Information and communications technology

Information and communications technology (ICT) is an extensional term for information technology (IT) that stresses the role of unified communications[1] and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals) and computers, as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audiovisual systems, that enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.[2]

The term ICT is also used to refer to the convergence of audiovisual and telephone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system. There are large economic incentives to merge the telephone network with the computer network system using a single unified system of cabling, signal distribution, and management. ICT is an umbrella term that includes any communication device, encompassing radio, television, cell phones, computer and network hardware, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and appliance with them such as video conferencing and distance learning.[3]

ICT is a broad subject and the concepts are evolving.[4] It covers any product that will store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit, or receive information electronically in a digital form (e.g., personal computers, digital television, email, or robots). For clarity, Zuppo provided an ICT hierarchy where all levels of the hierarchy "contain some degree of commonality in that they are related to technologies that facilitate the transfer of information and various types of electronically mediated communications".[5] Theoretical differences between interpersonal-communication technologies and mass-communication technologies have been identified by the philosopher Piyush Mathur.[6] Skills Framework for the Information Age is one of many models for describing and managing competencies for ICT professionals for the 21st century.[7]


The phrase "information and communication technologies" has been used by academic researchers since the 1980s.[8] The abbreviation "ICT" became popular after it was used in a report to the UK government by Dennis Stevenson in 1997,[9] and then in the revised National Curriculum for England, Wales and Northern Ireland in 2000. However, in 2012, the Royal Society recommended that the use of the term "ICT" should be discontinued in British schools "as it has attracted too many negative connotations".[10] From 2014 the National Curriculum has used the word computing, which reflects the addition of computer programming into the curriculum.[11]

Variations of the phrase have spread worldwide. The United Nations has created a "United Nations Information and Communication Technologies Task Force" and an internal "Office of Information and Communications Technology".[12]


The money spent on IT worldwide has been estimated as US$3.8 trillion [13] in 2017 and has been growing at less than 5% per year since 2009. The estimate 2018 growth of the entire ICT in is 5%. The biggest growth of 16% is expected in the area of new technologies (IoT, Robotics, AR/VR, and AI).[14]

The 2014 IT budget of US federal government was nearly $82 billion.[15] IT costs, as a percentage of corporate revenue, have grown 50% since 2002, putting a strain on IT budgets. When looking at current companies' IT budgets, 75% are recurrent costs, used to "keep the lights on" in the IT department, and 25% are cost of new initiatives for technology development.[16]

The average IT budget has the following breakdown:[16]

  • 31% personnel costs (internal)
  • 29% software costs (external/purchasing category)
  • 26% hardware costs (external/purchasing category)
  • 14% costs of external service providers (external/services).

The estimate of money to be spent in 2022 is just over US$6 trillion.[17]

Technological capacity

The world's technological capacity to store information grew from 2.6 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 1986 to 15.8 in 1993, over 54.5 in 2000, and to 295 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 2007, and some 5 zettabytes in 2014.[18][19] This is the informational equivalent to 1.25 stacks of CD-ROM from the earth to the moon in 2007, and the equivalent of 4,500 stacks of printed books from the earth to the sun in 2014. The world's technological capacity to receive information through one-way broadcast networks was 432 exabytes of (optimally compressed) information in 1986, 715 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 1993, 1.2 (optimally compressed) zettabytes in 2000, and 1.9 zettabytes in 2007.[18] The world's effective capacity to exchange information through two-way telecommunication networks was 281 petabytes of (optimally compressed) information in 1986, 471 petabytes in 1993, 2.2 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 2000, 65 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 2007,[18] and some 100 exabytes in 2014.[20] The world's technological capacity to compute information with humanly guided general-purpose computers grew from 3.0 × 10^8 MIPS in 1986, to 6.4 x 10^12 MIPS in 2007.[18]

ICT sector in the OECD

The following is a list of OECD countries by share of ICT sector in total value added in 2013.[21]

