Infidel

Infidel (literally "unfaithful") is a term used in certain religions for those accused of unbelief in the central tenets of their own religion, for members of another religion, or for the irreligious.[1][2]

Infidel is an ecclesiastical term in Christianity around which the Church developed a body of theology that deals with the concept of infidelity, which makes a clear differentiation between those who were baptized and followed the teachings of the Church versus those who are outside the faith.[3] The term infidel was used by Christians to describe those perceived as the enemies of Christianity.

After the ancient world the concept of otherness, an exclusionary notion of the outside by societies with more or less coherent cultural boundaries, became associated with the development of the monotheistic and prophetic religions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam (cf. pagan).[3]

In modern literature, the term infidel includes in its scope atheists,[4][5][6] polytheists,[7] animists,[8] heathens and pagans.[9]

A willingness to identify other religious people as infidels corresponds to preference for orthodoxy over pluralism.[10]

Vannes - cathédrale, Saint Vincent Ferrier prêchant les infidèles
The Christian painting Saint Vincent Ferrer preaching to the Infidels by Jean-Baptiste Mauzaisse (1820) hanging in St. Peter's Cathedral, Vannes, the place of burial for Saint Vincent Ferrer

Etymology

The origins of the word infidel date to the late 15th century, deriving from the French infidèle or Latin īnfidēlis, from in- "not" + fidēlis "faithful" (from fidēs "faith", related to fīdere 'to trust'). The word originally denoted a person of a religion other than one's own, especially a Christian to a Muslim, a Muslim to a Christian, or a gentile to a Jew.[2] Later meanings in the 15th century include "unbelieving", "a non-Christian" and "one who does not believe in religion" (1527).

Usage

Christians historically used the term infidel to refer to people who actively opposed Christianity. This term became well-established in English by sometime in the early sixteenth century, when Jews or Mohammedans (Muslims; formerly called saracens), were described contemptuously as active opponents to Christianity. In Catholic dogma, an infidel is one who does not believe in the doctrine at all and is thus distinct from a heretic, who has fallen away from true doctrine, i.e. by denying the divinity of Jesus. Similarly, the ecclesiastical term was also used by the Methodist Church,[11][12] in reference to those "without faith".[13]

Today, the usage of the term infidel has declined;[14] the current preference is for the terms non-Christians and non-believers (persons without religious affiliations or beliefs), reflecting the commitment of mainstream Christian denominations to engage in dialog with persons of other faiths.[15] Nevertheless, some apologists have argued in favor of the term, stating that it does not come from a disrespectful perspective, but is similar to using the term orthodox for devout believers.[16]

Moreover, some translations of the Bible, including the King James Version, which is still in vogue today, employ the word infidel, while others have supplanted the term with nonbeliever. The term is found in two places:

And what concord hath Christ with Belial? Or what part hath he that believeth with an infidel? —2 Corinthians 6:15 KJV

But if any provide not for his own, and specially for those of his own house, he hath denied the faith, and is worse than an infidel. —1 Timothy 5:8 KJV

Infidels under canon law

Right to rule

In Quid super his, Innocent IV, asked the question "[I]s it licit to invade a land that infidels possess or which belongs to them?" and held that while Infidels had a right to dominium (right to rule themselves and choose their own governments), however the pope, as the Vicar of Christ, de jure possessed the care of their souls and had the right to politically intervene in their affairs if their ruler violated or allowed his subjects to violate a Christian and Euro-centric normative conception of Natural law, such as sexual perversion or idolatry.[17] He also held that he had an obligation to send missionaries to infidel lands, and that if they were prevented from entering or preaching, then the pope was justified in dispatching Christian forces accompanied with missionaries to invade those lands, as Innocent stated simply "If the infidels do not obey, they ought to be compelled by the secular arm and war may be declared upon them by the pope, and nobody else."[18] This was however not a reciprocal right and non-Christian missionaries such as those of Muslims could not be allowed to preach in Europe "because they are in error and we are on a righteous path."[17]

