The Indonesian Navy (Indonesian: Tentara Nasional Indonesia-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL), literally "Indonesian National Military-Naval Service") was founded on 10 September 1945. Its role is to patrol Indonesia's lengthy coastline, to enforce and patrol the territorial waters and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Indonesia, to protect Indonesia's maritime strategic interests, to protect the islands surrounding Indonesia, and to defend against seaborne threats.
The Indonesian Navy is headed by a Chief of Staff of the Navy (Kepala Staf Angkatan Laut – Kasal). The Indonesian Navy is strengthen by three major fleets known as "Armada" which are Komando Armada I (1st Fleet Command) located in Jakarta, Komando Armada II (2nd Fleet Command) located in Surabaya, Komando Armada III (3rd Fleet Command) located in Sorong, and one Military Sealift Command (Komando Lintas Laut Militer). The Navy also heads the Marine Corps.
All commissioned ships of the TNI-AL have the prefix KRI, standing for Kapal Republik Indonesia (Republic of Indonesia Ship).
Tentara Nasional Indonesia-Angkatan Laut
|Founded||10 September 1945|
|Allegiance||President of Indonesia|
|Size||74,000 active duty personnel|
|Part of||Indonesian National Armed Forces|
(Sanskrit, lit: "Victorious on the Sea")
|Anniversaries||10 September 1945 (founded)|
|Engagements||Battle of Arafura Sea|
Incorporation of West Papua into Indonesia
Indonesian Invasion of East Timor
Insurgency in Aceh
|Commander-in-Chief||President Joko Widodo|
|Chief of Staff||Admiral Siwi Sukma Adji|
|Vice Chief of Staff||Vice Admiral Achmad Taufiqoerrochman(id)|
|Raden Eddy Martadinata|
Naval Aviation Roundel & Fin Flash
According to Law No.34/2004 on the Indonesian National Armed Forces, Article 9, the Navy has the following tasks:
The official Indonesian Navy's history began on 10 September 1945, at the outset of the Indonesian National Revolution. The administration of the early Indonesian government established the People's Marine Security Agency (Badan Keamanan Rakyat Laut/ BKR Laut) on 22 August 1945, the predecessor to the modern Indonesian Navy. BKR Laut with only wooden ships, a few landing craft and weapons left by Japan, was initially composed of Indonesian sailors who had served in the ranks of the Royal Netherlands Navy during the Dutch colonial period, and who had fought the Japanese during the years of military occupation, plus active militias who served with the Japanese and ex-Indonesian officers and ratings of the Imperial Japanese Navy. The formation of the Indonesian military organisation known as the People's Security Army (Tentara Keamanan Rakyat / TKR) on 5 October 1945, at the height of the National Revolution, helped spur the further existence of the TKR Naval Branch – the Peoples' Security Navy (TLKR), which later became the Republic of Indonesia Navy (Angkatan Laut Republik Indonesia/ ALRI). The name ALRI was used until 1970, when it was changed to Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL).
As the revolution grew and the Navy began its work, naval bases were established throughout the archipelago. Former ships of the Imperial Japanese Navy handed down to the new republic were acquired. Simple strength did not discourage the Navy to deploy Sea Traffic Operations in order to spread the news of the proclamation and helping to form and train Republican military forces and militias nationwide. Besides, they also attempted to breach the Dutch naval blockade in order to obtain aid from abroad.
The newly formed navy confronted the more superior Royal Netherlands Navy in Bali, Sibolga and Cirebon. Cross-sea operations are also able to prepare the armed forces in South Kalimantan, Bali and Sulawesi. Limitations in strength and ability to lead the Navy had to divert the struggle in the countryside, after most boats were sunk and nearly all bases battered by the Dutch and Allied military forces. But the determination to participate again in the sea never subsided. In the hard times during the National Revolution the Navy succeeded in forming the Fleet Forces (CA), Marine Corps (Corps Mariniers/ CM), and educational institutions in various places. The formation of these elements mark the presence of aspects for the formation of a modern national navy.
