The infallibility of the Church is the belief that the Holy Spirit preserves the Christian Church from errors that would contradict its essential doctrines. It is related to, but not the same as, indefectible, that is, "she remains and will remain the Institution of Salvation, founded by Christ, until the end of the world." The doctrine of infallibility is premised on the authority Jesus granted to the apostles to "bind and loose" (Mat 18:18; John 20:23) and particularly the promises to Peter (Mat 16:16–20 marcos 22:32) in regard to papal infallibility.
The doctrine of the infallibility of ecumenical councils states that solemn definitions of ecumenical councils, approved by the Pope, which concern faith or morals, and to which the whole Church must adhere, are infallible. Such decrees are often labeled as canons, and they often have an attached anathema, a penalty of excommunication, against those who refuse to believe the teaching. The doctrine does not claim that every aspect of every ecumenical council is infallible.
The Roman Catholic Church holds this doctrine, as do most or all Eastern Orthodox theologians. However, the Orthodox churches accept only the Seven Ecumenical Councils from Nicaea I to Nicaea II as genuinely ecumenical, while Roman Catholics accept twenty-one. Only a very few Protestants believe in the infallibility of ecumenical councils, and these usually restrict infallibility to the Christological statements of the first seven councils. Lutheran Christians recognize the first four councils, whereas most High Church Anglicans accept all seven as persuasive but not infallible.
A popular view among Orthodox Christians, especially Greek Orthodox and Churches that fall within the Ecumenical Patriarchate, is that an ecumenical council is itself infallible when pronouncing on a specific matter such as Christology, whereas others hold that a council can be considered of full ecumenical authority only once its declarations have been embraced by the faithful, an opinion more common among the Slavic Churches, such as the Russian Orthodox.
Catholicism teaches that Jesus Christ, "the Word made Flesh" (John 1:14), is the source of divine revelation. The Second Vatican Council states, "For this reason Jesus perfected revelation by fulfilling it through His whole work of making Himself present and manifesting Himself: through His words and deeds, His signs and wonders, but especially through His death and glorious resurrection from the dead and final sending of the Spirit of truth." (Dei verbum, 4). The content of Christ's divine revelation is called the deposit of faith, and is contained in both sacred scripture and sacred tradition, not as two sources but as a single source.
The magisterium (Latin: magister, "teacher") is the teaching office of the Catholic Church. Catholic theology divides the functions of the teaching office into two categories: the infallible sacred magisterium and the fallible ordinary magisterium. The infallible sacred magisterium includes the extraordinary declarations of the pope speaking ex cathedra and of ecumenical councils (traditionally expressed in conciliar creeds, canons, and decrees). Examples of infallible extraordinary papal definitions (and, hence, of teachings of the sacred magisterium) are Pope Pius IX's definition of the Immaculate Conception of Mary, and Pope Pius XII's definition of the Assumption of Mary. Before these definitions both sovereign pontiffs asked the bishops throughout the world whether these truths were indeed held by the faithful. Nowhere is it said that the Pope's charism involves special revelations, and the Pope must ascertain whether a belief is universally maintained before speaking ex cathedra on it. The above two instances of infallible definition outside an ecumenical council are the only two that can be cited in the history of the Catholic church.
A document signed by then-Cardinal Ratzinger and Cardinal Bertone speaks of
... the more recent teaching regarding the doctrine that priestly ordination is reserved only to men. The Supreme Pontiff, while not wishing to proceed to a dogmatic definition, intended to reaffirm that this doctrine is to be held definitively, since, founded on the written Word of God, constantly preserved and applied in the Tradition of the Church, it has been set forth infallibly by the ordinary and universal Magisterium. As the prior example illustrates, this does not foreclose the possibility that, in the future, the consciousness of the Church might progress to the point where this teaching could be defined as a doctrine to be believed as divinely revealed.
Notable here is the confirmation that the sensus fidelium is critical in determining whether a doctrine can be called infallible teaching.
