Indianapolis Times

The Indianapolis Times was an evening newspaper that served the city of Indianapolis, Indiana, from 1878 to 1965 when the paper ceased publishing.

Under the leadership of editor Boyd Gurley, the Indianapolis Times received a Pulitzer Prize in 1928 for Public Service after it successfully exposed Ku Klux Klan involvement in state politics under powerful Indiana Grand Dragon D.C. Stephenson.[1]

The Indianapolis Times began as the Indianapolis Sun in 1878 and ceased publication on October 11, 1965. At the time of its demise, the paper was owned by Scripps-Howard. There is a historical marker located at the site of the Times building in the 300 block W. Maryland Street at Capitol Avenue in downtown Indianapolis. The Times building is long gone, but the marker honors the location.[2]


  1. ^ The Stephenson Trial prospectus Archived January 30, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ "The Indianapolis Times". Indiana Historical Bureau. Retrieved April 13, 2015.
1928 Pulitzer Prize

The following are the Pulitzer Prizes for 1928.


Antheraea is a moth genus belonging to the family Saturniidae. The genus was erected by Jacob Hübner in 1819. Several species of this genus have caterpillars which produce wild silk of commercial importance. Commonly called "tussar silk", the moths are named tussar moths after the fabric.

Broad Ripple Park Carousel

Broad Ripple Park Carousel is an antique carousel in The Children's Museum of Indianapolis. It was installed in 1917 at an amusement park near the White River in Indianapolis, Indiana, where it remained until the building housing it collapsed in 1956. The ride's mechanism was destroyed, but the animals were relatively unscathed and put into storage by the park's owners, the Indianapolis Department of Parks and Recreation. The animals were carved by the Dentzel Carousel Company some time before 1900 but were assembled by the William F. Mangels carousel company, which also supplied the engine powering the ride.

The Children's Museum of Indianapolis acquired its first two carved animals from the ride in 1965, and the last few wooden animals in 1973. The museum planned to sell some to finance the restoration of others until the director of the museum, Mildred Compton, was convinced by carousel enthusiasts that the museum should instead restore all the animals and recreate the working carousel. Restoration of the carved animals began in 1966 and was only finished with the restoration of the entire carousel in 1977. No space had been allocated for the display of such a large exhibit in the museum's planned new building, which meant some re-designing was necessary to allow its installation on the fifth floor. A 1919 Wurlitzer band organ model #146-B, a type manufactured only for carousels, was also installed. As restored, the carousel is 42 feet (13 meters) wide and has a total of 42 animals, including – as well as the usual horses – goats, giraffes, deer, a lion, and a tiger. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1987.

Chinese Exclusion Act

The Chinese Exclusion Act was a United States federal law signed by President Chester A. Arthur on May 6, 1882, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers. Building on the 1875 Page Act, which banned Chinese women from immigrating to the United States, the Chinese Exclusion Act was the first law implemented to prevent all members of a specific ethnic or national group from immigrating.

The act followed the Angell Treaty of 1880, a set of revisions to the U.S.–China Burlingame Treaty of 1868 that allowed the U.S. to suspend Chinese immigration. The act was initially intended to last for 10 years, but was renewed in 1892 with the Geary Act and made permanent in 1902. It was repealed by the Magnuson Act on December 17, 1943, which allowed 105 Chinese to enter per year. Chinese immigration later increased with the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, which abolished direct racial barriers, and later by Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, which abolished the National Origins Formula.

D. C. Stephenson

David Curtiss "Steve" Stephenson (August 21, 1891 – June 28, 1966) was a convicted murderer and rapist, who in 1923 was appointed Grand Dragon (state leader) of the branch of the Ku Klux Klan in Indiana and head of Klan recruiting for seven other states. Later that year, he led those groups to independence from the national KKK organization. Amassing wealth and political power in Indiana politics, he was one of the most prominent national Klan leaders. "He was viewed as responsible for reviving the Klan and widening its base, and considered the most powerful man in Indiana". He had close relationships with numerous Indiana politicians, especially Governor Edward L. Jackson.

In 1925 Stephenson was tried and convicted (Stephenson v. State) for the notorious abduction, rape, and murder of a young white woman, Madge Oberholtzer, a state education official. His trial, conviction and imprisonment ended the portrayal of Klan leaders as law abiding. "The case and its fallout effectively destroyed the Klan in Indiana, and it may have reversed its ascendency as a national political force." Denied a pardon by Governor Jackson, in 1927 he started talking with reporters for the Indianapolis Times and released a list of elected and other officials who had been in the pay of the Klan. This led to a wave of indictments in Indiana, more national scandals, the rapid loss of tens of thousands of members, and the end of the second wave of Klan activity in the late 1920s.

