Indoor cycling

Indoor cycling, often also called spinning, as an organized activity, is a form of exercise with classes focusing on endurance, strength, intervals, high intensity (race days) and recovery, and involves using a special stationary exercise bicycle with a weighted flywheel in a classroom setting.

Class content and goals

Home cycling trainer 1897
"All the delight of outdoor cycling enjoyed at home" - article from 1897 describing indoor spin.

Classes generally use specialized stationary bicycles. Features include a mechanical device to modify the difficulty of pedalling, specially shaped handlebars, and multiple adjustment points to fit the bicycle to a range of riders. Many have a weighted flywheel, which simulates the effects of inertia and momentum when riding a real bicycle. The pedals are equipped with toe clips as on sports bicycles to allow one foot to pull up when the other is pushing down. They may alternatively have clipless receptacles for use with cleated cycling shoes. Padded shorts aid comfort and avoid the chafing caused by the sewn seams in underwear.

If the exercise is not done correctly or the rider's position is bad, injuries can occur; problems with the lower back and knees are most common. To avoid injury and aid comfort it is important to make sure the bio-mechanical position of the rider is correct. Group cycling bikes have a wide range of adjustment, and it is essential to obtain the correct setup prior to riding. The seat position must be right for the participant's height. The height of the seat should be in level with the hip when the participant is standing next to the cycle. Horizontally, the seat should be set in order for the front of the knee to be directly in vertical line with the ball of the foot when the pedal is pointing forward.[1][2] This results in a position where the knee is slightly bent at an angle between 25% and 35% when the leg is extended with the foot resting flat at the bottom of the pedal stroke. Handlebar height can be adjusted for comfort; less experienced riders may want to set them higher to ease lower back discomfort. A reasonable reference point is to set it in level with the seat.

Indoor cycling - static bicycle health regimen. United Kingdom

A typical class involves a single instructor at the front of the class who leads the participants through routines that are designed to simulate terrain and situations similar to riding a bike outdoors. Some of the movements and positions include hill climbs, sprints and interval training. A well-trained instructor uses music, motivation, visualization and enthusiastic coaching to lead students through a ride that best suits their fitness level and goals. Most instructors will lead what is called an interval ride, where students will sprint, run, climb, and jump all in the same ride, but there will not be definable pattern to the exercises. In the early 2000s, "terrain-based" classes that simulate outdoor conditions (e.g., wind resistance) were introduced. Terrain-based classes are designed to improve a rider's outdoor skill set and increase endurance while providing an intense cardio-based workout.

Participants set goals based on their heart rate, which can be measured by hand or using a heart rate monitor and ride simulated variations in terrain by altering resistance and cadence. Some participants choose to maintain a moderate, aerobic intensity level, with a heart rate of between 50 and 85% of max while others drive their heart rates higher in intervals of anaerobic activity to levels of between 85 and 92%.

One of the major advantages of indoor cycling is that each participant can exactly control his/her level of intensity to suit ability or fitness level but still remain as a group together. The classes can therefore be heterogeneous. As an alternative, participants can judge their level of exertion relative to a perceived exertion scale. The instructor should advise a recommended exertion scale from 1 (no exertion at all) to 10 (maximum exertion). Each rider is permitted to dictate how hard he/she chooses to work with the instructor providing active and dynamic encouragement together with technical and practical advice throughout the class.[3]

Besides burning (on average) between 300-500 kcal in 60 minutes,[4] indoor cycling also strengthens the muscles of the lower body. It tones the quadriceps and hamstrings, along with working the back and hips. It can be difficult to stay at the moderate level in a class that is geared towards more intensity. The difficulty of the workout is modulated in two ways:

  1. By varying the resistance on a flywheel attached to the pedals. The resistance is controlled by a knob, wheel or lever that the rider operates, causing the flywheel brake (a common bicycle brake, a friction wheel, a magnetic eddy-current brake, a viscoelastic fluid brake, or a strap running around the flywheel) to tighten. On most bikes the brake can be adjusted from completely loose, providing no resistance to pedaling beyond the inertia of the flywheel, to so tight that the rider can not move the pedals. Usually riders who can't pedal at the resistance called out by the instructor are encouraged to ride at a level at which they feel comfortable yet challenged.
  2. By changing the cadence (the speed at which the pedals turn). Pedaling at a higher rate expends more energy than pedaling at a lower rate with the same resistance. Correct cadence is between the range of 80 to 110 RPM for seated flat, standing flat (running) and jumping and 60 to 80 RPM for seated climb, standing climb, running with resistance and jumps on a hill. Sprints are taken under hill resistance building cadence up to no more than 110 RPM. Seated sprints are most suitable as the rider maintains full control of posture at all times and will avoid falling due to exhaustion. A correct sprint should last from 10 to 25 seconds, leaving the rider exhausted in the 85 to 92% max heart rate range.
Typical fixed wheel ergonomically adjustable variable resistance bike

There are five core movements in the Spinning programme.