Of the ordinary magisterium, the Second Vatican Council said: "Bishops, teaching in communion with the Roman Pontiff, are to be respected by all as witnesses to divine and Catholic truth. In matters of faith and morals, the bishops speak in the name of Christ and the faithful are to accept their teaching and adhere to it with a religious assent." The ordinary magisterium includes the potentially fallible teachings of the pope and ecumenical Councils (i.e., not given ex cathedra) and, more commonly, of individual Bishops or groups of Bishops as taken separately from the whole College of Bishops. Such teachings are fallible and could possibly contain errors; they are subject to revisions or revocation. In the case of the teachings of individual bishops to their diocese, there can of course even be disagreement among the individual bishops on such issues. However, these potentially fallible teachings are necessary to contribute to the development of doctrine.
Example of ordinary magisterium includes the social teachings of recent popes or theological opinions that the Popes or bishops make public. Catholics are not free to merely dismiss such teachings. The Church demands a "submission of the intellect and will" to them, even if not supernatural faith. However, this is to varying degrees depending on a variety of things, especially when teachers disagree. Catholics must respectfully hear all opinions from equal authorities and judge which is best, makes more sense, and is more consonant with the tradition of the whole history of the Church. However, the use of a higher level of authority trumps past disagreement—for example, if a pope condemns the teaching of a bishop (even if both the condemnation and the teaching are fallible), or if an infallible teaching disagrees with a past fallible teaching. Catholics are free to weigh a variety of factors, however, in judging divergent opinions. In the end all must follow their own, well-formed conscience.
Infallible teachings can be divided into two categories of precedence. The highest are called de fide credenda teachings, that is to say teachings defined as explicitly and specifically revealed in the deposit of faith: "Wherefore, by divine and Catholic faith all those things are to be believed which are contained in the word of God as found in Scripture and Tradition, and which are proposed by the Church as matters to be believed as divinely revealed, whether by her solemn judgment or in her ordinary and universal Magisterium." (First Vatican Council, Dei Filius 8.) The other category are called de fide tenenda teachings. These are equally infallible but are proposed not as being explicitly in the deposit of faith, but nevertheless implied by it or intrinsically connected to it logically or historically. These too demand supernatural faith, but not specifically in themselves on the authority of the Word of God. Further discernment may lead to the conclusion that a de fide tenenda teaching is not merely implied by the deposit of faith, but explicitly contained and thus it may advance to de fide credenda status.
Both extraordinary definitions and the universal magisterium may teach de fide credenda or de fide tenenda teachings. An example of de fide credenda teachings taught by extraordinary definition are the Christological teachings of the early ecumenical councils or the Marian dogmas of the Immaculate Conception and Assumption taught by the popes.
An example of de fide credenda teachings taught by infallible ordinary and universal magisterium include the immorality of directly taking an innocent human life.
Examples of de fide tenenda teachings taught by extraordinary definition include the canonizations of saints and Pope Leo XIII's declaration of Anglican orders as null and void (so-called "dogmatic facts"). Neither of these could advance to de fide credenda status as they are contingent on historical facts. However, certain teachings on grace and justification from the Council of Trent, currently regarded as infallible but only de fide tenenda due to disagreement about whether they are explicitly contained in the deposit of faith or merely logically implied, could someday advance to de fide credenda status either through extraordinary definition or through the consensus of the universal magisterium.
An opinion from a former member of the Congregation For the Doctrine of the Faith, Ratzinger holds Examples of de fide tenenda teachings taught by infallible ordinary and universal magisterium include the validity of papal elections, earlier non-papal canonizations now universally accepted (of St. Agnes, for example), or the immorality of pornography. However, none of these could advance to de fide credenda status as they are contingent on historical facts or developments, as for example pornography is condemned, and infallibly so, but is likely not included specifically in the deposit of faith (there was no such concept at the time), but is nevertheless an infallibly discerned implication of the more general revealed teachings on human sexuality and chastity. However, certain teachings taught in such a manner may someday advance to de fide credenda status, either through extraordinary definition or the consensus of the ordinary universal magisterium. As, for example, the teaching on papal infallibility was infallibly taught for a long time de fide tenenda by the universal magisterium, but not de fide credenda until the extraordinary definition at Vatican I, because there was disagreement on whether it was a specifically revealed truth from the deposit of faith or merely the logical implication of other things in the deposit of faith (as, for example, the authority of Saint Peter in the college of apostles, the constitution of the Church, her unity, her episcopal structure, etc.)