A long line of Papal hierocratic canonists, most notably those who adhered to Alanus Anglicus's influential arguments of the Crusading-era, denied Infidel dominium, and asserted Rome's universal jurisdictional authority over the earth, and the right to authorize pagan conquests solely on the basis of non-belief because of their rejection of the Christian God.[19] In the extreme hierocractic canonical discourse of the mid-twelfth century such as that espoused by Bernard of Clairvaux, the mystic leader of the Cisertcians, legitimized German colonial expansion and practice of forceful Christianisation in the Slavic territories as a holy war against the Wends, arguing that infidels should be killed wherever they posed a menace to Christians. When Frederick the II unilaterally arrogated papal authority, he took on the mantle to "destroy convert, and subjugate all barbarian nations." A power in papal doctrine reserved for the pope. Hostiensis, a student of Innocent, in accord with Alanus, also asserted "... by law infidels should be subject to the faithful." John Wyclif, regarded as the forefather of English Reformation, also held that valid dominium rested on a state of grace.[20]

The Teutonic Knights were one of the by-products of this papal hierocratic and German discourse. After the Crusades in the Levant, they moved to crusading activities in the infidel Baltics. Their crusades against the Lithuanians and Poles however precipitated the Lithuanian Controversy, and the Council of Constance, following the condemnation of Wyclif, found Hostiensis's views no longer acceptable and ruled against the knights. Future Church doctrine was then firmly aligned with Innocents IV's position.[21]

The development of counter arguments later on the validity of Papal authority, the rights of infidels and the primacy of natural law, led to various treatises such as those by Hugo Grotius, John Locke, Immanuel Kant and Thomas Hobbes, which in turn led to the transformation of international law's treatment of the relationship between Christian and non-Christian societies and the development of human rights.

Colonization of the Americas

During the Age of Discovery, the papal bulls such as Romanus Pontifex and more importantly inter caetera (1493), implicitly removed dominium from infidels and granted them to the Spanish Empire and Portugal with the charter of guaranteeing the safety of missionaries. Subsequent English and French rejections of the bull rejected the Popes authority to exclude other Christian princes. As independent authorities such as the Head of the Church of England, they drew up charters for their own colonial missions based on the temporal right for care of infidel souls in language echoing the inter caetera. The charters and papal bulls would form the legal basis of future negotiations and consideration of claims as title deeds in the emerging Law of nations in the European colonization of the Americas.[22]

The rights bestowed by Romanus Pontifex and inter caetera have never fallen from use, serving as the basis for legal arguments over the centuries. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in the 1823 case Johnson v. M'Intosh that as a result of European discovery and assumption of ultimate dominion, Native Americans had only a right to occupancy of native lands, not the right of title. This decision was upheld in the 1831 case Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, giving Georgia authority to extend state laws over Cherokees within the state, and famously describing Native American tribes as "domestic dependent nations." This decision was modified in Worcester v. Georgia, which stated that the U.S. federal government, and not individual states, had authority in Indian affairs, but it maintained the loss of right to title upon discovery by Europeans.

Native American groups including the Taíno and Onondaga have called on the Vatican to revoke the bulls of 1452, 1453, and 1493.

Marriage

According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the Catholic Church views marriage as forbidden and null when conducted between the faithful (Christians) and infidels, unless a dispensation has been granted. This is because marriage is a sacrament of the Catholic Church, which infidels are deemed incapable of receiving.[23]

As a philosophical tradition

Some philosophers such as Thomas Paine, David Hume, George Holyoake, Charles Bradlaugh, Voltaire and Rousseau earned the label of infidel or freethinkers, both personally and for their respective traditions of thought because of their attacks on religion and opposition to the Church. They established and participated in a distinctly labeled, infidel movement or tradition of thought, that sought to reform their societies which were steeped in Christian thought, practice, laws and culture. The Infidel tradition was distinct from parallel anti-Christian, sceptic or deist movements, in that it was anti-theistic and also synonymous with atheism. These traditions also sought to set up various independent model communities, as well as societies, whose traditions then gave rise to various other socio-political movements such as secularism in 1851, as well as developing close philosophical ties to some contemporary political movements such as socialism and the French Revolution.[24]

Towards the early twentieth century, these movements sought to move away from the tag "infidel" because of its associate negative connotation in Christian thought, and is attributed to George Holyoake's coining the term 'secularism' in an attempt to bridge the gap with other theist and Christian liberal reform movements.[24]

In 1793, Immanuel Kant's Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason, reflected the Enlightenment periods' philosophical development, one which differentiated between the moral and rational and substituted rational/irrational for the original true believer/infidel distinction.[3]

