is transmitted unidirectionally downstream, or telecommunications, with bidirectional upstream and downstream channels.[21]

XML has been increasingly employed as a means of data interchange since the early 2000s,[33] particularly for machine-oriented interactions such as those involved in web-oriented protocols such as SOAP,[28] describing "data-in-transit rather than ... data-at-rest".[33] One of the challenges of such usage is converting data from relational databases into XML Document Object Model (DOM) structures.[34]:228–31

Data manipulation

Hilbert and Lopez identify the exponential pace of technological change (a kind of Moore's law): machines' application-specific capacity to compute information per capita roughly doubled every 14 months between 1986 and 2007; the per capita capacity of the world's general-purpose computers doubled every 18 months during the same two decades; the global telecommunication capacity per capita doubled every 34 months; the world's storage capacity per capita required roughly 40 months to double (every 3 years); and per capita broadcast information has doubled every 12.3 years.[21]

Massive amounts of data are stored worldwide every day, but unless it can be analysed and presented effectively it essentially resides in what have been called data tombs: "data archives that are seldom visited".[35] To address that issue, the field of data mining – "the process of discovering interesting patterns and knowledge from large amounts of data"[36] – emerged in the late 1980s.[37]

Perspectives

Academic perspective

In an academic context, the Association for Computing Machinery defines IT as "undergraduate degree programs that prepare students to meet the computer technology needs of business, government, healthcare, schools, and other kinds of organizations .... IT specialists assume responsibility for selecting hardware and software products appropriate for an organization, integrating those products with organizational needs and infrastructure, and installing, customizing, and maintaining those applications for the organization’s computer users."[38]

Commercial and employment perspective

Companies in the information technology field are often discussed as a group as the "tech sector" or the "tech industry".[39][40][41][42]

In a business context, the Information Technology Association of America has defined information technology as "the study, design, development, application, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems".[43] The responsibilities of those working in the field include network administration, software development and installation, and the planning and management of an organization's technology life cycle, by which hardware and software are maintained, upgraded and replaced.

The business value of information technology lies in the automation of business processes, provision of information for decision making, connecting businesses with their customers, and the provision of productivity tools to increase efficiency.

ComputerSystemsEmployment distribution

Employment distribution of computer systems design and related services, 2011[44]

EmploymentComputerSystems

Employment in the computer systems and design related services industry, in thousands, 1990-2011[44]

ComputerSystemsOccupationalGrowthWages

Occupational growth and wages in computer systems design and related services, 2010-2020[44]

ProjectedEmploymentChangeComputerSystems

Projected percent change in employment in selected occupations in computer systems design and related services, 2010-2020[44]

ProjectedAverageAnnualEmploymentChangeSelectedIndustries

Projected average annual percent change in output and employment in selected industries, 2010-2020[44]

Ethical perspectives

The field of information ethics was established by mathematician Norbert Wiener in the 1940s.[45]:9 Some of the ethical issues associated with the use of information technology include:[46]:20–21

  • Breaches of copyright by those downloading files stored without the permission of the copyright holders
  • Employers monitoring their employees' emails and other Internet usage
  • Unsolicited emails
  • Hackers accessing online databases
  • Web sites installing cookies or spyware to monitor a user's online activities

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ On the later more broad application of the term IT, Keary comments: "In its original application 'information technology' was appropriate to describe the convergence of technologies with application in the broad field of data storage, retrieval, processing, and dissemination. This useful conceptual term has since been converted to what purports to be concrete use, but without the reinforcement of definition ... the term IT lacks substance when applied to the name of any function, discipline, or position."[6]
  2. ^ "Format" refers to the physical characteristics of the stored data such as its encoding scheme; "structure" describes the organisation of that data.