Rank Country ICT sector in % Relative size
1  Korea 10.7
2  Japan 7.02
3  Ireland 6.99
4  Sweden 6.82
5  Hungary 6.09
6  United States 5.89
7  Czech Republic 5.74
8  Finland 5.60
9  United Kingdom 5.53
10  Estonia 5.33
11  Slovakia 4.87
12  Germany 4.84
13  Luxembourg 4.54
14  Netherlands 4.44
15   Switzerland 4.63
16  France 4.33
17  Slovenia 4.26
18  Denmark 4.06
19  Spain 4.00
20  Canada 3.86
21  Italy 3.72
22  Belgium 3.72
23  Austria 3.56
24  Portugal 3.43
25  Poland 3.33
26  Norway 3.32
27  Greece 3.31
28  Iceland 2.87
29  Mexico 2.77

ICT Development Index

The ICT Development Index ranks and compares the level of ICT use and access across the various countries around the world.[22] In 2014 ITU (International Telecommunications Union) released the latest rankings of the IDI, with Denmark attaining the top spot, followed by South Korea. The top 30 countries in the rankings include most high-income countries where quality of life is higher than average, which includes countries from Europe and other regions such as "Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Japan, Macao (China), New Zealand, Singapore and the United States; almost all countries surveyed improved their IDI ranking this year."[23]

The WSIS process and ICT development goals

On 21 December 2001, the United Nations General Assembly approved Resolution 56/183, endorsing the holding of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) to discuss the opportunities and challenges facing today's information society.[24] According to this resolution, the General Assembly related the Summit to the United Nations Millennium Declaration's goal of implementing ICT to achieve Millennium Development Goals. It also emphasized a multi-stakeholder approach to achieve these goals, using all stakeholders including civil society and the private sector, in addition to governments.

To help anchor and expand ICT to every habitable part of the world, "2015 is the deadline for achievements of the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which global leaders agreed upon in the year 2000."[25]>

In education

Mobile software development laboratory in The Estonian Information Technology College
Today's society shows the ever-growing computer-centric lifestyle, which includes the rapid influx of computers in the modern classroom.

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), a division of the United Nations, has made integrating ICT into education part of its efforts to ensure equity and access to education. The following, taken directly from a UNESCO publication on educational ICT, explains the organization's position on the initiative.

Information and Communication Technology can contribute to universal access to education, equity in education, the delivery of quality learning and teaching, teachers' professional development and more efficient education management, governance and administration. UNESCO takes a holistic and comprehensive approach to promoting ICT in education. Access, inclusion and quality are among the main challenges they can address. The Organization's Intersectral Platform for ICT in education focuses on these issues through the joint work of three of its sectors: Communication & Information, Education and Science.[26]

Despite the power of computers to enhance and reform teaching and learning practices, improper implementation is a widespread issue beyond the reach of increased funding and technological advances with little evidence that teachers and tutors are properly integrating ICT into everyday learning. Intrinsic barriers such as a belief in more traditional teaching practices and individual attitudes towards computers in education as well as the teachers own comfort with computers and their ability to use them all as result in varying effectiveness in the integration of ICT in the classroom. [27]

There is some evidence that, to be effective in education, ICT must be fully integrated into the pedagogy. Specifically, when teaching literacy and math, using ICT in combination with Writing to Learn [28][29] produces better results than traditional methods alone or ICT alone.[30]

Developing countries


M-Learning Policy Forum
Representatives meet for a policy forum on M-Learning at UNESCO's Mobile Learning Week in March 2017

ICT has been employed as an educational enhancement in Sub-Saharan Africa since the 1960s. Beginning with television and radio, it extended the reach of education from the classroom to the living room, and to geographical areas that had been beyond the reach of the traditional classroom. As technology evolved and became more widely used, efforts in Sub-Saharan Africa were also expanded. In the 1990s a massive effort to push computer hardware and software into schools was undertaken, with the goal of familiarizing both students and teachers with computers in the classroom. Since then, multiple projects have endeavored to continue the expansion of ICT's reach in the region, including the One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) project, which by 2015 had distributed over 2.4 million laptops to nearly 2 million students and teachers.[31]

