Information Technology Agreement

The Information Technology Agreement (ITA) is a plurilateral agreement enforced by the World Trade Organization (WTO) and concluded in the Ministerial Declaration on Trade in Information Technology Products in 1996, and entered into force 1 July 1997. Since 1997 a formal Committee under the WTO watches over the following of the Declaration and its Implementations.[2] The agreement was expanded in 2015.[3]

The aim of the treaty is to lower all taxes and tariffs on information technology products by signatories to zero.[2]

According to a 2017 study in the World Trade Review, the 2015 ITA expansion is "the most successful attempt at trade liberalization under the auspices of the WTO since its inception in 1995."[3] The study credits the success of the negotiations to four factors: "a narrower scope without a single undertaking approach, a negotiating group that contained many but not all WTO members, a focus on tariffs rather than non-tariff barriers, and avoiding a nationalistic opposition."[3]

Information Technology Agreement
Effective1 July 1997
DepositaryWorld Trade Organization
Information Technology Agreement
Information Technology Agreement parties[1]

References

  1. ^ INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY: SCHEDULES OF CONCESSIONS
  2. ^ a b "Information Technology Agreement — introduction". World Trade Organization. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
  3. ^ a b c Winslett, Gary (2017). "Critical Mass Agreements: The Proven Template for Trade Liberalization in the WTO". World Trade Review: 1–22. doi:10.1017/S1474745617000295. ISSN 1474-7456.

External links

APEC Philippines 1996

APEC Philippines 1996 was a series of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation meetings focused on economic cooperation, held at the Subic Bay Freeport Zone in Subic, Zambales on 24–25 November 1996. It was the eighth APEC meeting in history and the first held in the Philippines.

AeA

The AeA (formerly the American Electronics Association) was a nationwide non-profit trade association that represented all segments of the technology industry. It lobbied governments at the state, federal, and international levels; provided access to capital and business opportunities; and offered select business services and networking programs.

In 2008 the AeA merged with the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA) to form TechAmerica.

Afghanistan Accession to World Trade Organization

Afghanistan received membership to the World Trade Organization (WTO) at the 10th WTO Ministerial Conference in Nairobi, Kenya, December 17, 2015. Afghanistan is 164th in the world and 36th among the less-developed countries that have received WTO membership.

Receiving WTO membership is a long process; Afghanistan was admitted after 11 years of negotiations. Afghanistan is among the least developed countries in the WTO and there are some expectations that their accession might impact newly emerged industries in the country.

EC-IT product dispute

European communities and its member states — tariff treatment of certain information technology products or for short EC - IT Product Dispute (DS376) is a WTO dispute initiated by Japan with European Communities and its member states as respondents. Dispute was initiated on September 28, 2008 and was settled on August 16, 2010, with Dispute Settlement Body recognizing European Union's violations.

Economy of Taiwan

The national economy of Taiwan (officially known as Republic of China), is the 7th largest economy in Asia, and is included in the advanced economies group by the International Monetary Fund and gauged in the high-income economies group by the World Bank, and ranked 15th in the world by the Global Competitiveness Report of World Economic Forum, has a developed capitalist economy that ranks as the 22nd-largest in the world by purchasing power parity (PPP), ranks as 18th in the world by gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity per capita (person), and 24th in nominal GDP of investment and foreign trade by the Republic of China (Taiwan) government, commonly referred to as Taiwan. As of 2018, telecommunication, financial services and utility services are three highest individuals paid sectors in Taiwan. The economy of Taiwan ranks the highest in Asia for 2015 Global Entrepreneurship Index (GEI) for specific strengths. Most large government-owned banks and industrial firms have been privatized, and now family owned businesses are the streamlined economic factors in Taiwan. With the technocracy-centered economic planning under martial law until 1987, real growth in GDP has averaged about 8% during the past three decades. Exports have grown even faster and since World War II, have provided the primary impetus for industrialization. Inflation and unemployment are low; the trade surplus is substantial; and foreign reserves are the world's fourth largest. Agriculture contributes 3% to GDP, down from 35% in 1952, and the service sector makes up 73% of the economy. Traditional labor-intensive industries are steadily being moved off-shore and replaced with more capital- and technology-intensive industries in the pre-mature stage of the manufacturing industry in the global economic competitions on labor cost (key performance indicator), automation (industry 4.0), product design realization (prototype), technology commercialization (innovation with knowledge/practical stickiness), scientific materialization (patent), scientific discovery (scientific findings from empirical scientific method), and growing from the over-reliance from the original equipment manufacturer and original design manufacturer models, in which there is no single University from Taiwan entering Reuter's Global Top Innovative 100 University ranking, and the economy of Taiwan may need international collaboration on University, Research and Industrial cooperation on spin-off opportunities. Economy of Taiwan is an indispensable partner in the Global Value Chains of Electronics Industry. Electronic components and personal computer are two areas of international strength of Taiwan's Information Technology industry, which means the economy of Taiwan has the competitive edge on having the learning curve from advanced foreign technologies with lower cost to be produced and sold abroad. Institute for Information Industry with its international recognitions is responsible for the development of IT industry and ICT industry in Taiwan. Industrial Technology Research Institute with its global partners is the advanced research center for applied technology for the economy of Taiwan. Directorate-General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics and Ministry of Economic Affairs release major economic indicators of the economy of Taiwan. Chung-Hua Institution for Economic Research provides economic forecast at the forefront for the economy of Taiwan and authoritatively researches on the bilateral economic relations with ASEAN by The Taiwan ASEAN Studies Center (TASC). Taiwan Stock Exchange is the host to the listed companies of local industries in Taiwan with weighted financial exposures to the FTSE Taiwan Index and MSCI Taiwan Index.