Citations

  1. ^ Daintith, John, ed. (2009), "IT", A Dictionary of Physics, Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780199233991, retrieved 1 August 2012 (subscription required)
  2. ^ "Free on-line dictionary of computing (FOLDOC)". Retrieved 9 February 2013.
  3. ^ a b Butler, Jeremy G., A History of Information Technology and Systems, University of Arizona, retrieved 2 August 2012
  4. ^ Leavitt, Harold J.; Whisler, Thomas L. (1958), "Management in the 1980s", Harvard Business Review, 11
  5. ^ Chandler, Daniel; Munday, Rod (2011-02-10), "Information technology", A Dictionary of Media and Communication (first ed.), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199568758, retrieved 1 August 2012, (Subscription required (help)), Commonly a synonym for computers and computer networks but more broadly designating any technology that is used to generate, store, process, and/or distribute information electronically, including television and telephone.
  6. ^ Ralston, Hemmendinger & Reilly (2000), p. 869
  7. ^ Schmandt-Besserat, Denise (1981), "Decipherment of the earliest tablets", Science, 211 (4479): 283–85, doi:10.1126/science.211.4479.283, PMID 17748027, (Subscription required (help))
  8. ^ Wright (2012), p. 279
  9. ^ Chaudhuri (2004), p. 3
  10. ^ Lavington (1980), p. 11
  11. ^ Enticknap, Nicholas (Summer 1998), "Computing's Golden Jubilee", Resurrection (20), ISSN 0958-7403, retrieved 19 April 2008
  12. ^ Cooke-Yarborough, E. H. (June 1998), "Some early transistor applications in the UK", Engineering and Science Education Journal, 7 (3): 100–106, doi:10.1049/esej:19980301, ISSN 0963-7346, retrieved 7 June 2009, (Subscription required (help))
  13. ^ Alavudeen & Venkateshwaran (2010), p. 178
  14. ^ Lavington (1998), p. 1
  15. ^ "Early computers at Manchester University", Resurrection, 1 (4), Summer 1992, ISSN 0958-7403, retrieved 19 April 2008
  16. ^ Universität Klagenfurt (ed.), "Magnetic drum", Virtual Exhibitions in Informatics, retrieved 21 August 2011
  17. ^ The Manchester Mark 1, University of Manchester, archived from the original on 21 November 2008, retrieved 24 January 2009
  18. ^ Khurshudov, Andrei (2001), The Essential Guide to Computer Data Storage: From Floppy to DVD, Prentice Hall, ISBN 978-0-130-92739-2
  19. ^ Wang, Shan X.; Taratorin, Aleksandr Markovich (1999), Magnetic Information Storage Technology, Academic Press, ISBN 978-0-12-734570-3
  20. ^ Wu, Suzanne, "How Much Information Is There in the World?", USC News, University of Southern California, retrieved 10 September 2013
  21. ^ a b c Hilbert, Martin; López, Priscila (1 April 2011), "The World's Technological Capacity to Store, Communicate, and Compute Information", Science, 332 (6025): 60–65, doi:10.1126/science.1200970, PMID 21310967, retrieved 10 September 2013
  22. ^ "Americas events- Video animation on The World's Technological Capacity to Store, Communicate, and Compute Information from 1986 to 2010". The Economist. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012.
  23. ^ a b c Ward & Dafoulas (2006), p. 2
  24. ^ Olofson, Carl W. (October 2009), A Platform for Enterprise Data Services (PDF), IDC, retrieved 7 August 2012
  25. ^ Ward & Dafoulas (2006), p. 3
  26. ^ Silberschatz, Abraham (2010). Database System Concepts. McGraw-Hill Higher Education. ISBN 978-0-07-741800-7.
  27. ^ Pardede (2009), p. 2
  28. ^ a b Pardede (2009), p. 4
  29. ^ Kedar, Seema (2009). Database Management System. Technical Publications. ISBN 9788184316049.
  30. ^ van der Aalst (2011), p. 2
  31. ^ Dyché, Jill (2000), Turning Data Into Information With Data Warehousing, Addison Wesley, ISBN 978-0-201-65780-7
  32. ^ Weik (2000), p. 361
  33. ^ a b Pardede (2009), p. xiii
  34. ^ Lewis, Bryn (2003), "Extraction of XML from Relational Databases", in Chaudhri, Akmal B.; Djeraba, Chabane; Unland, Rainer; Lindner, Wolfgang, XML-Based Data Management and Multimedia Engineering – EDBT 2002 Workshops, Springer, ISBN 978-3540001300
  35. ^ Han, Kamber & Pei (2011), p. 5
  36. ^ Han, Kamber & Pei (2011), p. 8
  37. ^ Han, Kamber & Pei (2011), p. xxiii
  38. ^ The Joint Task Force for Computing Curricula 2005.Computing Curricula 2005: The Overview Report (pdf) Archived 21 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  39. ^ "Technology Sector Snapshot". New York Times. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
  40. ^ "Our programmes, campaigns and partnerships". TechUK. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
  41. ^ "Cyberstates 2016". CompTIA. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
  42. ^ Zuppo, Colrain M., Defining ICT in a Boundaryless World: The Development of a Working Hierarchy (PDF), International Journal of Managing Information Technology (IJMIT), p. 19, retrieved 13 February 2016
  43. ^ Proctor, K. Scott (2011), Optimizing and Assessing Information Technology: Improving Business Project Execution, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-1-118-10263-3
  44. ^ a b c d e Lauren Csorny (9 April 2013). "Careers in the growing field of information technology services : Beyond the Numbers: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics". bls.gov.
  45. ^ Bynum, Terrell Ward (2008), "Norbert Wiener and the Rise of Information Ethics", in van den Hoven, Jeroen; Weckert, John, Information Technology and Moral Philosophy, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-85549-5
  46. ^ Reynolds, George (2009), Ethics in Information Technology, Cengage Learning, ISBN 978-0-538-74622-9

