Indigo children

Indigo children, according to a pseudoscientific New Age concept,[1][2][3][4] are children who are believed to possess special, unusual, and sometimes supernatural traits or abilities.[5] The idea is based on concepts developed in the 1970s by Nancy Ann Tappe[6] and further developed by Lee Carroll and Jan Tober. The concept of indigo children gained popular interest with the publication of a series of books in the late 1990s and the release of several films in the following decade. A variety of books, conferences and related materials have been created surrounding belief in the idea of indigo children and their nature and abilities. The interpretations of these beliefs range from their being the next stage in human evolution, in some cases possessing paranormal abilities such as telepathy, to the belief that they are more empathetic and creative than their peers.

No scientific studies give credibility to the existence of indigo children or their traits. Some parents choose to label their children who have been diagnosed with learning disabilities as an indigo child to alternatively diagnose them. Critics view this as a way for parents to avoid considering pediatric treatment or a psychiatric diagnosis. Some lists of traits used to describe indigo children have also been criticized for being vague enough to be applied to most people, a form of the Forer effect.


The term "indigo children" originated with parapsychologist and self-described synesthete and psychic Nancy Ann Tappe, who developed the concept in the 1970s.[7] In 1982 Tappe published a comb-bound[8][9][10][11] which she expanded and republished in paperback in 1986 as Understanding Your Life Thru Color.[8][9][12] In these works Tappe introduced the concept of "life colors",[8][13][14] defined in Understanding Your Life Thru Color as "the single color of the aura that remains constant in most people from the cradle to the grave".[15][16] The concept of "life colors" was popularized nationally by Tappe's student Barbara Bowers,[17][18] who published What Color Is Your Aura?: Personality Spectrums for Understanding and Growth in 1989,[19][20][21] and by Bowers' student Pamala Oslie,[22][18] who published Life Colors: What the Colors in Your Aura Reveal in 1991.[23][24]

Tappe stated that during the late 1960s and early 1970s she began noticing that many children were being born with indigo auras (or, in her terminology, with indigo as their "life color").[10][7][25] The idea was later popularized by the 1998 book The Indigo Children: The New Kids Have Arrived, written by husband and wife self-help lecturers Lee Carroll and Jan Tober.[26][27]

In 2002, the first international conference on indigo children was held in Hawaii, drawing 600 attendees, and there have been subsequent conferences in Florida, Oregon, and elsewhere.[28] Several films have been produced on the subject, including two films by New Age writer James Twyman: a 2003 feature film Indigo and a 2006 documentary The Indigo Evolution.[28]

Sarah W. Whedon suggests in a 2009 article in Nova Religio that the social construction of indigo children is a response to an "apparent crisis of American childhood" in the form of increased youth violence and diagnoses of attention deficit disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Whedon believes parents label their children as "indigo" to provide an alternative explanation for their children's improper behavior stemming from ADD and ADHD.[10]

Claimed characteristics

Descriptions of indigo children include that they:

  • Are empathetic, curious, and strong-willed
  • Are often perceived by friends and family as being strange
  • Possess a clear sense of self-definition and purpose
  • Show a strong innate subconscious spirituality from early childhood (which, however, does not necessarily imply a direct interest in spiritual or religious areas)
  • Have a strong feeling of entitlement, or deserving to be here

Other alleged traits include:[7][26]

According to Tober and Carroll, indigo children may function poorly in conventional schools due to their rejection of rigid authority, their being smarter or more spiritually mature than their teachers, and their lack of response to guilt-, fear- or manipulation-based discipline.[28]

According to research psychologist Russell Barkley, the New Age movement has yet to produce empirical evidence of the existence of indigo children, as the traits most commonly attributed to them are closely aligned with the Forer effect—so vague that they could describe nearly anyone. Many critics see the concept of indigo children as made up of extremely general traits, a sham diagnosis that is an alternative to a medical diagnosis, with a complete lack of science or studies to support it.[7][29]