  • Seated flat, with hands at the center part of the handlebars. This is hand position one. This position should be used only when seated, for flat road simulations and during the warm-up and cool down. Cadence between 80 and 110 RPM.
  • Standing flat (also known as running), with hands wide on the back 12-14" part of the handlebars that crosses the rider's body. This is hand position two. Proper form for standing while running requires the body to be more upright and the back of the legs touching or enveloping the point of the saddle, with the center of gravity directly over the crank. The pressure of body weight should never rest excessively on the handlebars. Cadence is between 80 and 110 RPM
  • Jumps, (also known as lifts), a combination of seated and standing with riders hands at position two for durations of between two and eight seconds. Cadence between 80 and 110 RPM.
  • Seated climb with hands at position two, increased resistance and lower cadence of 60-80 RPM.
  • Standing climb with hands wide and forward so the thumb tips are touching the far end of the handlebars (hand position three). The rider is canted slightly forward so that maximum force can be exerted onto the pedals with heavy resistance and a cadence of 60-80 RPM.

These five movements each work a different part of the body and focus on different leg muscle groups. The rider should always maintain control of the flywheel by having resistance applied and remaining below a cadence of 110 RPM. Not all bikes have a freewheel, or 'smart release', and it is possible that the flywheel will 'run away' with the rider with the potential for causing injury. The rider should be able to maintain perfectly even pedal rotations at high resistance. This becomes difficult below 60 RPM cadence and failing to make 'perfect circles' increases the risk of knee and hip injury. A road cyclist will normally have a natural pedal cadence, of about 85 RPM and will control changes in terrain by changing gear to maintain this rate. The goal of the spinning programme is not to exceed this natural rate by more than 25 RPM higher (110 RPM) or lower (60 RPM) There are five further advanced movements based on those listed above.

  • Running with resistance
  • Jumps on a hill
  • Seated flat sprint
  • Seated hill sprint
  • Standing hill sprint

Most indoor cycling classes are coached with music. Riders may synchronize their pedalling to be in time with the rhythm of the music, thus providing an external stimulus to encourage a certain tempo. Often, the music chosen by the instructor is dance music or rock music set to a dance beat (i.e. 4/4 time), but not necessarily. This tends to help motivate participants to work harder than they might otherwise. The instructor also may choose specific songs for sprints, climbs, and jumps. While the music provides a tempo cue, the cadence does not need to be a multiple of the beat in order for the rider to feel in rhythm; the music therefore helps a rider maintain any constant cadence, not just a cadence that matches the beat. It may depend on the level of exertion whether or not someone changes position or the instructor can tell the class to change.

A variation known as "aqua cycling" or "hydrospinning" also exists. In this, the stationary bicycles are underwater in a pool.[5][6]


Spinning (2)

Early examples of indoor cycling on rollers

Spinning (3)

Stationary bicycle trainer

Lawrence Beesley in the Gymnasticroom.jpeg

Lawrence Beesley in the Gymnastics Room of the Titanic, 1912

See also


  1. ^ "Good advice | BODY BIKE indoor cycles". Retrieved 2017-04-15.
  2. ^ Chapman, Gareth (2017-02-12). "Spin Shoes - Guide to Indoor Cycling Shoes" (PDF). Calories Burned HQ - Zumba Calories Burned, Calories Burned Walking. Retrieved 2017-04-15.
  3. ^ "Spinning Information on Healthline". Archived from the original on 2011-07-11. Retrieved 2011-02-10.
  4. ^ Darling, A. "Be Fit: The Science of Health: Part 2: Exercise: Feel the burn: Which workout is best for you? Andy Darling is your guide." Guardian, The. 2005, January 15: 28.
  5. ^ Landreth, Jenny (21 January 2014). "Hydrospinning: the fitness craze that makes your spin class look easy". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  6. ^ "Aqua cycling: A new underwater workout". Fox News Channel. 29 August 2013. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
2007 UCI Indoor Cycling World Championships

The 2007 UCI Indoor Cycling World Championships took place in Winterthur in switzerland from the 9 to 11 November and crowned world champions in the cycling disciplines of cycle ball and artistic cycling. Germany managed to get all seven gold medals at this championship and won 11 medals in total - including all three in men's single artistic cycling.