E. W. Scripps Company

The E. W. Scripps Company is an American broadcasting company founded in 1878 as a chain of daily newspapers by Edward Willis "E. W." Scripps. It was also formerly a media conglomerate. The company is headquartered inside the Scripps Center in Cincinnati, Ohio. Its corporate motto is "Give light and the people will find their own way."

Frances Elizabeth Willard (relief)

Frances Elizabeth Willard is a public artwork designed by American artist Lorado Taft, located in the rotunda of the Indiana State House, in Indianapolis, Indiana, United States. It is a bronze plaque, given by the Women's Christian Temperance Union, commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of Frances Elizabeth Willard's election as President of the WCTU.

Indiana Klan

The Indiana Klan was a branch of the Ku Klux Klan, a secret society in the United States that organized in 1915 to affect public affairs on issues of Prohibition, education, political corruption, and morality. It was strongly white supremacist not just against African Americans, but also Catholics and Jews, whose faith were commonly associated with Irish, Italian, Balkan, and Slavic immigrants and their descendants. In Indiana, the Klan generally did not practice overt violence but used intimidation in certain cases, whereas nationally the organization practiced political acts against minority ethnic and religious groups.

The Indiana Klan rose to prominence beginning in the early 1920s after World War I, when ethnic Protestants felt threatened by social and political issues, including changes caused by decades of heavy immigration from southern and eastern Europe. By 1922 the state had the largest organization nationally, and its membership continued to increase dramatically under the leadership of D.C. Stephenson. It averaged 2,000 new members per week from July 1922 to July 1923, when he was appointed as the Grand Dragon of Indiana. He led the Indiana Klan and other chapters he supervised to break away from the national organization in late 1923.

Indiana's Klan organization reached its peak of power in the following years, when it had 250,000 members, an estimated 30% of native-born white men. By 1925 over half the elected members of the Indiana General Assembly, the Governor of Indiana, and many other high-ranking officials in local and state government were members of the Klan. Politicians had also learned they needed Klan endorsement to win office.

That year Stephenson was charged and convicted for the rape and murder of Madge Oberholtzer, a young schoolteacher. His vile behavior caused a sharp drop in Klan membership, which decreased further with his exposure to the press of secret deals and the Klan's bribery of public officials. Denied pardon, in 1927 Stephenson began to talk to the Indianapolis Times, giving them lists of people who had been paid by the Klan. Their press investigation exposed many Klan members, showed they were not law-abiding, and ended the power of the organization, as members dropped out by the tens of thousands. By the end of the decade, the Klan was down to about 4,000 members and finished in the state. Efforts by some to revive it in the period of the 1960s and 1970s were not successful.

Indiana big school football champions

Better known for its high school basketball, Indiana high school football has also been a staple of Hoosier weekends for more than 100 years. In 1930, more than 30,000 people jammed Notre Dame Stadium to watch Mishawaka beat undefeated South Bend Central, 6-0. At the time, it was one of the largest crowds ever to witness a high school football game in America. Indiana High School football is still immensely popular, with tens of thousands now packing Lucas Oil Stadium in Indianapolis to watch six state championship games over two days in November. The following is a history of Indiana's big school state football championship.

Indianapolis Indians

The Indianapolis Indians are a professional Minor League Baseball team based in Indianapolis, Indiana. The team plays in the International League. The Triple-A affiliate of the Pittsburgh Pirates, the Indians play at Victory Field in downtown Indianapolis. The team's mascot is Rowdie the Bear.

Founded in 1902, the Indianapolis Indians are the second-oldest minor league franchise in American professional baseball (after the Rochester Red Wings). The 1902 and 1948 Indians were recognized as being among the 100 greatest minor league teams of all time.

List of newspapers in Indiana

This is a list of newspapers in Indiana.

Lorado Taft

Lorado Zadok Taft (April 29, 1860 – October 30, 1936) was an American sculptor, writer and educator. Taft was born in Elmwood, Illinois, in 1860 and died in his home studio in Chicago in 1936. Taft was the father of US Representative Emily Taft Douglas, father-in-law to her husband, US Senator Paul Douglas, and a distant relative of US President William Howard Taft.

Lowell Nussbaum

Lowell Nussbaum (born November 6, 1901 – November 22, 1987) was a professional journalist whose The Things I Hear column ran in The Indianapolis Star newspaper from 1945 to 1971. He was inducted into the Indiana Journalism Hall of Fame during his lifetime.