The inclusion of ICT in the classroom, often referred to as M-Learning, has expanded the reach of educators and improved their ability to track student progress in Sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, the mobile phone has been most important in this effort. Mobile phone use is widespread, and mobile networks cover a wider area than internet networks in the region. The devices are familiar to student, teacher, and parent, and allow increased communication and access to educational materials. In addition to benefits for students, M-learning also offers the opportunity for better teacher training, which lends to a more consistent curriculum across the educational service area. In 2011, UNESCO started a yearly symposium called Mobile Learning Week with the purpose of gathering stakeholders to discuss the M-learning initiative.[31]

Implementation is not without its challenges. While mobile phone and internet use are increasing much more rapidly in Sub-Saharan Africa than in other developing countries, the progress is still slow compared to the rest of the developed world, with smartphone penetration only expected to reach 20% by 2017.[31] Additionally, there are gender, social, and geo-political barriers to educational access, and the severity of these barriers vary greatly by country. Overall, 29.6 million children in Sub-Saharan Africa were not in school in the year 2012, owing not just to the geographical divide, but also to political instability, the importance of social origins, social structure, and gender inequality. Once in school, students also face barriers to quality education, such as teacher competency, training and preparedness, access to educational materials, and lack of information management.[31]


In modern society ICT is ever-present, with over three billion people having access to the Internet.[32] With approximately 8 out of 10 Internet users owning a smartphone, information and data are increasing by leaps and bounds.[33] This rapid growth, especially in developing countries, has led ICT to become a keystone of everyday life, in which life without some facet of technology renders most of clerical, work and routine tasks dysfunctional. The most recent authoritative data, released in 2014, shows "that Internet use continues to grow steadily, at 6.6% globally in 2014 (3.3% in developed countries, 8.7% in the developing world); the number of Internet users in developing countries has doubled in five years (2009-2014), with two thirds of all people online now living in the developing world."[23]

However, hurdles are still large. "Of the 4.3 billion people not yet using the Internet, 90% live in developing countries. In the world's 42 Least Connected Countries (LCCs), which are home to 2.5 billion people, access to ICTs remains largely out of reach, particularly for these countries' large rural populations."[34] ICT has yet to penetrate the remote areas of some countries, with many developing countries dearth of any type of Internet. This also includes the availability of telephone lines, particularly the availability of cellular coverage, and other forms of electronic transmission of data. The latest "Measuring the Information Society Report" cautiously stated that the increase in the aforementioned cellular data coverage is ostensible, as "many users have multiple subscriptions, with global growth figures sometimes translating into little real improvement in the level of connectivity of those at the very bottom of the pyramid; an estimated 450 million people worldwide live in places which are still out of reach of mobile cellular service."[32]

Favorably, the gap between the access to the Internet and mobile coverage has decreased substantially in the last fifteen years, in which "2015 [was] the deadline for achievements of the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which global leaders agreed upon in the year 2000, and the new data show ICT progress and highlight remaining gaps."[25] ICT continues to take on new form, with nanotechnology set to usher in a new wave of ICT electronics and gadgets. ICT newest editions into the modern electronic world include smart watches, such as the Apple Watch, smart wristbands such as the Nike+ FuelBand, and smart TVs such as Google TV. With desktops soon becoming part of a bygone era, and laptops becoming the preferred method of computing, ICT continues to insinuate and alter itself in the ever-changing globe.

Information communication technologies play a role in facilitating accelerated pluralism in new social movements today. The internet according to Bruce Bimber is "accelerating the process of issue group formation and action"[35] and coined the term accelerated pluralism to explain this new phenomena. ICTs are tools for "enabling social movement leaders and empowering dictators"[36] in effect promoting societal change. ICTs can be used to garner grassroots support for a cause due to the internet allowing for political discourse and direct interventions with state policy[37] as well as change the way complaints from the populace are handled by governments. Furthermore, ICTs in a household are associated with women rejecting justifications for intimate partner violence. According to a study published in 2017, this is likely because “[a]ccess to ICTs exposes women to different ways of life and different notions about women’s role in society and the household, especially in culturally conservative regions where traditional gender expectations contrast observed alternatives."[38]