Indigo as an alternative to diagnosis

Retired professor of philosophy and skeptic Robert Todd Carroll notes that many of the commentators on the indigo phenomenon are of varying qualifications and expertise, and parents may prefer labeling their child an indigo as an alternative to a diagnosis that implies poor parenting, narcissistic parenting, damage,[30] or mental illness.[1] This is a belief echoed by academic psychologists.[29] Some mental health experts are concerned that labeling a disruptive child an "indigo" may delay proper diagnosis and treatment that could help the child or look into the parenting style that may be causing the behavior.[7][28][30] Others have stated that many of the traits of indigo children could be more prosaically interpreted as simple unruliness and alertness.[29]

Relationship to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

Many children labeled indigo by their parents are diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)[29] and Tober and Carroll's book The Indigo Children linked the concept with diagnosis of ADHD.[26] David Cohen points out that labeling a child an indigo is an alternative to a diagnosis that implies mental illness, which may appeal to many parents.[29] Cohen has stated, "The view in medicine is that ADHD is a defect. It's a disorder. If you're a parent, the idea of 'gifted' is much more appealing than the idea of a disorder."[29] Linking the concept of indigo children with the distaste for the use of Ritalin to control ADHD, Robert Todd Carroll states "The hype and near-hysteria surrounding the use of Ritalin has contributed to an atmosphere that makes it possible for a book like Indigo Children to be taken seriously. Given the choice, who wouldn't rather believe their children are special and chosen for some high mission rather than that they have a brain disorder?"[1] Stephen Hinshaw, a professor of psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, states that concerns regarding the overmedicalization of children are legitimate but even gifted children with ADHD learn better with more structure rather than less, even if the structure initially causes difficulties. Many labeled as indigo children are or have been home schooled.[7] Many children labeled as indigo children have the same identifying criteria as those children who have experienced being raised by a narcissistic parent, and are considered to have been emotionally abused.[30]

A 2011 study suggested parents of children with ADHD who label their children as "indigos" may perceive problematic behaviors emblematic of ADHD to be more positive and experience less frustration and disappointment, though they still experience more negative emotions and conflicts than parents of children without a diagnosis.[31]

Relation to autism

Crystal children, a concept related to indigo children, has been linked by autism researcher Mitzi Waltz to the autistic spectrum. Proponents recategorize autistic symptoms as telepathic powers, and attempt to "[reconceptualize] the autistic traits associated with them as part of a positive identity". Waltz states that there may be inherent dangers to these beliefs, leading parents to deny the existence of impairments, avoid proven treatments and spend considerable money on unhelpful interventions. Waltz states that "Parents may also transmit belief systems to the child that are self-aggrandizing, confusing, or potentially frightening".[32]


The concept of indigo children has been criticized for being less about children and their needs, and more about the profits to be made by self-styled experts in book and video sales as well as lucrative counseling sessions, summer camps, conferences and speaking engagements.[28][33]

Discussion as a new religious movement

Nancy Ann Tappe originally noted that one type of Indigo child (the "interdimensional child"), despite being seen as a bully, was expected to lead new religious movements.[3]

One pagan author, Lorna Tedder, anecdotally notes that every pagan woman she knew who had or was going to have a child believed their child was an Indigo child.[34]

S. Zohreh Kermani states that "Despite their problems with authority, uncontrollable tempers, and overbearing egos, Indigo Children are many pagan parents' ideal offspring: sensitive, psychic, and strong willed", but also notes the concept is less about the child's psychic abilities than the parent's own hopes and desire for "distinction from the less-evolved masses."[34]