Implications for medieval civil law

Laws passed by the Catholic Church governed not just the laws between Christians and infidels in matters of religious affairs, but also civil affairs. They were prohibited from participating or aiding in infidel religious rites, such as circumcisions or wearing images of non-Christian religious significance.[23]

In the Early Middle Ages, based on the idea of the superiority of Christians to infidels, regulations came into place such as those forbidding Jews from possessing Christian slaves; the laws of the decretals further forbade Christians from entering the service of Jews, for Christian women to act as their nurses or midwives; forbidding Christians from employing Jewish physicians when ill; restricting Jews to definite quarters of the towns into which they were admitted and to wear a dress by which they might be recognized.[23]

Later during the Victorian era, testimony of either self declared, or those accused of being Infidels or Atheists, was not accepted in a court of law because it was felt that they had no moral imperative to not lie under oath because they did not believe in God, or Heaven and Hell.[24]

These rules have now given way to modern legislation and Catholics, in civil life, are no longer governed by ecclesiastical law.[23]

Analogous terms in other religions

Islam

One Arabic language analogue to infidel, referring to non-Muslims, is kafir (sometimes "kaafir", "kufr" or "kuffar"; gâvur in Turkish,) from the root K-F-R, which connotes covering or concealing.[25][26] The term KFR may also refer to disbelieve in something, ungrateful for something provided or denunciation of a certain matter or life style.[27] Another term, sometimes used synonymously, is mushrik, "polytheist" or "conspirer", which more immediately connotes the worship of gods other than Allah.[28][29]

In the Quran, the term kafir is first applied to the unbelieving Meccans, and their attempts to refute and revile Muhammad. Later, Muslims are ordered to keep apart from them, defend themselves from their attacks, and finally take the offensive against them.[30][31]

In the Quran the term "people of the book" (Ahl al-Kitāb) refers to Jews, Christians, and Sabians.[32] Some scholars claim Islam considers Jews and Christians as fellow believers. They are called the "People of the Book (Ahl al-kitab)".[33][34] The term people of the book was later expanded to include adherents of Zoroastrianism and Hinduism by Islamic rulers in Persia and India.[35] A Muslim commits a punishable offense if he says to a Christian or a Jew: "thou unbeliever".[31]

In some verses of the Koran, particularly those recited after the Hijra in AD 622, the concept of kafir was expanded upon, with Jews and Christians included.[30] The expanded term kafir refers to anyone who disbelieves in the religion of Islam, the one that mocks the religion of Islam, who does not regard the kafiroon as kaffirs, whoever believes one's teaching is more reliable and trustworthy than Muhammad's teachings, whoever hates something of Muhammad, whoever practices witchcraft, and whoever supports the kaffirs against the Muslims (in terms of war, harming, etc.).[30][36][37] Jews were condemned as kafirs for their disbelief in God's ayah (signs or verses[38]), Christians were condemned as kafirs for their belief in the Trinity, which the Qur'an declared as major kufr (disbelief) (kufr akbar), which puts one outside of the pale of Islam (Surah al-Maa’idah – 5:116 for example).[30][36][37][39]

Some hadiths prohibit declaring a Muslim to be a kafir, but the term was nonetheless fairly frequent in the internal religious polemics of the age.[31] For example, some texts of Sunni sect of Islam include other sects of Islam such as Shia as infidel.[40] Certain sects of Islam, such as Wahhabism, include as kafir those Muslims who undertake Sufi shrine pilgrimage and follow Shia teachings about Imams.[41][42][43] Similarly, in Africa and South Asia, certain sects of Islam such as Hausas, Ahmadi, Akhbaris have been repeatedly declared as Kufir or infidels by other sects of Muslims.[44][45][46]

The class of kafir also includes the category of murtadd, variously translated as apostate or renegades, for whom classical jurisprudence prescribes death if they refuse to return to Islam.[31] On the subject of ritual impurity of unbelievers, one finds a range of opinions, "from the strictest to the most tolerant", in classical jurisprudence.[31]

Historically, the attitude toward unbelievers in Islam was determined more by socio-political conditions than by religious doctrine. A tolerance toward unbelievers "impossible to imagine in contemporary Christendom" prevailed even to the time of the Crusades, particularly with respect to the People of the Book. However, animosity was nourished by repeated wars with unbelievers, and warfare between Safavid Persia and Ottoman Turkey brought about application of the term kafir even to Persians in Turkish fatwas.[31]