The doctrine of papal infallibility states that when the pope teaches ex cathedra his teachings are infallible and irreformable. Such infallible papal decrees must be made by the pope, in his role as leader of the whole Church, and they must be definitive decisions on matters of faith and morals which are binding on the whole Church. An infallible decree by a pope is often referred to as an ex cathedra statement. This type of infallibility falls under the authority of the sacred magisterium.
The doctrine of papal infallibility was formally defined at the First Vatican Council in 1870, although belief in this doctrine long predated this council and was premised on the promises of Jesus to Peter, promises to Peter (Mat 16:16-20; Luke 22:32). The encyclicals of the First Vatican Council, however were rejected by a small minority of bishops who separated themselves from union with the Bishop or Rome to form, or preserve, the Old Catholic Church.
The ordinary and universal episcopal magisterium is considered infallible as it relates to a teaching concerning a matter of faith and morals that all the bishops of the Church (including the Pope) universally hold as definitive and only as such therefore needing to be accepted by all the faithful. This aspect of infallibility only applies to teachings about faith and morals as opposed to customs and prudential practices. Additionally, the ordinary and universal episcopal magisterium applies to a teaching to be held definitively by all the bishops at any given moment in history. Such teachings are extremely hard to prove. Thus, even if a teaching on a matter of faith and morals is out of favor among the bishops of a later date, once it has been held definitively by all bishops to be accepted by the faithful as infallible, then it is considered infallible and unchangeably true. However, Bishops all agreeing to a teaching to be held inconclusively are not teaching it to be definitive. It must be clearly established to be definitive for all time. This was attempted to be thoroughly done and documented in the case of several statements contained in Evangelium vitae.
The Eastern Orthodox Churches also believe in apostolic succession through which Christ promised to preserve the Church from teaching error. This grace and authority, however, does not make any of the bishops being individually infallible, however, but rather means that, in consensus, in combined agreement, they are charged with preserving the universal faith from error. Thus the Orthodox Church does not use the term "infallible" to discuss the works of any bishop or council. Orthodox Christians regard the concept of infallibility to be uniquely Western and therefore avoid the use of defining or terming even Ecumenical Councils as infallible. Ecumenical Councils are felt, in the East, to be a continuation of the apostolic faith, and that the apostolic faith does not change. However, it also believes that not every council that proclaims itself ecumenical is so in fact. The Orthodox would also not accept the infallibility of the ordinary and universal magisterium.
The Church of England claimed this type of authority over the people of England, but the idea is no longer popular within the church, owing to a lack of commonly-accepted traditions and to disputes as to some peripheral doctrines. However, Anglicanism holds to a unique ecclesiology: in the Anglican view, the ancient and historic churches (such as the Anglican, Roman Catholic, Orthodox and Oriental churches) that maintained apostolic succession, belief, and practice are all branches of the Universal Church and there will always be a section of this tripartite church which will not fall into major heresy.
A common defining belief of Protestant denominations is a rejection of the idea that any church leaders (popes, bishops, priests, or elders) are preserved from teaching error, or conversely are infallible in their interpretations of Scripture, and that believers are not therefore obligated to accept "infallible" doctrines which they, in good conscience, do not believe are supported by Scripture.
Catholics, Orthodox, and some Anglicans believe that divine revelation (the one "Word of God") is contained both in the words of God in sacred scripture and in the deeds of God in sacred tradition. Everything asserted as true by either scripture or tradition is true and infallible.
This plan of revelation is realized by deeds and words having an inner unity: the deeds wrought by God in the history of salvation manifest and confirm the teaching and realities signified by the words, while the words proclaim the deeds and clarify the mystery contained in them. By this revelation then, the deepest truth about God and the salvation of man shines out for our sake in Christ, who is both the mediator and the fullness of all revelation.— Second Vatican Council, Dei verbum, n. 2
Yves Congar, who thought Catholics could acknowledge a substantial element of truth in sola scriptura, wrote that "we can admit sola scriptura in the sense of a material sufficiency of canonical Scripture. This means that Scripture contains, in one way or another, all truths necessary for salvation." This has led to the tenable position of the "two modes" theory.