Daniel Kline, in an essay titled "The New Kids: Indigo Children and New Age Discourse", notes that the magical belief that the innocence of children equates to spiritual powers has existed for centuries, and that the indigo child movement is rooted in a religious rejection of science-based medicine. In particular, he claims that Nancy Ann Tappe derived some of her ideas from Charles Webster Leadbeater (her main innovation being emphasizing the connection between children and the color indigo), and that the New Age adoption of the concept is a reaction against diagnoses of ADD, ADHD, and autism. Kline also discusses how Carroll and Tober have tried to distance themselves from religious beliefs about indigo children in order to maintain control of the concept (even recanting their previous affirmations about auras), and how skeptics and New Agers alike both make rhetorical appeals to science (despite the latter's rejection of it) to legitimize their ideological beliefs regarding the existence of indigo children.[35]

At the 2014 University of Cambridge Festival of Ideas, anthropologist Beth Singler discussed how the term indigo children functioned as a new religious movement, along with Jediism.[36][37] Singler's work focuses in the Indigo movement as a part of an overall discussion on "wider moral panics around children, parenting, the diagnosis of conditions such as ADHD and autism and conspiracy theories about Big Pharma and vaccinations."[38]


  1. ^ a b c Carroll, RT (2009-02-23). "Indigo child". The Skeptic's Dictionary. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
  2. ^ David V. Barrett (26 May 2011). A Brief Guide to Secret Religions: A Complete Guide to Hermetic, Pagan and Esoteric Beliefs. Little, Brown Book Group. pp. 129–. ISBN 978-1-84901-811-1.
  3. ^ a b Witts, Benjamin. "Seeing the Indigo Children". Skeptical Inquirer. Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. Archived from the original on March 28, 2012. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
  4. ^ Tony Monchinski (28 June 2008). Critical Pedagogy and the Everyday Classroom. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 100–. ISBN 978-1-4020-8463-8.
  5. ^ Stenger, Victor J. (June 1998). "Reality Check: the energy fields of life". Committee for Skeptical Inquiry.
  6. ^ "Who was Nancy Tappe?" Retrieved 9 November 2017.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Leland, J (2006-01-12). "Are They Here to Save the World?". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-04-15.
  8. ^ a b c Thomas Arrigo, Savannah. "Indigo glow". Today's Local News. July 2, 2006.
  9. ^ a b Vojtíšek, Zdeněk. "Děti Nového věku". Dingir. No. 4 (2010). p. 146. (Online: [1].)
  10. ^ a b c Whedon, Sarah W. (February 2009). "The Wisdom of Indigo Children: An Emphatic Restatement of the Value of American Children" (PDF). Nova Religio. 12 (3): 60–76. doi:10.1525/nr.2009.12.3.60. Retrieved 2017-11-12.
  11. ^
  12. ^ [Tappe], Nancy Ann (1986). Understanding Your Life Thru Color: Metaphysical Concepts in Color and Aura. Starling Publishers. ISBN 0-940399-00-8.
  13. ^ Mayer, Gerhard; Brutler, Anita."Indigo-Kinder: Wunscherfüllung oder Wahn? Unerwartete Folgen eines Pathologisierungsprozesses". Zeitschrif für Anomalistik. Volume 16 (2016), p. 118. (Link at [3].)
  14. ^ Kline, Daniel. "The New Kids: Indigo Children and New Age Discourse". In: Asprem, Egil; Granholm, Kennet (eds). Contemporary Esotericism. Routledge, 2014. pp. 351–371.
  15. ^ Elinwood, Ellae. "Understanding Your Life Through Color By Nancy Ann Tappe". Sentient Times. February/March 2004.
  16. ^ Carroll, Lee; Tober, Jan. The Indigo Children: The New Kids Have Arrived. Hay House, 1999. p. 6.