In Sufism the term underwent a special development, as in a well-known verse of Abu Sa'id: "So long as belief and unbelief are not perfectly equal, no man can be a true Muslim", which has prompted various explanations.[31]

Judaism

Judaism has a notion of pagan gentiles who are called עכומ 'acum, an acronym of Ovdei Cohavim u-Mazzaloth or, literally, "star-and-constellation worshippers".[3][47][48]

The Hebrew term, kofer, cognate with the Arabic kafir, is reserved only for apostate Jews.[3]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ See:
    • James Ginther (2009), The Westminster Handbook to Medieval Theology, Westminster, ISBN 978-0664223977, Quote = "Infidel literally means unfaithful";
    • "Infidel", The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, Houghton Mifflin Company. "An unbeliever with respect to a particular religion, especially Christianity or Islam";
    • Infidel, Oxford Dictionaries, US (2011); Quote = "A person who does not believe in religion or who adheres to a religion other than one’s own"
  2. ^ a b "infidel". The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. Oxford University Press. 2009. Retrieved 20 June 2010. a person who does not believe in religion or who adheres to a religion other than one's own.
  3. ^ a b c d e ""Infidels." International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. 2008". MacMillan Library Reference. Retrieved 20 June 2010.
  4. ^ The Works of Thomas Jackson, Volume IV. Oxford University Press. 1844. Retrieved 8 April 2011. Atheism and irreligion are diseases so much more dangerous than infidelity or idolatry, as infidelity than heresy. Every heretic is in part an infidel, but every infidel is not in whole or part an heretic; every atheist is an infidel, so is not every infidel an atheist.
  5. ^ The Bengal Annual. Samuel Smith and Co. 1830. Retrieved 8 April 2011. Kafir means an infidel, but more properly an atheist.
  6. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church. Burns & Oates. 23 June 2002. ISBN 9780860123248. Retrieved 8 April 2011. 2123 'Many... of our contemporaries either do not at all perceive, or explicitly reject, this intimate and vital bond of man to God. Atheism must therefore be regarded as one of the most serious problems of our time.' 2125 Since it rejects or deniest the existence of God, atheism is a sin against the virtue of religion.
  7. ^ See:
    • Ken Ward (2008), in Expressing Islam: Religious Life and Politics in Indonesia, Editors: Greg Fealy, Sally White, ISBN 978-9812308511, Chapter 12;
    • Alexander Ignatenko, Words and Deeds, Russia in Global Affairs, Vol. 7, No. 2, April–June 2009, p. 145
  8. ^ Whitlark & Aycock (Editors) (1992), The literature of emigration and exile, Texas Tech University Press, ISBN 978-0896722637, pp. 3–28
  9. ^ See:
    • Tibi, Bassam (2007). Political Islam, World Politics and Europe. Taylor & Francis. p. 47. ISBN 978-0415437806.
    • Mignolo W. (2000), The many faces of cosmopolis: Border thinking and critical cosmopolitanism. Public Culture, 12(3), pp. 721–48
  10. ^ See:
    • Cole & Hammond (1974), Religious pluralism, legal development, and societal complexity: rudimentary forms of civil religion, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 177–89;
    • Sullivan K. M. (1992), Religion and liberal democracy, The University of Chicago Law Review, Vol. 59, No. 1, pp. 195–223.
  11. ^ The Wesleyan-Methodist magazine: A Dialogue between a Believer and an Infidel. Oxford University. 1812. Retrieved 25 March 2007.
  12. ^ The Methodist review, Volume 89. Phillips & Hunt. 1907. Retrieved 25 March 2007. Is it conceivable that a Spirit which is invisible, and imponderable, and impalpable, and yet which is the seat of physical and moral powers, really occupies the universe? The infidel scoffs at the idea. We observe, however, that this same infidel implicitly believes in the existence of an all-pervading luminiferous ether, which is invisible, and imponderable, and impalpable, and yet is said to be more compact and more elastic than any material substance we can see and handle.
  13. ^ The Primitive Methodist magazine. William Lister. 1867. Retrieved 25 March 2007. It is sometimes translated infidels, because an infidel is without faith; but is also properly rendered unbelievers in the strict Gospel sense of the word.
  14. ^ Infidels. Random House. 2005. ISBN 9780812972399. Retrieved 25 March 2007. Likewise, "infidel," which had still been in use in the early nineteenth century, fell out of favor with hymn writers.