In his book, James F. Keenan reports studies by some academics. A study by Bernard Hoose states that claims to a continuous teaching by the Church on matters of sexuality, life and death, and crime and punishment are "simply not true." After examining seven medieval texts about homosexuality, Mark Jordan argues that, "far from being consistent, any attempt to make a connection among the texts proved impossible." He calls the tradition's teaching of the Church "incoherent". Karl-Wilhelm Merks considers that tradition itself is "not the truth guarantor of any particular teaching." Keenan, however, says that studies of "manualists" such as John T. Noonan Jr. has demonstrated that, "despite claims to the contrary, manualists were co-operators in the necessary historical development of the moral tradition." Noonan, according to Keenan, has provided a new way of viewing at "areas where the Church not only changed, but shamefully did not."
The Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox Churches, and the various Protestant denominations are divided by their different views on infallibility. The ecumenical movement, which hopes to reunify all of Christianity, has found that the papacy is one of the most divisive of issues between churches. Infallibility has often been misunderstood by most Christian denominations. Infallibility cannot be understood properly unless a sound comprehension of the administration and theology of each Christian group has first been understood. For example, many Protestants and Eastern Orthodox believers have the belief that papal infallibility refers to papal impeccability (meaning that the pope cannot sin). This, however, is not the teaching of papal infallibility.
College of Bishops is a term used in the Catholic Church to denote the collection of those bishops who are in communion with the Pope. Under Canon Law, a college is a collection (Latin collegium) of persons united together for a common object so as to form one body. The Bishop of Rome (the Pope) is the head of the college.Confession of Peter
In Christianity, the Confession of Peter (translated from the Matthean Vulgate Latin section title: Confessio Petri) refers to an episode in the New Testament in which the Apostle Peter proclaims Jesus to be the Christ (Jewish Messiah). The proclamation is described in the three Synoptic Gospels: Matthew 16:13-20, Mark 8:27–30 and Luke 9:18–20. Specifically, Peter declares, "You are the Christ, the Son of the living God."The proclamation of Jesus as Christ is fundamental to Christology; the Confession of Peter and Jesus' acceptance of the title "Messiah" form a definitive statement in the New Testament narrative regarding the person of Jesus Christ. In this New Testament narrative, Jesus not only accepts the titles Christ and Son of God, but declares the proclamation a divine revelation by stating that his Father in Heaven had revealed it to Peter, unequivocally declaring himself to be both Christ and the Son of God.In the same passage Jesus also states: "Upon this rock(the rock here refers to the divine revelation which Peter got from God the Father) I will build my church". Most Christian denominations agree that the statement applies to Peter, but they diverge on their interpretations of what happens after Peter.The Confession of Peter is also the name of a liturgical feastday celebrated by several Christian churches, often as part of the Week of Prayer for Christian Unity.Ecumenical council
An ecumenical council (or oecumenical council; also general council) is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice in which those entitled to vote are convoked from the whole world (oikoumene) and which secures the approbation of the whole Church.The word "ecumenical" derives from the Late Latin oecumenicus "general, universal", from Greek oikoumenikos "from the whole world", from he oikoumene ge "the inhabited world (as known to the ancient Greeks); the Greeks and their neighbors considered as developed human society (as opposed to barbarian lands)", in later use "the Roman world" and in the Christian sense in ecclesiastical Greek, from oikoumenos, present passive participle of oikein "inhabit", from oikos "house, habitation." The first seven ecumenical councils, recognised by both the eastern and western denominations comprising Chalcedonian Christianity, were convoked by Roman Emperors, who also enforced the decisions of those councils within the state church of the Roman Empire.
Starting with the third ecumenical council, noteworthy schisms led to non-participation by some members of what had previously been considered a single Christian Church. Thus, some parts of Christianity did not attend later councils, or attended but did not accept the results. Bishops belonging to what became known as the Eastern Orthodox Church accept only seven ecumenical councils, as described below. Bishops belonging to what became known as the Church of the East only participated in the first two councils. Bishops belonging to what became known as Oriental Orthodoxy participated in the first four councils, but rejected the decisions of the fourth and did not attend any subsequent ecumenical councils.