The end of the War of Independence marked the development of the Navy as a modern Navy. In accordance with the results of the Round Table Conference, since 1949, the Navy received a variety of war equipment such as ships – battleships and its various supporting facilities such as Naval Base. This step in the consolidation of the body along with the Navy, revamping the organization and recruitment of personnel through educational institutions before manning naval equipment. During 1949–1959 the Navy managed to enhance the strength and improve its capabilities. In the field of organization the Navy reorganized the Fleet Forces, the Marine Corps – then Korps Komando Operasi Angkatan Laut (KKO-AL – Naval Commando Operations Corps Command), Naval Aviation and a number of Naval Regions as territorial defense command aspects of the sea. Navy combat equipment grew, both from the Dutch and from other various countries.
With the increased strength and the capability, the Navy began refining the strategy, tactics, and techniques of marine operations are directly applied in a variety of military operations in order to deal with separatist movements that have sprung up in the year from 1950 to 1959. In assignment operations PRRI in Sumatra, Permesta , Darul Islam in West Java, and RMS in the Moluccas, the Navy gained lessons in applying the concept of marine operations, amphibious operations, and joint operations with other forces.
At the time of the country started to recover from the threat of disintegration, in 1959, the Navy launched a program known as Menuju Angkatan Laut yang Jaya. The Navy experienced a significant progress until 1965 which was motivated by the politics of confrontation in order to seize West Irian, which Indonesia claimed as part of its territory, a claim refuted by the Dutch government. As part of the increasing military ties between Indonesia and the Warsaw Pact, various naval combat equipment from Eastern European countries strengthened the Navy and become the dominant force at the time. Some military equipment of Soviet production served in the ranks of the Navy, among others Sverdlov-class cruiser, Skoryy-class destroyer, Riga-class frigate, Whiskey-class submarine (the first such vessels to be used in Southeast Asia), Komar-class missile boat, Ilyushin Il-28 long-range bomber aircraft of Naval Aviation and the PT-76 Amphibious light tanks, BTR-50 APCs and BM-13 MRLs (Southeast Asia's first ever MRL system in service) of the Commando Corps, the first of their kind in the region. With such power in the era of the 1960s the Navy was called the largest Navy in Southeast Asia and one of the strongest within the Asia-Pacific, outranking those of its neighbors in armament and prestige.
By January 1962 the Indonesian Navy started preparing a couple of naval operations for the liberation of West Irian known as Operation Trikora, which began on 15 December the year before as part of the military component of that operation under the Mandala Command for the Liberation of West Irian (Komando Mandala Pembebasan Irian Barat) . Beginning 1 January, fast-ship torpedo vessels of the Navy were forward deployed to deal with destroyers, frigates and aircraft of the Royal Netherlands Navy. On January 15, 1962 Commodore Yos Sudarso along with RI Macan Tutul sank in the sea battle in the Arafura Sea. This battle is known as the Vlakke Hoek incident.By mid-year the Navy was preparing to organize its role in the planned Operation Jayawijaya which would be the largest amphibious operation in the history of Indonesian military operations if commenced. The naval component was made up of 100 warships and 16,000 sailors and Marines. The deployment of forces preparatory to the planned landings in West Papua forced the Dutch to return to negotiations and reached an agreement to hand over West Irian to Indonesia.
After seizing West Irian, Sukarno by 1963 moved his sights on Malaysia. Indonesia political confrontation against Neocolonialism and Imperialism (Nekolim) continued in Operation Dwikora to oppose the formation of Malaysia. Although elements of the National Armed Forces were prepared for operational deployments to the new state, the operations were limited to the infiltration operation along the Borneo frontier. Soldiers from the marine corps were involved in the operations which targeted both the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak. The Marine Corps, though, would figure in the 1964 MacDonald House bombing in Singapore.
Operation Dwikora was discontinued in 1965 along with a succession of governments in Indonesia after an abortive coup d'état  took place in Jakarta, which were organized by the self-proclaimed organization of Indonesian National Armed Forces members who, in the early hours of 1 October 1965, assassinated six Indonesian Army generals. Since 1966, the Navy experienced a new chapter in its history as the military integration efforts. With the integration of the armed forces organizationally and operationally been able to keep up on the implementation of tasks in the field of defense and security so doctrinally, the direction of development of the power and capabilities of each branch to be concentrated. The operations were prominent during the period of the 1970s was Operation Seroja in the framework of the integration of East Timor to Indonesia. Navy played an active role in the operation of landings, a joint ground operation, and transporting troops by sea.