  15. ^ Russell B. Shaw, Peter M. J. Stravinskas, Our Sunday Visitor's Catholic Encyclopedia, Our Sunday Visitor Publishing, 1998, ISBN 0-87973-669-0 p. 535.
  16. ^ Infidel Testimony. J.E. Dixon. 1835. Retrieved 25 March 2007. When we use the word infidel, we intend nothing disrespectful, any more than we do when we use the word orthodox.
  17. ^ a b Williams, p.48
  18. ^ Williams, p. 14
  19. ^ Williams, pp. 41, 61–64
  20. ^ Williams, pp. 61–64
  21. ^ Williams, pp. 64–67
  22. ^ Christopher 31-40
  23. ^ a b c d "Catholic Encyclopedia: Infidels". Newadvent.org. 1 October 1910. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
  24. ^ a b c Royle, Edwards, "Victorian Infidels: The Origins of the British Secularist Movement 1791–1866", Manchester University Press, ISBN 0-7190-0557-4
  25. ^ Ruthven M. (2002), International Affairs, Vol. 78, No. 2, pp. 339–51
  26. ^ "Kaffir", The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006. "Islam An infidel."; Also: "Kaffir" - Arabic kāfir "unbeliever, infidel", Encarta World English Dictionary [North American Edition], Microsoft Corporation, 2007.
  27. ^ "Wiktionary". wiktionary.com.
  28. ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica". Britannica.com. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
  29. ^ Islamic Science University of Malaysia, Dr. Abdullah al-Faqih, The meaning of "Kufr" and "Shirk"
  30. ^ a b c d Campo, Juan Eduardo (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. Infobase Publishing, New York, ISBN 978-0-8160-5454-1, see p. 421.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g Björkman, W., "Kafir". E. J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936, Volume 4, ISBN 9789004097902; pp. 619–20
  32. ^ Vajda, G (2012). "Ahl al-Kitāb". In P. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W.P. Heinrichs (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam. 1 (2nd ed.). Brill. p. 264. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_0383.
  33. ^ "Infidel" in An Introductory Dictionary of Theology and Religious Studies, p. 630
  34. ^ "Kafir" in An Introductory Dictionary of Theology and Religious Studies p. 702
  35. ^ Noegel, Scott B.; Wheeler, Brannon M. (2010). The A to Z of Prophets in Islam and Judaism. Scarecrow Press. p. 249. ISBN 9781461718956. People of the Book. Term used in the Quran and in Muslim sources for Jews and Christians, but also exteneded to include Sabians, Zoroastrians, Hindus, and others.
  36. ^ a b Lewis, Bernard. The political language of Islam. University of Chicago Press, 1991.
  37. ^ a b Waldman, Marilyn Robinson. "The Development of the Concept of Kufr in the Qur'ān." Journal of the American Oriental society 88.3 (1968): 442–55.
  38. ^ "Ayah/Ayat". Oxford Islamic Studies. Oxford University. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  39. ^ Schimmel, Annemarie, and Abdoldjavad Falaturi. We Believe in One God: The Experience of God in Christianity and Islam. Seabury Press, 1979.
  40. ^ Wilfred Madelung (1970), Early Sunnī Doctrine concerning Faith as Reflected in the" Kitāb al-Īmān", Studia Islamica, No. 32, pp. 233–54
  41. ^ Williams, Brian Glyn. "Jihad and ethnicity in post‐communist Eurasia. on the trail of transnational islamic holy warriors in Kashmir, Afghanistan, Central Asia, Chechnya and Kosovo." The Global Review of Ethnopolitics 2.3–4 (2003): 3–24.
  42. ^ Ungureanu, Daniel. "Wahhabism, Salafism and the Expansion of Islamic Fundamentalist Ideology." Journal of the Seminar of Discursive Logic, Argumentation Theory and Rhetoric. 2011.
  43. ^ Marshall, Paul A., ed. Radical Islam's Rules: The Worldwide Spread of Extreme Shariʻa Law. Rowman & Littlefield, 2005.
  44. ^ Mark Juergensmeyer (2011), The Oxford Handbook of Global Religions, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199767649, pp. 451, 519–23
  45. ^ Patrick J. Ryan, Ariadne auf Naxos: Islam and Politics in a Religiously Pluralistic African Society, Journal of Religion in Africa, Vol. 26, Fasc. 3 (Aug., 1996), pp. 308–29
  46. ^ H. R. Palmer, An Early Fulani Conception of Islam, Journal of the Royal African Society, Vol. 13, No. 52, pp. 407–14
  47. ^ Walter Zanger, "Jewish Worship, Pagan Symbols: Zodiac mosaics in ancient synagogues", Bible History Daily; first published 24 August 2012, updated 24 August 2014.
  48. ^ Shay Zucker, "Hebrew Names of the Planets", The Role of Astronomy in Society and Culture, Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, IAU Symposium, Volume 260; p. 302.