International Trade is officially assisted by Taiwan External Trade Development Council. Taiwanese investors and businesses have become major investors in mainland China, Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Malaysia. Because of the conservative and stable financial policy by the Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan) and the entrepreneurial strengths, Taiwan suffered little from the financial crisis of 1997-1999 compared to many economies in the region. Two major banks in Taiwan are Bank of Taiwan and Mega International Commercial Bank, but financial industry is not the major international industry in Taiwan. Unlike the neighboring Japan and South Korea, small and medium-sized businesses make up a significant proportion of the businesses in Taiwan. Taiwan is characterized as one of the Newly industrialized economy in the wake of the Ten Major Construction Projects since 1970's. Since 1990's, the economy of Taiwan has adopted economic liberalization with the successive regulatory reforms. London Metal Exchange, the largest metal stock exchange in the world, approved Kaohsiung, Taiwan as a good delivery point for primary aluminium, aluminium alloy, copper, lead, nickel, tin and zinc and as the LME’s ninth location in Asia on 17 June 2013, for future contracts on metals and industrial production of the global integration of the economy of Taiwan. The economy of Taiwan has the world's highest modern convenience store concentration density. The Indirect tax system of the economy of Taiwan comprises Gross Business Receipts Tax (GBRT) (Gross receipts tax) and Value-added tax. The economy of Taiwan is ranked 15th overall in the Global Top 20 Top Destination Cities by International Overnight Visitors (2014) by the MasterCard 2014 Global Destination Cities Index. Bubble Tea originated in Taiwan.Taiwan is a member of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the World Trade Organization (WTO), and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). Taiwan is also an observer at the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) under the name of "Chinese Taipei", and a member of International Chamber of Commerce as "Chinese Taipei". Taiwan signed Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement with People's Republic of China on 29 June 2010. Taiwan also signed free trade pact with Singapore and New Zealand. Taiwan is seeking to join the Trans-Pacific Partnership no later than 2020 if economic requirements are met. The economy of Taiwan also applied for the membership in the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank in 2015. Taiwan's top five trade partners in 2010 are China, Japan, USA, the European Union, and Hong Kong.The economy of Taiwan, compared with other major economies in the region, is "at a crossroads", and facing economic marginalization in the world economy, in addition to de-internationalization, low-paid salary to employees and uncertain outlook for personal promotion of staff, which results in human resource talents seeking career opportunities elsewhere in the Asia-Pacific region, and businesses in Taiwan suffer most from being the size of small and medium enterprises only with weaker-than-expected revenue of its hectic business operation for any consideration of further expansion, and overall impedes any attempts at economic transformation of Taiwan from the Taiwanese government. The World Trade Organization has also reviewed Chinese Taipei's economic outlook in 2010. The international industrial forecast of semiconductor manufacturing, which is the flagship industry of the economy of Taiwan, that faces immense competition ahead with its American counterparts. To conclude, facing the Market failure from Externality, the Taiwan government needs well-thought industrial policy urgently to adapt to the new economic landscape, and as an island economy with lack of natural resources and comparatively lower domestic aggregate demand, Taiwan's highly educated human resources would contribute greatly to Value added Innovation management for expanding Taiwan's international trade.