Acceptance of councils as ecumenical and authoritative varies between different Christian denominations. Disputes over christological and other questions have led certain branches to reject some councils that others accept.Extraordinary magisterium
Extraordinary magisterium may refer to:
A category of officials in the Roman Republic. See Magistratus.
The bishops of the Catholic Church when gathered in an ecumenical council, or the Pope when teaching ex cathedra. See Infallibility of the Church and Magisterium.George Salmon
Rev Prof George Salmon DD FBA FRS FRSE LLD (25 September 1819 – 22 January 1904) was a distinguished and influential Irish mathematician and Anglican theologian. After working in algebraic geometry for two decades, Salmon devoted the last forty years of his life to theology. His entire career was spent at Trinity College Dublin.Heresy in Christianity
Heresy in Christianity denotes the formal denial or doubt of a core doctrine of the Christian faith as defined by one or more of the Christian churches.In Western Christianity, heresy most commonly refers to those beliefs which were declared to be anathema by any of the ecumenical councils recognized by the Catholic Church. In the East, the term "heresy" is eclectic and can refer to anything at variance with Church tradition. Since the Great Schism and the Protestant Reformation, various Christian churches have also used the concept in proceedings against individuals and groups deemed to be heretical by those churches.
The study of heresy requires an understanding of the development of orthodoxy and the role of creeds in the definition of orthodox beliefs, since heresy is always defined in relation to orthodoxy. Orthodoxy has been in the process of self-definition for centuries, defining itself in terms of its faith, and changing or clarifying beliefs in opposition to people or doctrines that are perceived as incorrect.Impeccability
Impeccability is the absence of sin. Christianity teaches this to be an attribute of God (logically God cannot sin, it would mean that he would act against his own will and nature) and therefore it is also attributed to Christ.Jansenism
Jansenism was a theological movement, primarily in France, that emphasized original sin, human depravity, the necessity of divine grace and predestination. The movement originated from the posthumously published work of the Dutch theologian Cornelius Jansen, who died in 1638. It was first popularized by Jansen's friend Abbot Jean du Vergier de Hauranne, of Saint-Cyran-en-Brenne Abbey, and, after du Vergier's death in 1643, was led by Antoine Arnauld. Through the 17th and into the 18th centuries, Jansenism was a distinct movement away from the Catholic Church. The theological centre of the movement was the convent of Port-Royal-des-Champs Abbey, which was a haven for writers including du Vergier, Arnauld, Pierre Nicole, Blaise Pascal and Jean Racine.
Jansenism was opposed by many in the Catholic hierarchy, especially the Jesuits. Although the Jansenists identified themselves only as rigorous followers of Augustine of Hippo's teachings, Jesuits coined the term Jansenism to identify them as having Calvinist affinities. The apostolic constitution, Cum occasione promulgated by Pope Innocent X in 1653, condemned five cardinal doctrines of Jansenism as heresy—especially the relationship between human free will and efficacious grace, wherein the teachings of Augustine, as presented by the Jansenists, contradicted the teachings of the Jesuit School. Jansenist leaders endeavored to accommodate the pope's pronouncements while retaining their uniqueness, and enjoyed a measure of peace in the late 17th century under Pope Clement IX. However, further controversy led to the apostolic constitution Unigenitus Dei Filius, promulgated by Pope Clement XI in 1713.Joseph Baylee
Joseph Baylee, D.D. (1808–1883), was a theological writer.
Baylee received his education at Trinity College, Dublin (B.A. 1834, M.A. 1848, B.D. and D.D. 1852). To the residents of Liverpool and Birkenhead his name became for a quarter of a century a household word, on account of his activity as the founder and first principal of St. Aidan's Theological College, Birkenhead, where he prepared many students for the work of the ministry. This institution, which may be said to have been founded in 1846, originated in a private theological class conducted by Dr. Baylee, under the sanction of the Bishop of Chester, Dr. Sumner, afterwards advanced to the see of Canterbury.