References

  • Williams, Robert A. The American Indian in Western Legal Thought: The Discourses of Conquest, 1990, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-508002-5
  • Tomlins, Christopher L.; Mann, Bruce H. The Many Legalities of Early America, 2001, UNC Press, ISBN 0-8078-4964-2
  • Weckman, George. The Language of the Study of Religion: A Handbook, 2001, Xlibris Corporation ISBN 0-7388-5105-1
  • Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of Synonyms, Merriam-Webster Inc., 1984, ISBN 0-87779-341-7
  • Espin, Orlando O.; Nickoloff, James B. An Introductory Dictionary of Theology and Religious Studies, Liturgical Press, 2007, ISBN 0-8146-5856-3
Attribution

External links

Ankh-Morpork City Watch

The Ankh-Morpork City Watch is the police force of the fictional city of Ankh-Morpork in the Discworld series by the English writer Terry Pratchett.

The series comprises eight fantasy novels and one short story centred on the adventures of the City Watch and its commander Sam Vimes, in order of publication they are; Guards! Guards! (1989), Theatre of Cruelty (1993) (a short story), Men at Arms (1993), Feet of Clay (1996), Jingo (1997), The Fifth Elephant (1999), Night Watch (2002), Thud! (2005) and Snuff (2011).

The Watch is also to be the subject of a police procedural television series in development as of 2018, entitled The Watch.

Antimonument

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On October 13, 2014, it was reissued by menstrualrecordings as double picture disc LP with the bonus track included.

Ayaan Hirsi Ali

Ayaan Hirsi Ali (; Dutch: [aːˈjaːn ˈɦiːrsi ˈaːli] (listen); Somali: Ayaan Xirsi Cali Arabic: أيان حرسي علي / ALA-LC: Ayān Ḥirsī 'Alī; born Ayaan Hirsi Magan, 13 November 1969) is a Somali-born Dutch-American activist, feminist, author, scholar and former politician. She received international attention as a critic of Islam and advocate for the rights and self-determination of Muslim women, actively opposing forced marriage, honor violence, child marriage and female genital mutilation. She has founded an organisation for the defense of women's rights, the AHA Foundation.

Ayaan Hirsi Ali is a Fellow with the Hoover Institution at Stanford University, a Fellow with the Future of Diplomacy Project at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at The Harvard Kennedy School, a visiting scholar at the American Enterprise Institute in Washington, D.C., and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.In 2003, Hirsi Ali was elected a member of the House of Representatives, the lower house of the States General of the Netherlands, representing the centre-right People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD). A political crisis related to the validity of her Dutch citizenship—namely the accusation that she had lied on her application for political asylum—led to her resignation from parliament, and indirectly to the fall of the second Balkenende cabinet in 2006.

Hirsi Ali, a former Muslim who abandoned her faith and became an atheist, has been a vocal critic of Islam. In 2004, she collaborated on a short movie with Theo van Gogh, entitled Submission, a film depicting oppression of women under fundamentalist Islamic law, critical of the Islamic canon itself. The film sparked controversy and death threats. Van Gogh was then murdered several days after the film's release by Mohammed Bouyeri, a Moroccan-Dutch Islamic terrorist. Hirsi Ali maintains that "Islam is part religion, and part a political-military doctrine, the part that is a political doctrine contains a world view, a system of laws and a moral code that is totally incompatible with our constitution, our laws, and our way of life." Having previously argued that Islam was beyond reform, in her 2015 book Heretic, she called for a reformation of Islam by defeating the Islamists and supporting reformist Muslims.In 2005, Hirsi Ali was named by Time magazine as one of the 100 most influential people in the world. She has also received several awards, including a free speech award from the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten, the Swedish Liberal Party's Democracy Prize, and the Moral Courage Award for commitment to conflict resolution, ethics, and world citizenship. Critics accuse Ali of having built her political career on denigrating Islam and Muslims, and questioned her scholarly credentials "to speak authoritatively about Islam and the Arab world". Her works are accused of using neo-Orientalist portrayals and of being an enactment of the colonial "civilizing mission" discourse.Hirsi Ali immigrated to the United States and became a U.S. citizen in 2013. Hirsi Ali has published two autobiographies: in 2006 and 2010. She has been married to British historian and commentator Niall Ferguson since 2011.