See also


  1. ^ Murray, James (2011-12-18). "Cloud network architecture and ICT - Modern Network Architecture". TechTarget =ITKnowledgeExchange. Retrieved 2013-08-18.
  2. ^ "Information and Communication Technology from". FOLDOC. 2008-09-19.
  3. ^ Akarowhe K. (2017). Information Communication Technology (ICT) in the Educational System of the Third World Countries as a Pivotal to Meet Global Best Practice in Teaching and Development. American Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology 5:2. doi: 10.21767/2349-3917.100010
  4. ^ "ICT - What is it?". Retrieved 2015-09-01.
  5. ^ Zuppo, Colrain M. "Defining ICT in a Boundaryless World: The Development of a Working Hierarchy" (PDF). International Journal of Managing Information Technology (IJMIT). p. 19. Retrieved 2016-02-13.
  6. ^ Mathur, Piyush (2017) Technological Forms and Ecological Communication: A Theoretical Heuristic (Lanham, Boulder, New York, London), pp. 200-202.
  7. ^ "IEEE-CS Adopts Skills Framework for the Information Age • IEEE Computer Society". Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  8. ^ William Melody et al., Information and Communication Technologies: Social Sciences Research and Training: A Report by the ESRC Programme on Information and Communication Technologies, ISBN 0-86226-179-1, 1986. Roger Silverstone et al., "Listening to a long conversation: an ethnographic approach to the study of information and communication technologies in the home", Cultural Studies, 5(2), pages 204–227, 1991.
  9. ^ The Independent ICT in Schools Commission, Information and Communications Technology in UK Schools: An Independent Inquiry, 1997. Impact noted in Jim Kelly, What the Web is Doing for Schools, Financial Times, 2000.
  10. ^ Royal Society, Shut down or restart? The way forward for computing in UK schools, 2012, page 18.
  11. ^ Department for Education, "National curriculum in England: computing programmes of study".
  12. ^ United Nations Office of Information and Communications Technology, About
  13. ^ "IDC - Global ICT Spending - 2018 - $3.8T". IDC: The premier global market intelligence company. Retrieved 2018-09-24.
  14. ^ "IDC - Global ICT Spending - Forecast 2018 – 2022". IDC: The premier global market intelligence company. Retrieved 2018-09-24.
  15. ^
  16. ^ a b "IT Costs – The Costs, Growth And Financial Risk Of Software Assets". OMT-CO Operations Management Technology Consulting GmbH. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
  17. ^ "IDC - Global ICT Spending - Forecast 2018 – 2022". IDC: The premier global market intelligence company. Retrieved 2018-09-24.
  18. ^ a b c d "The World's Technological Capacity to Store, Communicate, and Compute Information", Martin Hilbert and Priscila López (2011), Science, 332(6025), 60-65; see also "free access to the study" and "video animation".
  19. ^ Gillings, Michael R; Hilbert, Martin; Kemp, Darrell J (2016). "Information in the Biosphere: Biological and Digital Worlds". Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 31 (3): 180–189. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2015.12.013. PMID 26777788.
  20. ^ Hilbert, Martin (2016). "The bad news is that the digital access divide is here to stay: Domestically installed bandwidths among 172 countries for 1986–2014". Telecommunications Policy. 40 (6): 567–581. doi:10.1016/j.telpol.2016.01.006.
  21. ^ "Figure 1.9 Share of ICT sector in total value added, 2013". doi:10.1787/888933224163.
  22. ^ "Measuring the Information Society" (PDF). International Telecommunication Union. 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  23. ^ a b "ITU releases annual global ICT data and ICT Development Index country rankings -". 2014-11-30. Retrieved 2015-09-01.
  24. ^ "Basic information : about wsis". International Telecommunication Union. 17 January 2006. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
  25. ^ a b "ICT Facts and Figures – The world in 2015". ITU. Retrieved 2015-09-01.
  26. ^ "ICT in Education". Unesco. Unesco. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
  27. ^ Blackwell, C.K., Lauricella, A.R. and Wartella, E., 2014. Factors influencing digital technology use in early childhood education. Computers & Education, 77, pp.82-90.
  28. ^ "What is Writing to Learn, WAC Clearinghouse".
  29. ^ "Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading, Carnegie.Org 2010" (PDF).
  30. ^ "Closing the gaps – Improving literacy and mathematics by ict-enhanced collaboration, Science Direct, 2016, pg 78". Computers & Education. 99: 68–80. August 2016. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2016.04.004.
  31. ^ a b c d Agence Française de Développement (February 2015). "Digital services for education in Africa" (PDF). Retrieved 19 May 2018.
  32. ^ a b "ITU releases annual global ICT data and ICT Development Index country rankings". Retrieved 2015-09-01.
  33. ^ "Survey: 1 In 6 Internet Users Own A Smartwatch Or Fitness Tracker". ARC. Retrieved 2015-09-01.
  34. ^ "ITU releases annual global ICT data and ICT Development Index country rankings". Retrieved 2015-09-01.
  35. ^ Bimber, Bruce (1998-01-01). "The Internet and Political Transformation: Populism, Community, and Accelerated Pluralism". Polity. 31 (1): 133–160. doi:10.2307/3235370. JSTOR 3235370.
  36. ^ Hussain, Muzammil M.; Howard, Philip N. (2013-03-01). "What Best Explains Successful Protest Cascades? ICTs and the Fuzzy Causes of the Arab Spring". International Studies Review. 15 (1): 48–66. doi:10.1111/misr.12020. hdl:2027.42/97489. ISSN 1521-9488.
  37. ^ Kirsh, David (2001). "The Context of Work". Human Computer Interaction.
  38. ^ Cardoso LG, Sorenson SB. Violence against women and household ownership of radios, computers, and phones in 20 countries. American Journal of Public Health. 2017; 107(7):1175–1181.