Nativism (politics)

Nativism is the political policy of promoting the interests of native inhabitants against those of immigrants, including by supporting immigration-restriction measures.In scholarly studies nativism is a standard technical term. Those who hold this political view, however, do not typically accept the label. Dindar (2009) wrote, "nativists... do not consider themselves as nativists. For them it is a negative term and they rather consider themselves as 'Patriots'".

Pulitzer Prize for Public Service

The Pulitzer Prize for Public Service is one of the fourteen American Pulitzer Prizes annually awarded for journalism. It recognizes a distinguished example of meritorious public service by a newspaper or news site through the use of its journalistic resources, which may include editorials, cartoons, photographs, graphics, video and other online material, and may be presented in print or online or both.

The Public Service prize was one of the original Pulitzers, established in 1917, but no award was given that year. It is the only prize in the program that awards a gold medal and is the most prestigious one for a newspaper to win.

As with other Pulitzer Prizes, a committee of jurors narrows the field to three nominees, from which the Pulitzer Board generally picks a winner and finalists. Finalists have been made public since 1980. The Pulitzer Board issues an official citation explaining the reason for the award.

Sherman Minton (bust)

The bust of Sherman Minton is a public artwork by American artist Robert Merrell Gage, located on the main floor of the Indiana Statehouse, which is in Indianapolis, Indiana, United States. Cast in bronze in 1956, it was commissioned to honor politician and Indiana native Sherman Minton.

Ted Knap

Ted Knap (born May 26, 1920) is an American journalist.

Thaddeus L. (Ted) Knap, is perhaps best known for having been included on Nixon's enemies list despite his belief that "I thought Nixon, except for Watergate (a huge caveat), was a good president.”

Knap was chief political writer and White House correspondent for Scripps Howard News Service. He covered five presidents, five presidential campaigns, and fourteen national political conventions (not counting the 1936 Democratic convention in Chicago that he covered for his high school newspaper). He went to Vietnam with Johnson, to Moscow with Nixon, to China with Ford, around the world with Carter, to Europe and the Vatican with Reagan and on July 24, 1969 witnessed, from the deck of the USS Hornet, the Pacific splashdown of the first astronauts to step on the moon.

Also, Knap had breakfast with Princess Grace in Monaco, lunch with Shirley Temple Black in Washington, drinks with Shirley MacLaine in New Hampshire while covering the 1968 presidential primaries, chatted with Elizabeth Taylor backstage at a Gridiron Club dinner (she was married to Sen. John Warner of Virginia at the time), spoke Polish with Pope John Paul II in the White House, and interviewed Eleanor Roosevelt (twice), Brooke Shields, and former heavyweight boxing champions Jack Dempsey and Rocky Marciano. Before dawn on a cold November 25, 1963, Knap went to the Capitol grounds to interview people waiting to view President Kennedy's casket in the Rotunda. There he met another ex-champ, Jersey Joe Walcott. On a hot August 28, 1963, Knap joined the civil rights march from the Washington Monument to the Lincoln Memorial, where he covered Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I have a dream" speech.

"And I got paid to do all that," Knap exclaimed.

Knap was born in Milwaukee on May 26, 1920 of Polish immigrant parents whose five children were the first in their factory-workers' neighborhood to go to college. He graduated from Marquette University in 1940 with a Bachelor of Philosophy degree in journalism.

Before and after serving in the United States Army for four years during World War II, Knap worked for six years for the Waukesha, Wisconsin Daily Freeman as a reporter and then as city editor. He moved to Indianapolis in 1950, where he went to work for the Indianapolis Times, a Scripps Howard newspaper. He became the Times' star reporter, winning numerous awards and, among other things, exposing a major highway scandal that sent three state officials to prison.

After almost 13 years in Indianapolis, Knap was sent to Washington as correspondent for the Indianapolis Times and the Evansville (Indiana) Press, another Scripps Howard paper. Three years later, in 1966, he was promoted to the Scripps Howard national staff. Knap was president of the White House Correspondents Association in 1973–74, a turbulent period that included Watergate, impeachment proceedings, resignation, pardon, and a new president.

Knap caused some controversy over one White House dinner when, with Vice President Ford attending, he proposed a toast to "the President and Vice President." This violated the tradition of toasting the President alone, but Knap wished to avoid the scandal that might have occurred if a toast to President Nixon alone brought boos from the hard-drinking crowd.

In 1973 Knap began the weekly "White House Watch" column, now written by his successor as Scripps Howard's White House correspondent, and syndicated to more than 400 newspapers.

In May 1972, Nixon spent a week in the Kremlin negotiating the first nuclear arms reduction treaty with Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev. When agreement was finally reached, Secretary of State Henry Kissinger briefed the press at midnight in a Moscow nightclub that had been converted into press headquarters. When Knap finished writing at 4 a.m., he saw daylight breaking and realized that "I had worked straight through my birthday—and the loudspeaker announced that the press bus was leaving at 5 o'clock for the flight to Leningrad.”