Back to Methuselah

Back to Methuselah (A Metabiological Pentateuch) by George Bernard Shaw consists of a preface (The Infidel Half Century) and a series of five plays: In the Beginning: B.C. 4004 (In the Garden of Eden), The Gospel of the Brothers Barnabas: Present Day, The Thing Happens: A.D. 2170, Tragedy of an Elderly Gentleman: A.D. 3000, and As Far as Thought Can Reach: A.D. 31,920.

All were written during 1918 to 1920 and published simultaneously by Constable (London) and Brentano's (New York) in 1921. They were first performed in 1922 by the New York Theatre Guild at the old Garrick Theatre in New York City and, in Britain, at the Birmingham Repertory Theatre in 1923.

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The first season of Frasier originally aired from September 16, 1993 to May 19, 1994 on NBC, consisting of a total of 24 episodes.

Giaour

Giaour or Gawur (; Turkish: gâvur, Turkish pronunciation: [ɟaˈvuɾ]; from Persian: گور‎ gâvor an obsolete variant of modern گبر gaur, originally derived from Aramaic: 𐡂𐡁𐡓𐡀‎, romanized: gaḇrā, lit. 'man; person'; Romanian: ghiaur; Albanian: kaur; Greek: γκιαούρης, romanized: gkiaoúris) meaning "infidel", a slur, historically used in the Ottoman Empire for non-Muslims or more particularly Christians in the Balkans.The terms kafir, gawur or rum (the latter meaning "Greek") were commonly used in defters (tax registries) for Orthodox Christians, usually without ethnic distinction. Christian ethnic groups in the Balkan territory of the Ottoman Empire included Greeks (rum), Bulgarians (bulgar), Serbs (surp), Albanians (arnavut), and Vlachs (eflak), among others.The 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica described the term as follows:

Giaour (a Turkish adaptation of the Persian gdwr or gbr, an infidel), a word used by the Turks to describe all who are not Muslims, with especial reference to Christians. The word, first employed as a term of contempt and reproach, has become general and in many cases when was use was use as an insult.

For example in parts of China, the term foreign devil has become void of offence. A strict analogy to giaour is found in the Arabic kafir, or unbeliever, which is so commonly in use as to have become the proper name of peoples and countries.

During the Tanzimat (1839-1876), the use of the term by Muslims for non-Muslims was prohibited to prevent problems occurring in social relationships.

Infidel (disambiguation)

Infidel is an unbeliever.

Infidel or Infidels may also refer to:

in a context of Islam, a translation of kafir

Infidel (novel)

Infidel was written by Christian author Ted Dekker and was released on December 15, 2007. It is the second young adult novel in The Lost Book series. These new novels span the fifteen-year period that is gapped in the Circle Trilogy's Black and Red. Thomas Hunter is still the commander of the Forest Guard when these stories occur.

Infidel (video game)

Infidel is an interactive fiction computer game published by Infocom in 1983. It was written by Patricia Fogleman and Michael Berlyn and was the first in the "Tales of Adventure" line. It was released for the Amstrad CPC, Apple II, Atari 8-bit family, Commodore 64, IBM PC (as a booter), TRS-80, and TI-99/4A. Ports were later published Macintosh, Atari ST, and Amiga. Infidel is Infocom's tenth game.

Nick Berg

Nicholas Evan Berg (April 2, 1978 – May 7, 2004) was an American freelance radio-tower repairman who went to Iraq after the United States' invasion of Iraq. He was Jewish. Berg was abducted and beheaded according to a video released in May 2004 by Islamist militants in response to the Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse involving the United States Army and Iraqi prisoners. The CIA claimed Berg was murdered by Abu Musab al-Zarqawi. The decapitation video was released on the internet, reportedly from London to a Malaysian-hosted homepage by the Islamist organization Muntada al-Ansar.