Bibliography

  • Alavudeen, A.; Venkateshwaran, N. (2010), Computer Integrated Manufacturing, PHI Learning, ISBN 978-81-203-3345-1
  • Chaudhuri, P. Pal (2004), Computer Organization and Design, PHI Learning, ISBN 978-81-203-1254-8
  • Han, Jiawei; Kamber, Micheline; Pei, Jian (2011), Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques (3rd ed.), Morgan Kaufmann, ISBN 978-0-12-381479-1
  • Lavington, Simon (1980), Early British Computers, Manchester University Press, ISBN 978-0-7190-0810-8
  • Lavington, Simon (1998), A History of Manchester Computers (2nd ed.), The British Computer Society, ISBN 978-1-902505-01-5
  • Pardede, Eric (2009), Open and Novel Issues in XML Database Applications, Information Science Reference, ISBN 978-1-60566-308-1
  • Ralston, Anthony; Hemmendinger, David; Reilly, Edwin D., eds. (2000), Encyclopedia of Computer Science (4th ed.), Nature Publishing Group, ISBN 978-1-56159-248-7
  • van der Aalst, Wil M. P. (2011), Process Mining: Discovery, Conformance and Enhancement of Business Processes, Springer, ISBN 978-3-642-19344-6
  • Ward, Patricia; Dafoulas, George S. (2006), Database Management Systems, Cengage Learning EMEA, ISBN 978-1-84480-452-8
  • Weik, Martin (2000), Computer Science and Communications Dictionary, 2, Springer, ISBN 978-0-7923-8425-0
  • Wright, Michael T. (2012), "The Front Dial of the Antikythera Mechanism", in Koetsier, Teun; Ceccarelli, Marco, Explorations in the History of Machines and Mechanisms: Proceedings of HMM2012, Springer, pp. 279–292, ISBN 978-94-007-4131-7

Further reading

  • Allen, T.; Morton, M. S. Morton, eds. (1994), Information Technology and the Corporation of the 1990s, Oxford University Press
  • Gitta, Cosmas and South, David (2011). Southern Innovator Magazine Issue 1: Mobile Phones and Information Technology: United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation. ISSN 2222-9280
  • Gleick, James (2011).The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood. New York: Pantheon Books.
  • Price, Wilson T. (1981), Introduction to Computer Data Processing, Holt-Saunders International Editions, ISBN 978-4-8337-0012-2
  • Shelly, Gary, Cashman, Thomas, Vermaat, Misty, and Walker, Tim. (1999). Discovering Computers 2000: Concepts for a Connected World. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Course Technology.
  • Webster, Frank, and Robins, Kevin. (1986). Information Technology – A Luddite Analysis. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

External links

Accenture

Accenture is a global management consulting and professional services firm that provides strategy, consulting, digital, technology and operations services. A Fortune Global 500 company, it has been incorporated in Dublin, Ireland, since 1 September 2009. In 2018, the company reported net revenues of $39.6 billion, with more than 459,000 employees serving clients in more than 200 cities in 120 countries. In 2015, the company had about 150,000 employees in India, about 48,000 in the US, and about 50,000 in the Philippines. Accenture's current clients include 95 of the Fortune Global 100 and more than three-quarters of the Fortune Global 500.