Knap has stated that he doesn't know how he got on Nixon's enemies list, "not that I mind." Patrick Buchanan, Nixon's speech writer, told Knap that he should have been supportive of Nixon because Scripps Howard had endorsed Nixon. Alternatively, according to Knap, "it may have been because I pestered Nixon at every opportunity with questions about his so-called 'secret plan' to end the war in Vietnam; I finally concluded that it was simply 'declare victory and get out.'" Nevertheless, Knap gave Nixon credit in his column for foreign policy (the open door to China), national security (the START treaty) and several progressive domestic issues, including the Clean Air Act, the Environmental Protection Agency, and federal aid to education, "which previously had been anathema to Republicans." In Knap's opinion "Nixon, unlike Reagan, thought government could be the solution.”

On Knap's den wall today are pictures of him with nine presidents, from Truman to George H.W. Bush, not all of whom were president at the time of the photograph. Also on the wall is a picture of Knap and Nixon sitting on the back steps of the Behrens Spa Hotel in Waukesha in 1950. Nixon had just made his "pumpkin papers" speech (concerning Whittaker Chambers, Alger Hiss, and allegations of spying for the Soviet Union, using secret microfilms hidden in a pumpkin patch) and Knap wanted him to go over some details of that story. Another picture shows Knap and Nixon 23 years later at a White House Correspondents' Dinner.

Honors and awards include induction into the Indiana Journalism Hall of Fame in 2007, the American Political Science Association (twice), the Marquette University By-Line Award, Sigma Delta Chi fraternity, and Indianapolis Press Club reporting awards.

Knap was married to Eleanore Knoebel of Waukesha, WI, who died in 2011.

Knap retired in 1985 and has continued his devotion to golf. He won the Seniors' Championship at the International Country Club (Virginia) three times. At other courses, he broke 70 twice in a row. In other athletic triumphs, Knap scored what he claims was the winning goal for Marquette University in a hockey game against the University of Wisconsin in 1939. He lives in McLean, Virginia.

Ted Knap's older brother was Tony Knap, American football coach, who died in October 2011, at age 96.

Theo Wilson

Theo Wilson (May 22, 1917 – January 17, 1997) was a reporter best known for her coverage of high-profile court cases for the Daily News of New York. Among others, she reported on the trials of Sam Sheppard, Patty Hearst, Sirhan Sirhan, Charles Manson, Jack Ruby, Angela Davis, David “Son of Sam” Berkowitz and Claus von Bulow.She was born in New York City as Theodora Nadelstein on May 22, 1917 to parents Adolph and Rebecca Nadelstein. Adolph was the founder of Nadelstein Press. Her early publications include a story on the family's pet monkey for a national magazine, published when she was eight years old, and numerous poems, short stories, plays, and articles produced at Girls High School in Brooklyn. At the University of Kentucky, she worked at The Kentucky Kernel as a columnist and associate editor. After graduating Phi Beta Kappa in 1937, she was hired by the Evansville Press in Indiana and was soon promoted to the position of tri-state editor. After working in Evansville, she moved to Indianapolis to marry television newscaster Bob Wilson and got a job on the Indianapolis Times. She later worked at the News Leader in Richmond, Virginia, where she began reporting on court cases, then at the Associated Press bureau in Philadelphia and the Philadelphia Bulletin before she and her husband moved back to her hometown of New York in 1952 and she was hired at the Daily News.

She covered many major trials for the Daily News, with enough of them taking place in California that the paper suggested she open a West Coast bureau. The Los Angeles bureau opened in 1973 with Wilson as the primary correspondent. One problem that arose for her in Southern California was that like many New Yorkers, she did not drive. In 1976, when a school bus driver and the 26 children in his care were kidnapped in a small town 200 miles north of Los Angeles, she hailed a taxi to take her there.Following changes at the Daily News, Wilson accepted a buyout in 1982. She continued to write as a freelance journalist, covering trials for newspapers and cable television shows.Wilson divorced Bob Wilson in 1960. They had a son, Delph, born in 1946. She later developed a relationship with fellow journalist Doc Quigg.Her memoir, Headline Justice, was published in 1996. She died on January 17, 1997, in Los Angeles from a cerebral hemorrhage.Theo Wilson Square, an intersection in the Hollywood Heights neighborhood of Los Angeles where she lived for 25 years, was commemorated in 1997.

Workingmen's Party of California

The Workingmen's Party of California (WPC) was an American labor organization, founded in 1877 and led by Denis Kearney, J.G Day and H. L. Knight.

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