  17. ^ Carroll, Lee; Tober, Jan. An Indigo Celebration. Hay House, 2001. p. 117.
  18. ^ a b "Excepts from 'The Indigo’s Reality' by Barbara Bowers". Indigo Life Center. January 12, 2008.
  19. ^ "Aura Colors". Retrieved November 11, 2017.
  20. ^ "What Color is Your Aura?: Personality Spectrums for Understanding and Growth". Publishers Weekly. January 1, 1989.
  21. ^ Bowers, Barbara. What Color is Your Aura?: Personality Spectrums for Understanding and Growth. Pocket Books, 1989. ISBN 978-0-671-66084-0
  22. ^ "Pam’s Story". Retrieved November 11, 2017.
  23. ^ Oslie, Pamela. Life Colors: What the Colors in Your Aura Reveal. New World Library, 1991. ISBN 0931432812
  24. ^ Priyal, V Vaidehi; Ramkumar, N (2014). "Comparative study on individual's performance orientation and their aura life color". International Journal of Yoga: Philosophy, Psychology and Parapsychology. 2 (2): 35–41. doi:10.4103/2347-5633.159126.
  25. ^ Tappe, NA. "All About Indigos - A Nancy Tappe Website". Retrieved 2009-04-15.
  26. ^ a b c Tober J & Carroll LA (1999). The Indigo Children: The New Kids Have Arrived. Light Technology Publishing. ISBN 1-56170-608-6.
  27. ^ Asprem, Egil; Granholm, Kennet (2014). Contemporary Esotericism. Routledge. p. 361. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
  28. ^ a b c d e Hyde, J (2006-03-09). "Little Boy Blue". Dallas Observer. Retrieved 2009-04-15.
  29. ^ a b c d e f Jayson, S (2005-05-31). "Indigo kids: Does the science fly?". USA Today. Retrieved 2007-10-23.
  30. ^ a b c Namka, Lynne (2005). "Selfishness And Narcissism in Family Relationships". Archived from the original on October 1, 2002. Retrieved June 14, 2014.
  31. ^ Lench, H. C.; Levine, L. J.; Whalen, C. K. (2011). "Exasperating or Exceptional? Parents' Interpretations of Their Child's ADHD Behavior". Journal of Attention Disorders. 17 (2): 141–51. doi:10.1177/1087054711427401. PMID 22166469.
  32. ^ Waltz, M. (2009). "From Changelings to Crystal Children: An Examination of 'New Age' Ideas About Autism". Journal of Religion, Disability & Health. 13 (2): 114–128. doi:10.1080/15228960802581511.
  33. ^ Anderson, L (2003-12-01). "Indigo: the color of money". Retrieved 2010-09-24.
  34. ^ a b Kermani, S. Zohreh (2013). Pagan Family Values: Childhood and the Religious Imagination in Contemporary American Paganism. NYU Press. pp. 66–67. ISBN 978-0814769744.
  35. ^ "The New Kids: Indigo Children and New Age Discourse" by Daniel Kline, in Asprem, Egil; Granholm, Kennet (2014). Contemporary Esotericism. Routledge. pp. 351–372. ISBN 978-1317543565.
  36. ^ Have Jedi created a new 'religion'?, By Tom de Castella, BBC News Magazine, 24 October 2014
  37. ^ "Jedi and witches and indigo children! Oh my!". Retrieved 2015-05-01.
  38. ^ Cambridge Faculty of Divinity: Beth Singler Archived 2014-12-05 at the Wayback Machine
"V" Is for Vagina

"V" Is for Vagina is the debut studio album by Maynard James Keenan's side project Puscifer, released on October 30, 2007. The album features a significantly different, electronic sound and arrangements than Keenan's other bands: the progressive Tool and alternative A Perfect Circle. Keenan himself compared the sound of "V" Is for Vagina to "driving around in your car listening to those old Motown hits, James Brown, and cool R&B stuff". "V" is for Vagina has sold 112,000 copies.

"V" Is for Viagra. The Remixes

"V" Is for Viagra. The Remixes is a remix album by Puscifer, a side project of Maynard James Keenan, which was released on April 29, 2008. It contains ten remixes of tracks from the first Puscifer album "V" Is for Vagina, as well as two remixes of the non-album single "Cuntry Boner".