The whole event was located in the stadium Eulachhalle, originally the home stadium of the handball club Pfadi Winterthur. It was actually the second indoor cycling world championship held in Winterthur after the one in 1997.

In total 144 athletes out of 21 nations took part in the competition. The participating nations were all from Europe and Asia, except for a Tchad starting Czech team.

Artistic cycling

Artistic cycling is a form of competitive indoor cycling in which athletes perform tricks (called exercises) for points on specialized, fixed-gear bikes in a format similar to ballet or gymnastics. The exercises are performed in front of judges in five-minute rounds by singles, pairs, four- or six-man teams.

Ethias Arena

The Ethias Arena is the largest multipurpose arena in Hasselt, Belgium used for music concerts, sports (tennis, indoor cycling, jumping, etc.) and other large events. The arena opened in September 2004 and holds up to 21,600 people.

The Ethias Arena is a part of the Grenslandhallen and has a surface of 13,600 square meters (44,619 square feet).At the end of 2005, "Plopsa Indoor Hasselt", an indoor attraction park for children, opened next to the Grenslandhallen/Ethias Arena and is unique in Belgium.


Eulachhalle is an arena located in Winterthur, Switzerland. It is primarily used for team handball and is the home arena of Pfadi Winterthur and Yellow Winterthur. Eulachhalle holds 2,300 people.

In 2008, the arena was the host of the finals of the men's and women's EuroFloorball Cup final rounds. The Arena has also twice been the host of the UCI Indoor Cycling World Championships, in 1997 and 2007. At the 2007 world championships there was a record number of 3,280 spectators in the arena.

Eulachhalle also holds regular trade fairs and concerts.

Forest City Velodrome

The Forest City Velodrome is an indoor cycling facility in London, Ontario, Canada. The building was constructed in 1963 as the London Gardens, home to the London Knights ice hockey team. In 1994 it was renamed London Ice House. In early 2005 it was remodeled into the Forest City Velodrome by local cycling enthusiast and track racer Rob Good and Albert Coulier's Apollo Velodrome Systems company.

It is one of two velodromes in Ontario and one of five indoor cycling facilities in all North America.

The Forest City Velodrome is the shortest permanent velodrome in the world, measuring 138 metres with 50-degree bankings and 17-degree straights.

The Forest City Velodrome runs several programs designed to encourage recreational cycling and develop competitive cyclists. Learn to ride programs introduce new riders to track cycling. Organized drills help cyclists hone their skills. Frequent recreational sessions give riders of various skill levels time to ride on the track for fun, fitness and training. Periodic race nights develop racing skills and give spectators the chance to learn about and enjoy track cycling events. In 2013, the track hosted the Ontario Provincial Track Championships.The building that is now called the Forest City Velodrome has gone through many alterations over the years. One of its more famous moments took place in February 1968 when Johnny Cash proposed to June Carter on stage during a performance.

Hollywood Cycle

Hollywood Cycle is an American reality documentary television series that premiered on July 7, 2015, on E! television network. The reality show chronicles both the professional and personal lives of several instructors, including Nichelle Hines, Aaron Hines, and Nick Hounslow, as well as the trainees, who all work at the indoor cycling studio Cycle House in Los Angeles.

Indoor cycling at the 2005 Asian Indoor Games

Indoor cycling (Artistic cycling and Cycle ball) at the 2005 Asian Indoor Games was held in Nimibutr Stadium, Bangkok, Thailand from 14 November to 17 November 2005.

Indoor cycling at the 2007 Asian Indoor Games

Indoor cycling (Artistic cycling and Cycle ball) at the 2007 Asian Indoor Games was held in Luso-Chinese School Pavilion, Macau, China from 26 October to 27 October 2007.

Indoor cycling at the World Games

Indoor cycling, including cycle ball and artistic cycling, were part of the World Games in 1989.

Mandy Ingber

Mandy Ingber (born late 1960s), sometimes credited as Amanda Ingber, is a yoga instructor and a former actress. Before yoga, Ingber became an indoor cycling instructor at the age of 28. In her childhood, she was introduced to yoga by her father before his death. As a yoga instructor, she produced yoga training lessons on DVD, like Yogalosophy. Also, she has taught yoga to celebrities, like actress Jennifer Aniston. To keep fit, besides yoga and indoor cycling, she eats whatever she deems healthy for her body (like smaller meals, fruits, vegetables, and chocolate), does a 45- to 120-minute daily workout five times per week, and alternatively practices walking and an elliptical trainer.In her acting career, Ingber portrayed Annie, wife of Anthony Tortelli and daughter-in-law of his mother Carla, in the television sitcom Cheers and its short-lived spin-off The Tortellis (1987). She played Robin, Baby's "witless cousin", in the short-lived television series adaptation of the film Dirty Dancing.