Starting the 1980s the Navy began to modernize combat equipment. Ships made in Eastern Europe that has been the core strength of the Navy in the era of the 1960s and 1970s were not suited to meet the growing and changing needs for the navy and its branches (saving for its submarines and several corvettes and frigates, the submarines were retired in 1990). The worsening relations between Indonesia and the Soviet Union after the government of President Sukarno resulted a cessation of military cooperation between the two countries and the Warsaw Pact. Therefore, the Navy switched once more to using Western technology to modernize the power and ability to buy warships, logistics vessels and other major combat equipment from various countries. Included among those commissioned during the Suharto presidency were Fatahillah-class corvette and Van Speijk-class frigate from the Netherlands, Type 209 submarine from West Germany, Fast Patrol boat from South Korea, and the GAF Nomad patrol aircraft from Australia. In 1993 the Navy also received 39 ships from the former Volksmarine (East German Navy), including 13 Parchim Class corvettes, the Frosch-class landing ship tank (LST), and 9 Kondor II-class minessweepers. Aside from these the Navy reorganized its forces. In 1984, as part of an-Armed Forces wide unit reorganization, the former Naval Regions, which in turn governed Naval Bases and Naval Districts and subordinate Naval Stations and Naval Air Stations, were turned into Main Naval Bases of the Navy Fleet Commands, divided from the formerly unified National Fleet Command.
At the same time the Navy began to develop a non-combat military operations in the form of humanitarian service program Surya Bhaskara Jaya in various remote areas in Indonesia that can only be reached by sea. The core of the operating activities are health services, construction and rehabilitation of public facilities and various counseling in health, law, and civil defense. This event is held regularly every year until now. A number of countries also participated in these activities, among others, Singapore, Australia and the United States. The navy also seeks promoting the development of the maritime sector, especially those related to aspects of defense and security at sea, activities that had been present since independence before the formation of the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries. The actual activities undertaken today by the Navy are establishing marine development assessment bodies together with the government and private sectors in some areas, coastal village pilot program are summarized in Coastal Rural Development (Bindesir), and the National Potential Development Program for Maritime Defense (Binpotnaskuatmar). In order to inflame the marine life of the nation, the Navy held an international scale maritime event Arung Samudera 1995. The navy was responsible for the programs for National Maritime Year 1996 and the Bunaken Declaration of 1998, which is a manifestation of marine development in Indonesia.
During the presidencies of Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono and Joko Widodo, the Navy has begun a program of expansion of its combat commands and has begun a program of national warship construction in naval arsenals, while acquiring nationally produced transport aircraft for the needs of the Navy.
According to presidential decree No. 62/ 2016, the organisation structure of the navy comprises the following components:
Each Main Naval Base is organized into a number of naval bases and naval stations plus a number of naval air stations.
In general, specialty corps in the navy can be divided into 3 levels according to detail of specialization and rank, which are officer's corps (general level, usually has special title of "Laut"), NCOs corps (specialized corps, including warrant officers) and enlisted's corps (most specialized corps). All officers regardless of specialty corps wear either peaked caps or specialty coloured berets with their uniforms.
The Indonesian Marine Corps (Indonesian: Korps Marinir) officially known as KORMAR or simply "Marinir", Tentara Nasional Indonesia – Angkatan Laut, ("KORMAR", TNI-AL); officially translated as: Marine Corps, Indonesian Navy is the currently integral part of the Indonesian Navy (TNI-AL) and sized at the military corps level unit as the Naval Infantry and main amphibious warfare force of Indonesia. There are future plans to expand the Indonesian Marine Corps to become an independent, uniformed service branch of its own. It is commanded by a two star marine general. It has three divisions, which are:
The three marine divisions are each led by a one star marine general.
