Indian national calendar

The Indian national calendar, sometimes called the Shalivahana Shaka calendar. It is used, alongside the Gregorian calendar, by The Gazette of India, in news broadcasts by All India Radio and in calendars and communications issued by the Government of India.[1] The Saka calendar is also used in Java and Bali among Indonesian Hindus. Nyepi, the "Day of Silence", is a celebration of the Saka new year in Bali. Nepal's Nepal Sambat evolved from the Saka calendar. Prior to colonization, the Philippines used to apply the Saka calendar as well as suggested by the Laguna Copperplate Inscription.

The term may also ambiguously refer to the Hindu calendar; the Shalivahana era is also commonly used by other calendars.

The historic Shalivahana era calendar is still widely used. It has years that are solar

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Mohar of Gorkha king Prithvi Narayan Shah dated Saka era 1685 (AD 1763)

Calendar structure

The calendar months follow the signs of the tropical zodiac rather than the sidereal zodiac normally used with the Hindu calendar.

# Month (Sanskrit) Length Start date (Gregorian) Tropical zodiac Tropical zodiac (Sanskrit)
1 Chaitra 30/31 March 22/21 Aries Meṣa
2 Vaishākha 31 April 21 Taurus Vṛṣabha
3 Jyēshtha 31 May 22 Gemini Mithuna
4 Āshādha 31 June 22 Cancer Karkata
5 Shrāvana 31 July 23 Leo simha
6 Bhaadra 31 August 23 Virgo Kanyā
7 Āshwin 30 September 23 Libra Tulā
8 Kārtika 30 October 23 Scorpio Vṛścik‌‌‌a
9 Agrahayana 30 November 22 Sagitarius Dhanur
10 Pausha 30 December 22 Capricorn Makara
11 Māgha 30 January 21 Aquarius Kumbha
12 Phalguna 30 February 20 Pisces Mīna

Chaitra has 30 days and starts on March 22, except in leap years, when it has 31 days and starts on March 21. The months in the first half of the year all have 31 days, to take into account the slower movement of the sun across the ecliptic at this time.

The names of the months are derived from older, Hindu lunisolar calendars, so variations in spelling exist, and there is a possible source of confusion as to what calendar a date belongs to.

Years are counted in the Saka era, which starts its year 0 in the year 78 of the Common Era. To determine leap years, add 78 to the Saka year – if the result is a leap year in the Gregorian calendar, then the Saka year is a leap year as well. Its structure is just like the Persian calendar.

Adoption

Senior Indian Astrophysicist Meghnad Saha was the head of the Calendar Reform Committee under the aegis of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. Other members of the Committee were: A. C. Banerjee, K. K. Daftari, J. S. Karandikar, Gorakh Prasad, R. V. Vaidya and N. C. Lahiri. It was Saha's effort, which led to the formation of the Committee. The task before the Committee was to prepare an accurate calendar based on scientific study, which could be adopted uniformly throughout India. It was a mammoth task. The Committee had to undertake a detailed study of different calendars prevalent in different parts of the country. There were thirty different calendars. The task was further complicated by the fact that religion and local sentiments were integral to those calendars. India's first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, in his preface to the Report of the Committee, published in 1955, wrote: “They (different calendars) represent past political divisions in the country ... . Now that we have attained Independence, it is obviously desirable that there should be a certain uniformity in the calendar for our civic, social, and other purposes, and this should be done on a scientific approach to this problem.” [2]

Usage started officially at 1 Chaitra 1879, Saka Era, or 22 March 1957.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Government Holiday Calendar". Govt. of India Official website.
  2. ^ Meghnad Saha Archived 2015-02-23 at the Wayback Machine
  • Report of the Calendar Reform Committee (New Delhi: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, 1955) – online link.
  • Mapping Time: The Calendar and its History by E.G. Richards (ISBN 978-0-19-286205-1), 1998, pp. 184–185.

External links

Ashvin

Ashwin or Ashvin (; Nepali: आश्विन , असोज, Bengali: আশ্বিন; Hindi: अश्विन; Malay/Indonesian: Aswin; Thai: Asawin), also known as Aswayuja, is the seventh month of the lunisolar Hindu calendar, the Vikram Samvat, which is the official solar calendar of Nepal and the parts of India. It is the sixth month in the solar Bengali calendar and seventh in the lunar Indian national calendar of the Deccan Plateau. It falls in the season of Shôrot, (Hindi Sharad) or Autumn. In Vedic Jyotish, Ashwin begins with the Sun's enter in Virgo.