Her other roles included Enid, Lila Penbrook's (April Lerman) friend, in the first season (1984–85) of Charles in Charge and Polly Goldenberg-Cohen in the 1989 film Teen Witch.

Prospect, Tasmania

Prospect is a small suburb of Launceston.

The Mount Pleasant Laboratories are Tasmanian government laboratories located in Prospect and include:

Diagnostic Services - Researching the Tasmanian devil facial tumor disease

Animal Health Laboratory

Water Microbiology Laboratory

Veterinary Pathology and Fish Microbiology

Seed Laboratory and CertificationA sawmill, stonemason, Tasmanian Independent Retailers state distribution centre dominate the area. There are a number of restaurants and shops along Westbury Road - Prospect's main commercial corridor - including Supa IGA. The Silverdome Complex is a multi use facility incorporating an indoor cycling track, netball courts and concert seating. The home of the Tasmanian Institute of Sport Offices.


SoulCycle is a New York City-based fitness company with studios in 15 U.S. states and 3 studio locations in Canada. Founded in 2006, it offers indoor cycling (Not to be confused with "spinning") workout classes. As of June 2018, SoulCycle has 88 studios in the United States and Canada.


Spin or spinning may refer to:

Wheelspin, spinning the wheels of a vehicle in place

Spin (propaganda), a heavily biased portrayal of an event or situation

Spinning (cycling) or indoor cycling, a form of exercise

Spins, a state of dizziness and disorientation due to intoxication ("the spins")

Spinning (textiles), process to create yarn or thread

Hand spinning, textile art to create yarn by hand

Spinning (cycling)

Spinning is a brand of indoor bicycles and indoor cycling instruction classes distributed and licensed by the American health and fitness company Mad Dogg Athletics. Launched in 1993, the brand has become a popular term to refer to indoor bicycles and indoor cycling fitness classes in the United States and throughout the world. Based on the brand's widespread popularity, it has potentially become a generic term for indoor cycling in the Czech Republic, however, in November 2018, the General Court (European Union) upheld Mad Dogg's rights and found that the brand was not a generic term.

UCI Indoor Cycling World Championships

The UCI Indoor Cycling World Championships are the set of world championship events for the disciplines of artistic cycling and a tournament of cycle ball. The World Championships are regulated by the Union Cycliste Internationale.The UCI awards a gold medal and a rainbow jersey to the winner. Silver and bronze medals are awarded to the second and third place contestants. World champions wear their rainbow jersey until the following year's championship, but they may wear it only in the type of event in which they won it.

UCI World Championships

The UCI world championships are annual competitions promoted by the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) to determine world champion cyclists. They are held in several different styles of racing, in a different country each year. Championship winners wear a white jersey with coloured bands around the chest for the following year. The similarity to the colours of a rainbow gives them the colloquial name of "the rainbow jersey." The first three individuals or teams in each championship win gold, silver and bronze medals. Former world champions are allowed to wear a trim to their collar and sleeves in the same pattern as the rainbow jersey.

Championships are held for men and for women in road cycling, track cycling, cyclo-cross, mountain biking, BMX, and indoor cycling. There are also championships for disabled competitors.

UEC European Champion jersey

The UEC European Champion jersey is the distinctive, identifiable jersey that the winner of a bicycle race receives at European Cycling Championships organized by the European Cycling Union (UEC), such as the European Road Championships and the European Track Championships. The jersey is predominantly blue with gold European stars. The jerseys are awarded in all cycling disciplines, including road cycling, track cycling, cyclo-cross, BMX, mountain biking and indoor cycling. The jerseys are provided by Santini SMS.

Union Cycliste Internationale

The Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI; pronounced [y.njɔ̃ si.klist ɛ̃.tɛʁ.na.sjɔ.nal], English: International Cycling Union) is the world governing body for sports cycling and oversees international competitive cycling events. The UCI is based in Aigle, Switzerland.

The UCI issues racing licenses to riders and enforces disciplinary rules, such as in matters of doping. The UCI also manages the classification of races and the points ranking system in various cycling disciplines including road and track cycling, mountain biking and BMX, for both men and women, amateur and professional. It also oversees the World Championships.

Union Européenne de Cyclisme

The Union Européenne de Cyclisme (abbreviation: UEC, English: European Cycling Union) is the European confederation of national cycling bodies; the national federations of the Union Cycliste Internationale form confederations by continent.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.