Formed in 31 March 1962, Frogman Commando (Komando Pasukan Katak) or KOPASKA is a Frogman unit of the Indonesian Navy which is considered as one of Indonesia's most elite special forces after the Kopassus from the army. The unit gained notoriety after managed to free the MV Sinar Kudus who was hijacked by Somali pirates on 16 March 2011 without resulting any casualties. The Unit's main duties are underwater demolition (raiding enemy ships and bases), destroying main underwater installations, reconnaissance, prisoner snatches, preparing beaches for larger naval amphibious operations, and counter-terrorism. In peacetime the unit deploys a seven-person team to serve as security personnel for VIPs. Primary among these duties are the escort and personal security of the Indonesian president and vice-president. KOPASKA is organized as a brigade formation of 3 commands, each corresponding to a fleet command of the Navy, each divided into an HQ unit and 6 detachments.
Amphibious reconnaissance battalion (Battalion Intai Amfibi) or Taifib is an elite recon unit within the Indonesian Marine Corps which is tasked for conducting Amphibious reconnaissance and Special reconnaissance. It is operationally similar to the Combat Reconnaissance Platoon (Indonesian: Peleton Intai Tempur, abbreviated "Tontaipur") from the Army's Kostrad corps. Taifib was previously known as "Kipam" (abbreviation from: "Komando Intai Para Amfibi") which literally means in English: the Para-Amphibious reconnaissance Commandos.
They were officially formed on 13 March 1961 as marine commandos. Set at a regimental strength of two battalions, "Taifib" was formed as the elite amphibious reconnaissance unit of the Indonesian Marine Corps. It was first used for conflict management in Irian Jaya (Papua) in April 1962. Starting from November 1971 it was called "Batalyon Intai Amphibi" ("Yon Taifib") or Amphibious Recon Battalion. Today, two force recon battalions are deployed as part of the 1st (Surabaya) and 2nd (Jakarta) Marine Forces.
Jala Mangkara Detachment (Detasemen Jala Mangkara) or Denjaka is the special operations and counter-terrorism forces of the Indonesian Navy. This is a combined detachment formed from selected personnel of the Navy's Underwater Special Unit (Kopaska) and the Marine Corps' Amphibious Reconnaissance Battalion (Taifib). The unit was formed in 1984 by the Chief of the Indonesian Armed Forces to counter maritime strategic threats including terrorism and sabotage. Despite the specific reason for its formation, as in the case of any other special operations forces around the world, the detachment is also fully trained in conducting reconnaissance, unconventional warfare, and clandestine behind-enemy-lines operations. Denjaka's primary task is to develop anti-terrorism, anti-sabotage and other clandestine operations capabilities in support of maritime counter-terrorism, counter-sabotage and other special operations as directed by the commander of the armed forces.
The Indonesian Navy plans to have 151 vessels (minimum), 220 vessels (standard), or 274 vessels (ideal), for which it has a blueprint up to 2024.
In April 2011, PT PAL, in co-operation with Dutch Naval Shipbuilding, started designing a new light frigate for ASW purposes. It will be the largest warship built by PT PAL. The first steel cutting ceremony was held on January 2014 and order for two PKR ships is confirmed. Equipped with VL Mica missiles and Oerlikon Millennium CIWS, these ships are also usable for air defence purposes.
As of June 2011 Indonesia was in the process of choosing submarines from one of three countries: France's Scorpène class, Germany's Type 209 and the South Korean Chang Bogo class Type 209. In December 2011, a contract to build three submarines was signed by Indonesia and Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering (DSME). Two submarines will be built in South Korea in co-operation with Indonesian state-owned shipbuilder PT PAL, while the third will be built at PT Pal's facilities. The contract was worth $1.07 billion and construction was planned to start in January 2012, with delivery expected in 2015 and 2016. The submarines will weigh 1,400 tons and be 61.3 metres (201 ft 1 in) long, with a crew of up to 40 and with 8 weapons tubes for torpedoes and other weapons. The procurement is an effort to keep pace with other countries in the region. The submarines will be based at Palu naval base in Central Sulawesi which is currently under construction.