Further reading

External links

Commission on Information and Communications Technology (Philippines)

The Commission on Information and Communications Technology (CICT) (Filipino: Komisyon sa Teknolohiyang Pang-impormasyon at Pangkomunikasyon) was the primary policy, planning, coordinating, implementing, regulating, and administrative entity of the executive branch of the Philippine Government that would promote, develop, and regulate integrated and strategic information and communications technology (ICT) systems and reliable and cost-efficient communication facilities and services.

Established in 2004 by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, it was abolished in 2011 by her successor, Benigno Aquino III and folded with the Department of Science and Technology. In turn, it was supplanted by the Department of Information and Communications Technology.

Department of Information and Communications Technology

The Department of Information and Communications Technology (abbreviated as DICT; Filipino: Kagawaran ng Teknolohiyang Pang-Impormasyon at Komunikasyon) is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for the planning, development and promotion of the country's information and communications technology (ICT) agenda in support of national development.

Department of Transportation (Philippines)

The Department of Transportation (DOTr; Filipino: Kagawarán ng Transportasyon) is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for the maintenance and expansion of viable, efficient, and dependable transportation systems as effective instruments for national recovery and economic progress.

The department is responsible for the country's land, air, sea communications infrastructure.

Until June 30, 2016, the department was named Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC; Filipino: Kagawarán ng Transportasyón at Komunikasyón). With Republic Act No. 10844 or "An Act Creating the Department of Information and Communications Technology", signed into law on May 20, 2016 during the administration of Outgoing President Benigno Aquino III, the Information and Communications Technology Office was spun off the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) and merged with all operative units of the DOTC dealing with communications, to form the new Department of Information and Communications Technology.


DIGITALEUROPE is the European organisation that represents the digital technology industry whose members include 61 major technology companies and 37 national trade associations. It seeks to ensure industry participation in the development and implementation of EU policies" and has several working groups that focus on different aspects of policy—environment, trade, technical and regulatory and the digital economy. Based in Brussels, Belgium, DIGITALEUROPE represents over 10,000 companies with a combined annual revenue of over €1 trillion.

Eliseo Rio Jr.