Data structure

In computer science, a data structure is a data organization, management and storage format that enables efficient access and modification. More precisely, a data structure is a collection of data values, the relationships among them, and the functions or operations that can be applied to the data.

Geographic information system

A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data. GIS applications are tools that allow users to create interactive queries (user-created searches), analyze spatial information, edit data in maps, and present the results of all these operations. GIS (more commonly GIScience) sometimes refers to geographic information science (GIScience), the science underlying geographic concepts, applications, and systems.GIS can refer to a number of different technologies, processes, techniques and methods. It is attached to many operations and has many applications related to engineering, planning, management, transport/logistics, insurance, telecommunications, and business. For that reason, GIS and location intelligence applications can be the foundation for many location-enabled services that rely on analysis and visualization.

GIS can relate unrelated information by using location as the key index variable. Locations or extents in the Earth space–time may be recorded as dates/times of occurrence, and x, y, and z coordinates representing, longitude, latitude, and elevation, respectively. All Earth-based spatial–temporal location and extent references should be relatable to one another and ultimately to a "real" physical location or extent. This key characteristic of GIS has begun to open new avenues of scientific inquiry.

IT service management

IT service management (ITSM) refers to the entirety of activities – directed by policies, organized and structured in processes and supporting procedures – that are performed by an organization to design, plan, deliver, operate and control information technology (IT) services offered to customers.Differing from more technology-oriented IT management approaches like network management and IT systems management, IT service management is characterized by adopting a process approach towards management, focusing on customer needs and IT services for customers rather than IT systems, and stressing continual improvement. The CIO WaterCoolers' annual ITSM report states that business use ITSM "mostly in support of customer experience (35%) and service quality (48%)."

Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design and Manufacturing, Kancheepuram

Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design and Manufacturing, Kancheepuram (IIITDM Kancheepuram, also IIITD&M Kancheepuram) is an Institute of National Importance established in 2007 by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India to pursue design and manufacturing oriented engineering education, research and to promote the competitive advantage of Indian products in global markets. It was declared as an Institute of National Importance (INI) by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, in July 2011, thus becoming the first IIIT to be accorded this status. Later in 2014, IIIT Bill 2014 was passed by the Parliament on 1 December 2014, thus granting the status of Institutes of National Importance upon the 5 MHRD funded IIITs including IIITDM Kancheepuram. Previously IIITDM Kancheepuram was mentoring IIITDM Kurnool in its new campus at Chennai.

Indian Institute of Information Technology Tiruchirappalli

Indian Institute of Information Technology Tiruchirappalli (IIITT) is a higher education academic and research institute located in Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India. It is one of the Indian Institutes of Information Technology (IIITs) established under the non-profit Public-Private Partnership and is an funded by the Government of India, Government of Tamil Nadu and the Indian industry partners in the ratio of 50:35:15. Industry partners include Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), Cognizant Technology Solutions (CTS), Infosys, Ramco Systems, ELCOT, and Navitas (Take Solutions). Together with the other IIITs, it has been granted the status of Institute of National importance in 2017.

Information Technology Act, 2000

The Information Technology Act, 2000 (also known as ITA-2000, or the IT Act) is an Act of the Indian Parliament (No 21 of 2000) notified on 17 October 2000. It is the primary law in India dealing with cybercrime and electronic commerce. It is based on the United Nations Model Law on Electronic Commerce 1996 (UNCITRAL Model) recommended by the General Assembly of United Nations by a resolution dated 30 January 1997.

Information and communications technology

Information and communications technology (ICT) is an extensional term for information technology (IT) that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals) and computers, as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audiovisual systems, that enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.The term ICT is also used to refer to the convergence of audiovisual and telephone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system. There are large economic incentives (huge cost savings due to the elimination of the telephone network) to merge the telephone network with the computer network system using a single unified system of cabling, signal distribution, and management.