In January 2012, the Navy confirmed an order for the 24 guided-missile fast boats to be deployed in the shallow waters in the western part of Indonesia and in North Sulawesi which are geographically dotted by small islands and divided by straits. Indonesia now has 8 KCR-40s (Kapal Cepat Rudal 40-meter, literally meaning 40-meters Fast Missile Boat), all in full commission by 20 December 2013. These vessels will be 45 percent locally sourced and are to be designed and built locally. They will cost Rp 73 billion ($7.98 million) each and have a top speed of 30 knots. They will carry Chinese C-705 anti-ship missiles with a range up to 120 kilometres (75 mi), a 6-barreled 30-millimeter close-in weapons system and two 20-millimeters guns. Indonesia has also decided to restart procurement of the Trimaran, Klewang class FMPV(Fast missile patrol vessel), with an initial order of four boats.
The Indonesian Navy is also preparing to acquire three new British built corvettes, classified as Bung Tomo-class corvette, after its leading ship, KRI Bung Tomo (357). They were built for Brunei but rejected for not meeting their requirements, allowing Indonesia to buy them cheaply.
In December 2013, the Indonesian Ministry of Defence stated that the Indonesian Navy planned to buy several used Kilo-class submarines still in commission with the Russian Navy. A team consisting of Indonesian Navy experts was to be sent to Russia to inspect the condition of these future submarines. In March 2014 the procurement was cancelled.
With various coastal radars, Indonesia has one of the world's longest Integrated Maritime Surveillance Systems (IMSS). The network covers more than 1,205 kilometres (749 mi) of coastline in the Straits of Malacca and about 1,285 kilometres (798 mi) of coastline in the Sulawesi Sea.
The Indonesian Navy is one of few navies in the world which use rank titles similar to its Army, except for flag officers and lower-ranking enlisted men. However the Indonesian Marine Corps, which is a branch of the Navy, uses exactly the same rank titles as those of the Army, but still uses Navy-style insignia (for lower-ranking enlisted men, blue are replacing the red colour). Starting 2006, navy personnel assigned abroad are authorized to use foreign service uniform (similar to service dress blues in United States Navy) during their service overseas (e.g. during training exercises), which includes sleeve and cuff insignia.
The proper title to address of rank on official document are as follows, all high-ranking officers (Admiral or Marine General) use their rank followed by "(TNI)", while other officers use their rank followed by respective branch/corps abbreviation. For example, an Navy colonel from fleet forces corps (equivalent to a captain) use the title "Kolonel (Laut P)", while an Navy Vice Admiral from fleet forces corps use the title "Laksamana Madya (TNI)". Warrant officers, NCOs and enlisted seamen may put their respective branch/corps specialty, for example: "Pembantu Letnan Dua SAA" (warrant officer from surface weaponry corps) and "Kelasi Dua TRB" (seaman recruit from torpedo corps). All marine corps personnel, general officers inclusive, use their rank followed by "(Mar)".
Note: Indonesia is not a member of NATO, so there is not an official equivalence between the Indonesian military ranks and those defined by NATO. The displayed parallel is approximate and for illustration purposes only.
|OF-10||OF-9||OF-8||OF-7||OF-6||OF-5||OF-4||OF-3||OF-2||OF-1||OF(D) and student officer|
|Laksamana Besar||Laksamana||Laksamana Madya||Laksamana Muda||Laksamana Pertama||Kolonel||Letnan Kolonel||Mayor||Kapten||Letnan Satu||Letnan Dua|
|Admiral of the Fleet||Admiral||Vice Admiral||Rear Admiral||Commodore||Captain||Commander||Lieutenant Commander||Lieutenant||Lieutenant Junior Grade||Ensign|
|No sleeve insignia|
|Pembantu Letnan Satu||Pembantu Letnan Dua||Sersan Mayor||Sersan Kepala||Sersan Satu||Sersan Dua||Kopral Kepala||Kopral Satu||Kopral Dua||Kelasi Kepala||Kelasi Satu||Kelasi Dua|
|Chief Warrant Officer||Warrant Officer||Master Chief Petty Officer First Class||Master Chief Petty Officer Second Class||Senior Chief Petty Officer||Chief Petty Officer||Petty Officer First Class||Petty Officer Second Class||Petty Officer Third Class||Seaman||Seaman Apprentice||Seaman recruit|