Dr. Baylee's successful exertions changed it into a public institution, and led to the construction of the present college building, which was opened in 1856. At one time Dr. Baylee was well known as a champion of the evangelical party, and especially for his theological discussions with members of the Roman Catholic church. Accounts were published of his controversies with Thomas Joseph Brown, bishop of Apollonia (afterwards of Newport and Menevia), on the infallibility of the church of Rome (1852), with Matthew Bridges on Protestantism v.. Catholicism (1856), and with Edward Miall, M.P., on Church establishments.
In 1871 Dr. Baylee was presented to the vicarage of Shepscombe, Gloucestershire, where he died 7 July 1883.Magisterium
The magisterium of the Catholic Church is the church's authority or office to give authentic interpretation of the Word of God, "whether in its written form or in the form of Tradition." According to the 1992 Catechism of the Catholic Church, the task of interpretation is vested uniquely in the Pope and the bishops, though the concept has a complex history of development. Scripture and church tradition "make up a single sacred deposit of the Word of God, which is entrusted to the Church", and the magisterium is not independent of this, since "all that it proposes for belief as being divinely revealed is derived from this single deposit of faith."Nationalism and Culture
Nationalism and Culture is a nonfiction book by German anarcho-syndicalist writer Rudolf Rocker. In this book, he criticizes religion, statism, nationalism, and centralism from an anarchist perspective.Ordinary magisterium
Ordinary magisterium may refer to:
A category of officials in the Roman Republic. See Magistratus.
The bishops of the Catholic Church in their role as teachers. When the bishops teach something with unanimity, they are referred to as the ordinary and universal magisterium; see Infallibility of the Church, and Magisterium.Papal infallibility
Papal infallibility is a dogma of the Catholic Church that states that, in virtue of the promise of Jesus to Peter, the Pope is preserved from the possibility of error "when, in the exercise of his office as shepherd and teacher of all Christians, in virtue of his supreme apostolic authority, he defines a doctrine concerning faith or morals to be held by the whole Church." "Infallibility means more than exemption from actual error; it means exemption from the possibility of error;..."This doctrine was defined dogmatically at the First Ecumenical Council of the Vatican of 1869–1870 in the document Pastor aeternus, but had been defended before that, existing already in medieval theology and being the majority opinion at the time of the Counter-Reformation.According to Catholic theology, there are several concepts important to the understanding of infallible, divine revelation: Sacred Scripture, Sacred Tradition, and the Sacred Magisterium (Teaching Authority). The infallible teachings of the Pope are part of the Sacred Magisterium, which also consists of ecumenical councils and the "ordinary and universal magisterium". In Catholic theology, papal infallibility is one of the channels of the infallibility of the Church. The infallible teachings of the Pope must be based on, or at least not contradict, Sacred Tradition and Sacred Scripture.
The doctrine of infallibility relies on one of the cornerstones of Catholic dogma: that of Petrine supremacy of the pope, and his authority as the ruling agent who decides what are accepted as formal beliefs in the Roman Catholic Church. The use of this power is referred to as speaking ex cathedra.
The solemn declaration of papal infallibility by Vatican I took place on 18 July 1870. Since that time, the only example of an ex cathedra decree took place in 1950, when Pope Pius XII defined the Assumption of Mary as an article of faith. Prior to the solemn definition of 1870, there were other decrees which fit the definition of ex cathedra, for example, Pope Boniface VIII in the bull Unam Sanctam of 1302, and Pope Pius IX in the Papal constitution Ineffabilis Deus of 1854.Peter van Hove
Peter van Hove (–1793) was a Flemish Friar Minor, lector in theology and exegete.Pope Honorius I
Pope Honorius I (died 12 October 638) was Pope from 27 October 625 to his death in 638.Honorius, according to the Liber Pontificalis, came from Campania and was the son of the consul Petronius. He became pope two days after the death of his predecessor, Boniface V. The festival of the Elevation of the Cross is said to have been instituted during the pontificate of Honorius, which was marked also by considerable missionary enterprise. Much of this was centered on England, especially Wessex. He also succeeded in bringing the Irish Easter celebrations in line with the rest of the Catholic Church.Reginald Pecock
Reginald Pecock (or Peacock; c. 1395– c. 1461) was an English prelate, Scholastic, and writer.Sacred tradition
Sacred tradition, or holy tradition, is a theological term used in some Christian traditions, primarily those claiming apostolic succession, such as the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Assyrian, and Anglican traditions, to refer to the foundation of the doctrinal and spiritual authority of the Christian Church and of the Bible.