Eliseo Mijares Rio Jr. (born October 27, 1944) is a Filipino retired brigadier general and electronics engineer who headed the Philippines' Department of Information and Communications Technology from 2017 to 2019.

Gregorio Honasan

Gregorio Ballesteros Honasan II (born March 14, 1948), better known as Gringo Honasan, is a retired Philippine Army officer who led unsuccessful coups d'état against President Corazon Aquino. He played a key role in the 1986 EDSA Revolution that toppled President Ferdinand Marcos.

After 1986, he led a series of unsuccessful but violent coup attempts against the administration of Corazon Aquino. President Fidel Ramos granted him amnesty in 1992. He entered politics and became a senator from 1995 to 2004, and again from 2007 to 2018. He ran for vice president of the Philippines, being Jejomar Binay's running-mate in 2016, but were defeated by Leni Robredo and Rodrigo Duterte respectively.

On November 22, 2018, President Duterte appointed Honasan as secretary of Department of Information and Communications Technology which will take effect after his term in the Senate. Eliseo Rio served as acting secretary while Honasan was still serving his term in the Senate.


Information and Communications Technology Academy, better known as iAcademy (stylized as iACADEMY)

is a private, non-sectarian educational institution in the Philippines. The college offers specialized senior high school and undergraduate programs in fields relating to computer science, game development, multimedia arts, animation, and business management.

The college has two campuses, with the recent iACADEMY Nexus along Yakal and the previous Buendia Campus that is currently being renovated, both in the Central Business District of Makati City.

Information and communications technology in Kosovo

Information and communication technology (ICT) in Kosovo has experienced a remarkable development since 1999. From being almost non-existent 10 years ago, Kosovar companies in the information technology (IT) domain offer today wide range of ICT services to their customers both local as well as to foreign companies. Kosovo has the youngest population in Europe, with advanced knowledge in ICT.Today, public and private education institutions in the IT field, through certified learning curricula by companies such as CISCO and Microsoft, provide education to thousands of young Kosovars while the demand for this form of training is still rising.Kosovo has two authorized mobile network operators and is the only country in the region not having awarded any UMTS license. Kosovo has neither awarded licenses for fixed wireless access, nor made the 900 and 1800 MHz bands technology neutral. Currently around 1,200,000 customers of "Vala" Post and Telecom of Kosovo (PTK). As of March 2007 the second GSM license granted to IPKO – Telekom Slovenije. Currently IPKO has ca. 300,000 users. Following the Brussels Agreement, Kosovo has its own telephone dialing code: 383. Before this assignment, network operators in Kosovo used either 387 (Monaco) or 386 (Slovenia). All other codes were to have been superseded by the new code on 15 January 2017, but some are still in use.The infrastructure of ICT sector in Kosovo is mainly built of microwave network, optic and coaxial cable (DOCSIS). The telecom industry is liberalized and legislation is introduced adopting European union(EU) regulatory principles and promoting competition. Some of the main internet providers are PTK, IPKO, Kujtesa and Artmotion

Internet in Zimbabwe

The Internet in Zimbabwe has seen rapid expansion in recent years. The Internet country code top-level domain is .zw. In 2009, the Mugabe-Tsvangirai Government of National Unity established a Ministry of Information and Communications Technology to focus on ICT growth and development.


JJY is the call sign of a low frequency time signal radio station located in Japan.

The station broadcasts from two sites, one on Mount Otakadoya, near Fukushima, and the other on Mount Hagane, located on Kyushu Island. JJY is operated by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), an independent administrative institution affiliated with the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications of the Japanese government.

Ministry of Information Technologies and Communications (Colombia)

Ministry of Information Technologies and Communications (Spanish: Ministerio de Tecnologías de la Información y las Comunicaciones), is the national executive ministry of the Government of Colombia responsible for overseeing the information and communication technologies, telecommunications and broadcasting industries in Colombia.

Ministry of Information and Communications Technology of Iran

The Ministry of Information and Communications Technology , or Ministry of ICT (Persian: وزارت ارتباطات و فناوری اطلاعات‎) established in 1908, is responsible for postal services, telephones and information technology in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Laying out and implementing policies pertaining to post and communications are among the functions of the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology, which is also in charge of issuing import licenses for certain communication apparatus and parts thereof.