On November, 2008, "Indigo Children" (JLE Dub Mix) and "Momma Sed" (Tandemonium Mix) appeared on the official soundtrack for the video game Need for Speed: Undercover.

An additional track, "Lighten Up, Francis" (JLE Dub Mix) appears on the official soundtrack to the film Underworld: Rise of the Lycans.

"V" Is for Viagra has sold 23,000 copies.


Aarohi is the annual cultural festival (Cultfest) of Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur, India. It is the most anticipated youth event of the year in Central India.

It is a week-long event organised every year, usually, during winter in late February. It was started by the pioneer batch of 1988 in VNIT, which was formally known as the Visvesvaraya Regional College of Engineering.

Each year, Aarohi boasts of a multitude of participants in its various contests. The festival is completely student-organized and reputed firms sponsor the event each year. The main event runs for 3 days, while the elimination rounds for various contests begin a week in advance. Cultural Night acts as the curtain raiser and the proceeds of the event go to a charitable institute. Events include a Personality Contest, Singing, Quiz, Debate, Band Contest etc. This festival receives more than 3000 viewers every year. Out of the above, the Band Contest-Purple Haze is the flagship event of Aarohi attracting highest number of viewers and participants from all over the city.

Aarohi 09 saw Shor Bazaar and Indigo Children, (formerly The Superfuzz, ) performing in front of a capacity crowd of 2000.

Aarohi 11 saw Faridkot

Also Amit Kumar and Sumit Kumar performed at cult Nite- the curtain raiser to Aarohi.

Alien implants

Alien implants is a term used in ufology to describe a physical object placed in someone's body after they have been abducted by aliens. Claimed capabilities of the implants range from telepresence to mind control to biotelemetry (the latter akin to humans tagging wild animals for study). As with UFO subjects in general, the idea of "alien implants" has seen very little attention from mainstream scientists.

Annabelle (doll)

Annabelle is a fictional character in the The Conjuring Universe, an American horror film franchise. The character, a haunted doll, is based on accounts by paranormal investigators and authors Ed and Lorraine Warren. Annabelle first appeared in the 2013 film The Conjuring.

Doktor Koster's Antigaspills

Doktor Koster's Antigaspills were an early 20th century alternative medication intended to treat stomach upset and excessive flatulence. They are best known for being administered to Adolf Hitler by his physician, Theodor Morell, to treat Hitler's stomach ailments. Morrell, regarded as a quack by Hitler's associates, administered a wide variety of unorthodox concoctions and medications to Hitler beginning in 1936.The pills active ingredients consisted primarily of atropine (an extract of Atropa belladonna) and strychnine.

Energy (esotericism)

The term "energy" is used by writers and practitioners of various esoteric forms of spirituality and alternative medicine to refer to a variety of claimed experiences and phenomena that defy measurement and thus can be distinguished from the scientific form of energy. There is no scientific evidence for the existence of such energy.Therapies that purport to use, modify, or manipulate unknown energies are thus among the most contentious of all complementary and alternative medicines. Claims related to energy therapies are most often anecdotal (from single stories), rather than being based on repeatable empirical evidence.

Extrasensory perception

Extrasensory perception or ESP, also called sixth sense, includes claimed reception of information not gained through the recognized physical senses, but sensed with the mind. The term was adopted by Duke University psychologist J. B. Rhine to denote psychic abilities such as intuition, telepathy, psychometry, clairvoyance, and their trans-temporal operation as precognition or retrocognition.Second sight is a form of extrasensory perception, the power to perceive things that are not present to the 5 senses, whereby a person perceives information, in the form of a vision, about future events before they happen (precognition), or about things or events at remote locations (remote viewing). There is no scientific evidence that second sight exists. Reports of second sight are known only from anecdotal evidence given after the fact.