Now They Call Me Infidel

Now They Call Me Infidel: Why I Renounced Jihad for America, Israel, and the War on Terror is a best-selling book authored by Egyptian-American human rights activist Nonie Darwish. First published by Sentinel in 2006, the book discusses —among other topics—Darwish's change in attitude toward Jews and Israelis, Islamic extremism in the United States and Darwish's trip to Israel. The book has made Dawrish "one of the heroines of the Conservative Right."In a review for the Hoover Institution, author Aaron Mannes says that Now They Call Me Infidel provides support for the claim that "improving the status of women is essential to reform in the Muslim world." In a review for Human Events, Larry Kelley says the "book is a blistering indictment of a misogynistic polygamous world of the supposedly moderate Egyptian society." Jim Hulston, writing in the Electronic Intifada, was generally critical of the book, saying, "as a whole, the book is tedious, predictable, and badly edited -- born to be bought, scanned and displayed, not actually read."

Reginald Vaughn Finley Sr.

Reginald Vaughn Finley Sr. (born 1974) is a health advocate, skeptic, and science educator.He follows in the tradition of his great-grandmother, Dr. Mary Alice Person LaSaine (1882-1957), an early black educator. He is a US Army veteran, and served overseas during Operation Able Sentry in 1995. Finley is a former member of the Atlanta-based music group Forte', now called 112.

As an experiment, he worked for a time as a "phone psychic" with the psychic network. He said he was amazed at how the callers didn't realize that they were the ones providing the information. Finley gave a talk about his methods to a Center for Inquiry conference in 2001.While attending St. Leo College at Fort McPherson, he studied philosophy and religion, and soon became interested in the effect of bad ideas and the lack of scientific knowledge of the general public. Lacking a religious identity, he shortly began identifying himself as a freethinker and critical thinker.Finley took a hiatus from school and began his 12-year internet media career with an internet radio show, The Infidel Guy Show (1999-2010), which focused on educating the public about science, philosophy, ethics, freethought, and the value of critical thinking.Finley's programs, Freethought Radio and The Infidel Guy Show, featured personalities from across the philosophical and scientific spectrum, including scientists Michio Kaku and Richard Dawkins, lawyer Michael Newdow, creationist Kent Hovind, Ali Sina of Faith Freedom International, philosopher Massimo Pigliucci, and Michael Shermer, founder of the Skeptics Society. At its end, Finley had produced over 600 programs.

Finley's family appeared on ABC's reality show Wife Swap on November 28, 2005, in which his wife Amber switched places with the wife of a devout Christian pastor.From 2007-2012, Finley returned to corporate America while simultaneously conducting his informal education programs on a part-time basis.

After working in the informal science industry, and corporate America, Finley returned to school, earning his bachelor's in Human Development from Amridge University (2011), and completed his master's at SUNY at Buffalo in Science and the Public (2013). He has also attended Clemson University, earning a master's in Biology (2016). He is currently earning a PhD in International Public Health from Euclid University.His latest projects include AmazingLife.Bio, a biology education website for grades 5 through 12, in which he educates visitors about the diversity of life on planet Earth. He also offers online tutoring services in biology. His other project, Cancer Cure Scams, is a site devoted to protecting cancer patients against dangerous alternative medicine practitioners and educating the public on how to properly understand and interpret science.Finley is currently a multidisciplinary science instructor in Orlando, Florida, and has taught courses in infinite sub-branches within biology, chemistry, geoscience, physics, and astronomy.

The Analyst

The Analyst, subtitled "A DISCOURSE Addressed to an Infidel MATHEMATICIAN. WHEREIN It is examined whether the Object, Principles, and Inferences of the modern Analysis are more distinctly conceived, or more evidently deduced, than Religious Mysteries and Points of Faith", is a book published by George Berkeley in 1734. The "infidel mathematician" is believed to have been Edmond Halley, though others have speculated Sir Isaac Newton was intended. See (Burton 1997, 477).

The Infidel (2010 film)

The Infidel is a 2010 British comedy film directed by Josh Appignanesi and written by David Baddiel. The film stars Omid Djalili, Richard Schiff, Yigal Naor and Matt Lucas. It revolves around a British Muslim who goes through an identity crisis when he discovers he was adopted as a child, having been born to a Jewish family.

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