Christians believe that the teachings of Jesus and the Apostles were preserved in the scriptures as well as by word of mouth and were handed on. This perpetual handing on of the tradition is called the "Living Tradition"; it is believed to be the faithful and constant transmission of the teachings of the Apostles from one generation to the next. That "includes everything which contributes towards the sanctity of life and increase in faith of the People of God; and so the Church, in her teaching, life and worship [the Creeds, the Sacraments, the Magisterium, and the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass], perpetuates and hands on to all generations all that she herself is, all that she believes." The Deposit of Faith (Latin: fidei depositum) refers to the entirety of divine revelation. According to Roman Catholic theology, two sources of revelation which constitute a single "Deposit of Faith", meaning that the entirety of divine revelation and the Deposit of Faith is transmitted to successive generations in scripture and sacred tradition (through the teaching authority and interpretation of the Church's Magisterium (which consists of the Church's bishops, in union with the Pope), typically proceeding synods and ecumenical councils).
In Eastern Orthodox theology, Holy Tradition is the inspired revelation of God and catholic teaching (Greek katholikos, "according to the whole") of the Church, not an independent source of dogmatic authority to be regarded as a supplement to biblical revelation. Tradition is rather understood as the fullness of divine truth proclaimed in the scriptures, preserved by the apostolic bishops and expressed in the life of the Church through such things as the Divine Liturgy and the Holy Mysteries (Eucharist, baptism, marriage, etc.), the Creed and other doctrinal definitions of the First seven ecumenical councils, canonical Christian iconography, and the sanctified lives of godly men and women.
According to the Christian theological understanding of these Churches, scripture is the written part of this larger tradition, recording (albeit sometimes through the work of individual authors) the community's experience of God or more specifically of Jesus. Thus, the Bible must be interpreted within the context of sacred tradition and within the community of the church. That is in contrast to many Protestant traditions, which teach that the Bible alone is a sufficient basis for all Christian teaching (a position known as sola scriptura).Sobornost
Sobornost (Russian: Собо́рность, IPA: [sɐˈbornəstʲ] "Spiritual community of many jointly living people") is a term coined by the early Slavophiles, Ivan Kireyevsky and Aleksey Khomyakov, to underline the need for co-operation between people, at the expense of individualism, on the basis that the opposing groups focus on what is common between them. Khomyakov believed the West was progressively losing its unity because it was embracing Aristotle and his defining individualism. Kireyevsky believed that Hegel and Aristotle represented the same ideal of unity.
Khomyakov and Kireyevsky originally used the term sobor to designate co-operation within the Russian obshchina, united by a set of common convictions and Eastern Orthodox values, as opposed to the cult of individualism in the West. The term "sobor" in Russian has multiple co-related meanings: a "sobor" is the diocesan bishop's "cathedral church"; a "sobor" is also a churchly "gathering" or "assemblage" or "council" reflecting the concept of the Church as an "ecclesium" (ἐκκλησία); in secular civil Russian historical usage is the national "Zemsky Sobor" and various "local/местное" landed or urban "sobors". Khomyakov's concept of the "catholicity" of the Church as "universality", in contrast to that of Rome, reflects the perspective from the root-meaning of the word "liturgy" (λειτουργία), meaning "work of the gathered people".Stylianos Harkianakis
Stylianos Harkianakis (Greek: Στυλιανός Χαρκιανάκης; 29 December 1935 – 25 March 2019) was the Greek Orthodox Archbishop of Australia and Primate of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia. He served as inaugural and permanent Chairman of the Standing Conference of Canonical Orthodox Churches in Australia and Dean of Saint Andrew's Greek Orthodox Theological College. He was a theologian specialising in ecclesiology and also an award-winning poet.
of the faithful