ICT is a broad subject and the concepts are evolving. It covers any product that will store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit, or receive information electronically in a digital form (e.g., personal computers, digital television, email, or robots). For clarity, Zuppo provided an ICT hierarchy where all levels of the hierarchy "contain some degree of commonality in that they are related to technologies that facilitate the transfer of information and various types of electronically mediated communications". Theoretical differences between interpersonal-communication technologies and mass-communication technologies have been identified by the philosopher Piyush Mathur. Skills Framework for the Information Age is one of many models for describing and managing competencies for ICT professionals for the 21st century.

Information technology consulting

In management, information technology consulting (also called IT consulting, computer consultancy, business and technology services, computing consultancy, technology consulting, and IT advisory) as a field of activity focuses on advising organizations on how best to use information technology (IT) in achieving their business objectives.

Information technology in India

Information Technology in India is an industry consisting of two major components: IT services and business process outsourcing (BPO). The sector has increased its contribution to India's GDP from 1.2% in 1998 to 7.7% in 2017. According to NASSCOM, the sector aggregated revenues of US$160 billion in 2017, with export revenue standing at US$99 billion and domestic revenue at US$48 billion, growing by over 13%. The United States accounts for two-thirds of India's IT services exports.

Infosys

Infosys Limited (formerly Infosys Technologies Limited) is an Indian multinational corporation that provides business consulting, information technology and outsourcing services. It has its headquarters in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.Infosys is the second-largest Indian IT company by 2017 revenues and 596th largest public company in the world based on revenue. On September 28, 2018, its market capitalisation was $44.32 billion. The credit rating of the company is A− (rating by Standard & Poor's).

Kriti Sanon

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List of International Organization for Standardization standards

This is a list of published International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards and other deliverables. For a complete and up-to-date list of all the ISO standards, see the ISO catalogue.The standards are protected by copyright and most of them must be purchased. However, about 300 of the standards produced by ISO and IEC's Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC1) have been made freely and publicly available.

List of the largest information technology companies

This is a list of the world's largest technology companies by revenue. The list shows technology companies ranked by annual revenue from their fiscal years ended on or before March 31, 2018, according to Fortune Global 500 magazine. Other metrics not shown here, in particular market capitalization, are often used alternatively to define the size of a company.

The list includes companies whose primary business activities are associated with technology industry which includes computer hardware, software, electronics, semiconductor, internet, telecom equipment, e-commerce and computer services. Note: This list shows only companies with annual revenues exceeding US$50 billion.

Network packet

A network packet is a formatted unit of data carried by a packet-switched network. A packet consists of control information and user data, which is also known as the payload. Control information provides data for delivering the payload, for example: source and destination network addresses, error detection codes, and sequencing information. Typically, control information is found in packet headers and trailers.

In packet switching, the bandwidth of the communication medium is shared between multiple communication sessions, in contrast to circuit switching, in which circuits are preallocated for the duration of one session and data is typically transmitted as a continuous bit stream.

Outsourcing

Outsourcing is an agreement in which one company hires another company to be responsible for a planned or existing activity that is or could be done internally.It often involves the contracting of a business process (e.g., payroll processing, claims processing), operational, and/or non-core functions, such as manufacturing, facility management, call center support). The term "outsourcing" came from "outside resourcing" and dates back to at least 1981. Outsourcing sometimes involves transferring employees and assets from one firm to another.

Outsourcing is also the practice of handing over control of public services to private enterprises.Outsourcing includes both foreign and domestic contracting, and sometimes includes offshoring (relocating a business function to a distant country) or nearshoring (transferring a business process to a nearby country).

Offshoring and outsourcing are not mutually inclusive: there can be one without the other. They can be intertwined (Offshore outsourcing), and can be individually or jointly, partially or completely reversed, involving terms such as reshoring, inshoring, and insourcing.

Software developer

A software developer is a person concerned with facets of the software development process, including the research, design, programming, and testing of computer software. Other job titles which are often used with similar meanings are programmer, software analyst, and software engineer.

In a large company, there may be employees whose sole responsibility consists of only one of the phases above. In smaller development environments, a few people or even a single individual might handle the complete process.

Tata Consultancy Services

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