National Institute of Information and Communications Technology

The National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (情報通信研究機構, Jōhō Tsūshin Kenkyū Kikō, NICT) is Japan's primary national research institute for information and communications. It is located at 4-2-1 Nukui-Kitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795, Japan.

NICT was established as an Independent Administrative Institution in 2004 when Japan's Communications Research Laboratory (established 1896) merged with the Telecommunications Advancement Organization. Today NICT's mission is to carry out research and development in the field of information and communications technology. It has a range of responsibilities including generating and disseminating Japan's national frequency and time standards; conducting type approval tests of radio equipment for the Global Maritime Distress Safety System (GMDSS) and marine radar based on Japan's Radio Law; and providing regular observations of the ionosphere and space weather. It also operates the JJY, a low frequency time signal.

In late August 2015, it was announced that a terahertz radiation scanner developed by the institute would be one of the instruments carried by the ESA's Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer, currently due for launch in 2022.

National Telecommunications Commission (Philippines)

The Philippines' National Telecommunications Commission (Filipino: Pambansáng Komisyón sa Telekomunikasyón), abbreviated as NTC, is an attached agency of the Department of Information and Communications Technology responsible for the supervision, adjudication and control over all telecommunications services throughout the country.

NTC is currently headed by Commissioner Gamaliel Cordoba, who assumed office on August 2009, and served within the three administrations of former presidents Gloria Macapagal Arroyo and Benigno Aquino III, and incumbent President Rodrigo Duterte.

Rodolfo Salalima

Rodolfo "Rudy" Agapay Salalima is a Filipino lawyer who was the first secretary of the Philippine Department of Information and Communications Technology (DICT) under the Rodrigo Duterte's administration. Salalima is a former chief legal counsel and senior advisor of Globe Telecom, one of the leading telecommunications firms in the country and has also served as Senior Vice President for Corporate and Regulatory Affairs and Managing Director of Ayala Corporation. He is also the former president of the Philippine Chamber of Telecommunications Operators (PCTO) and International Telecommunication Union Council working group for the amendment of ITU constitution and convention vice chairman for Asia Pacific Region.In 2015, Salalima authored the book entitled "Telecommunications in the Information Revolution", a law book on telecommunication policies in the country.


Sify Technologies Limited (formerly Satyam Infoway) is an Indian information and communications technology company providing end to end ICT solutions including telecom services, data center services, cloud & managed services, transformation integration services and application integration services. Sify Technologies Limited played an important role during the early spread of Internet and e-commerce in India. It has been listed on NASDAQ as SIFY since 1999.

Telecommunications in Tunisia

Telecommunications in Tunisia includes telephones (fixed and mobile), radio, television, and the Internet. The Ministry of Communication Technologies, a cabinet-level governmental agency, is in charge of organizing the sector.

Tera-hertz Explorer

The Tera-hertz Explorer (TEREX) mission is a planned orbiter and lander that will be carrying a terahertz sensor to the surface of Mars to measure the oxygen isotope ratios of various molecules in the Martian atmosphere. The objective of the mission is to understand the chain of chemical reactions that resupply the atmosphere with carbon dioxide.The lander, TEREX-1, was originally supposed to launch as a piggyback with another payload during the July 2020 Mars launch window, but this has subsequently been delayed to 2022. As of September 2017, no official launch arrangement with a primary mission had yet been reached. The spacecraft will orbit Mars for a short while before landing the instrument on the surface. A dedicated orbiter, TEREX-2, is planned for launch in 2024. It will conduct a global survey of the Martian atmosphere and surface for water and oxygen levels.The mission is being developed by Japan's National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), and the University of Tokyo Intelligent Space Systems Laboratory (ISSL). The project is based on a past proposal named FIRE (Far InfraRed Experiment), which was a sensor intended for JAXA's cancelled MELOS Mars orbiter.If successful, it will be Japan's first successful Mars spacecraft since the ill-fated Nozomi mission.


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