Electronics and semiconductor manufacturing industry in India

The Indian electronics industry is seeing growth encouraged both by government policies and incentives and by international investment. Its key and most resource-intensive segment, the semiconductor industry has substantial potential for growth since domestic demand is growing briskly. Semiconductors are required by a large number of industries, including telecommunications, information technology, industrial machinery and automation, medical electronics, automobile, engineering, power and solar photovoltaic, defense and aerospace, consumer electronics, and appliances. According to a NOVONOUS report, a steady and significant spurt in the semiconductor industry will increase the domestic market size fivefold during 2013-2020. As of 2015, however, the skill gap in Indian industry threatened progress, with 65 to 70 per cent of the market relying on imports.

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The ESA also organizes the annual Electronic Entertainment Expo (E3) trade expo in Los Angeles, California. The ESA’s policy is based by member companies serving on the ESA’s three Working Groups: "Intellectual Property Working Group", "Public Policy Committee" and "Public Relations Working Group".

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Every customs union, common market, economic union, customs and monetary union and economic and monetary union is also a free-trade area; these are listed on these separate articles and are not included below.

For a general explanation, see free-trade area.

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The presidency of Bill Clinton began on January 20, 1993, at noon Eastern Standard Time, when Bill Clinton was inaugurated as President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 2001. Clinton, a Democrat, took office after defeating Republican incumbent President George H. W. Bush and Independent businessman Ross Perot in the 1992 presidential election. Four years later, he defeated Republican Bob Dole and Ross Perot (this time running on the Reform Party ticket) to win a second term of office. During both elections, Clinton ran as a New Democrat, and many of his administration's policy proposals reflected his centrist, Third Way thinking. The 42nd United States president, he was the first president elected after the end of the Cold War, the first Baby Boomer to become president, and also the first Democrat since Franklin D. Roosevelt to serve two full terms.

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The United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (CTPA) (Spanish: Tratado de Libre Comercio entre Colombia y Estados Unidos or TLC) is a bilateral free trade agreement between the United States and Colombia. Sometimes called the Colombia Free Trade Agreement, it was signed on November 22, 2006, by Deputy U.S. Trade Representative John Veroneau and Colombian Minister of Trade, Industry, and Tourism Jorge Humberto Botero. CTPA is a comprehensive agreement that will eliminate tariffs and other barriers to trade in goods and services between the United States and Colombia.Colombia's Congress approved the agreement and a protocol of amendment in 2007. Colombia's Constitutional Court completed its review in July 2008, and concluded that the Agreement conforms to Colombia's Constitution. President Obama tasked the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative with seeking a path to address outstanding issues surrounding the Colombia FTA. The United States Congress then took on the agreement and passed it on October 12, 2011. The agreement went into effect on May 15, 2012.

World Trade Organization

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that is concerned with the regulation of international trade between nations. The WTO officially commenced on 1 January 1995 under the Marrakesh Agreement, signed by 124 nations on 15 April 1994, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which commenced in 1948. It is the largest international economic organization in the world.The WTO deals with regulation of trade in goods, services and intellectual property between participating countries by providing a framework for negotiating trade agreements and a dispute resolution process aimed at enforcing participants' adherence to WTO agreements, which are signed by representatives of member governments and ratified by their parliaments. The WTO prohibits discrimination between trading partners, but provides exceptions for environmental protection, national security, and other important goals. Trade-related disputes are resolved by independent judges at the WTO through a dispute resolution process.The WTO's current Director-General is Roberto Azevêdo, who leads a staff of over 600 people in Geneva, Switzerland. A trade facilitation agreement, part of the Bali Package of decisions, was agreed by all members on 7 December 2013, the first comprehensive agreement in the organization's history. On 23 January 2017, the amendment to the WTO Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement marks the first time since the organization opened in 1995 that WTO accords have been amended, and this change should secure for developing countries a legal pathway to access affordable remedies under WTO rules.Studies show that the WTO boosted trade, and that barriers to trade would be higher in the absence of the WTO. The WTO has highly influenced the text of trade agreements, as "nearly all recent [preferential trade agreements (PTAs)] reference the WTO explicitly, often dozens of times across multiple chapters... in many of these same PTAs we find that substantial portions of treaty language—sometime the majority of a chapter—is copied verbatim from a WTO agreement."

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