Fear of ghosts

The fear of ghosts in many human cultures is based on beliefs that some ghosts may be malevolent towards people and dangerous (within the range of all possible attitudes, including mischievous, benign, indifferent, etc.). It is related to fear of the dark.

The fear of ghosts is sometimes referred to as phasmophobia and erroneously spectrophobia, the latter being an established term for fear of mirrors and one's own reflections.

Indigo (film)

Indigo is a 2003 American fantasy drama film produced and directed by Stephen Deutsch (credited as Stephen Simon). The film deals with the supposed phenomenon of "indigo children" — a set of children alleged to have certain "special psychological and spiritual attributes". Its release was sponsored by the Spiritual Cinema Circle, a DVD club that mails spiritually themed films to subscribers each month.

Indigo Children (film)

Indigo Children is a 2012 American drama film about the romance between two teenagers based on the concept that some children possess special faculties. This concept is known as indigo children. Directed by Eric Chaney, this film was inspired by the first girl he ever loved.

Juice fasting

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This diet is sometimes promoted with implausible and unsubstantiated claims about its health benefits.

Lee Carroll

Lee Carroll is an American channeller, speaker and author. Carroll has authored thirteen books on channellings from an entity he calls "Kryon", and has co-authored three books on what he terms indigo children, a new generation of children he says represents an evolution in human consciousness.

List of New Age topics

This article contains a list of New Age topics that are too extensive to include in its main article New Age; further information may be found at Category:New Age.

Paranormal fiction

Paranormal fiction is a genre of fiction whose storylines revolve around the paranormal.

Star people (New Age belief)

Star people (also known as starseeds and sometimes indigo children) is a New Age belief and fringe theory. Introduced by Brad Steiger in his 1976 book Gods of Aquarius, it argues that certain people originated as extraterrestrials and arrived on Earth through birth or as a walk-in to an existing human body. It is a variant of the belief in alien-human hybrids. There are many different beliefs as to the origins of star people or starseeds. The term "star people" was taken from an existing Native American spiritual concept.


Starchild or Star Child may refer to:


Starchild Productions, a Sydney-based production company

StarChild, the anime production and soundtrack imprint of the Japanese firm King RecordsFolklore and fictional characters:

In folklore and fiction, a kind of changeling or foundling, a child seemingly having fallen from the stars and not of ordinary human descent (as in Oscar Wilde's story mentioned below)

Inspired by this, the pseudoscientific New Age concept of indigo children and the New Age belief in star people

Starchild (comics), a comic book series and character

The Star Child, the entity main character David Bowman is transformed into at the ending of 2001: A Space Odyssey

The English translation of Superman's Kryptonian name (Kal-El)Music:

"Starchild", a Star One song from the 2003 album Space Metal

"Starchild", a Wintersun song from the 2004 album Wintersun

"Starchild", a Freedom Call song from the 2005 album The Circle of Life

"Starchild", a Jamiroquai song from the 2005 album Dynamite

Starchild (band), a Canadian band

Starchild (O.C. album), 2005

"Starchild" (song), a song by Level 42

Starchild (Teena Marie album), 1984

"Mothership Connection (Star Child)", a 1976 song by the band Parliament originally released as "Star Child"Novels and short works:

Star Child, a 1998 science fiction novel by James P. Hogan

Star Child, a novel by Fred Mustard Stewart

"The Star-Child", a story in the A House of Pomegranates collection by Oscar Wilde

Starchild Trilogy by Frederik Pohl and Jack WilliamsonPeople:

Starchild, alter ego of rocker Paul Stanley

Starchild, alter ego of funk musician Garry Shider (1953–2010)

Starchild Abraham Cherrix, a juvenile cancer patient in the USA

Adam Starchild, writer and fraudster

Zak Bagans

Zachary Alexander Bagans (born April 5, 1977) is an American paranormal investigator, actor, television personality, and author. He is the principal host of the Travel Channel series, Ghost Adventures.

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