It overlaps September and October of the Gregorian calendar and is the month preceding Diwali or Tihar the festival of lights. In lunar religious calendars, Ashwin begins on the new moon after the autumn equinox.

Assu

Assu is the seventh month of the Nanakshahi calendar, which governs the Sikh tradition. This month coincides with Ashvin in the Hindu calendar and the Indian national calendar, and September and October in the Gregorian and Julian calendars and is 30 days long.

Bhadon

Bhadon (Punjabi: ਭਾਦੋਂ, Bengali: ভাদ্র, Vaadro) is the sixth month of the Nanakshahi calendar and Punjabi calendar. This month coincides with Bhadra in the Hindu calendar and the Indian national calendar, and August and September in the Gregorian and Julian calendars and is 31 days long.

Chet (month)

Chet (Punjabi: ਚੇਤ) is a first month of the Nanakshahi calendar, which govern the activities within Sikhism. This month coincides with This month coincides with Chaitra in the Hindu calendar and the Indian national calendar, and March and April in the Gregorian and Julian calendars and is 31 days long. Also during this month, the second son of Guru Gobind Singh, Sahibzada Jujhar Singh was born on 9 April 1691.

Harh

Harh (Punjabi: ਹਾੜ) is the fourth month of the Nanakshahi calendar. This month coincides with This month coincides with Ashadha in the Hindu calendar and the Indian national calendar, and June and July of the Gregorian and Julian calendars and is 31 days in length.

During this month, the fifth Sikh Guru, Guru Arjan Dev was martyred by the Mughals.

Jeth

Jeth (Punjabi: ਜੇਠ) is a third month of the Nanakshahi calendar, which govern the activities within Sikhism. This month coincides with This month coincides with Jyeshtha in the Hindu calendar and the Indian national calendar, and May and June in the Gregorian and Julian calendars and is 31 days long.

Kartik (month)

Karthikai, Kartika, Karthika or Kartik or Kartika maasam is a Hindu calendar month that typically overlaps October and November. In the Bengali, Maithili, and Nepali calendars it is the 7th month, in the Tamil calendar it is the 8th month.

Katak

Katak (Punjabi: ਕੱਤਕ) is the eighth month of the Nanakshahi calendar. This month coincides with Kartik in the Hindu calendar and the Indian national calendar, and October and November in the Gregorian and Julian calendars and is 30 days long.

Magh (Sikh calendar)

Magh (Punjabi: ਮਾਘ) is the eleventh month of the Nanakshahi calendar, which governs the activities within Sikhism. This month coincides with Magha in the Hindu calendar and the Indian national calendar, and January and February in the Gregorian and Julian calendars and is 30 days long.

Maghar (month)

Maghar (Punjabi: ਮੱਘਰ) is the ninth month of the Nanakshahi calendar, which governs the activities within Sikhism. This month coincides with Agrahayana in the Hindu calendar and the Indian national calendar, and November and December in the Gregorian and Julian calendars and is 30 days long.

Pausha

Pausha (Sanskrit: पौष Pauṣa; Hindi: पूस Pus; Tamil: தை Tai) is a month of the Hindu calendar in the Indian national calendar, and the tenth month of the year, corresponding with December/January in the Gregorian calendar.In lunar Hindu calendars, Pausha (also called Paush or Poush maas) begins with either the full or new moon in December and is the ninth month of the year. Since it follows the lunar cycle, its start and end varies year by year unlike the solar cycle Hindu calendars. Pausha is a winter (Hemanta Ritu) month. The Hindu lunar month Pausha overlaps with its solar month Dhanu in the Hindu lunisolar calendars.

Phagun

for the 1958 Bollywood film see Phagun (1958 film)Phagun (Punjabi: ਫੱਗਣ) is the twelfth and last month of the Nanakshahi calendar, which governs activities within Sikhism. This month coincides with Phalguna in the Hindu calendar and the Indian National calendar, and February and March of the Gregorian and Julian calendars and is 30 or 31 days long.

Poh

Poh (Punjabi: ਪੋਹ) is the tenth month in the Nanakshahi calendar, which governs the activities within Sikhism. This month coincides with Pausha in the Hindu calendar and the Indian national calendar, and December and January in the Gregorian and Julian calendars and is 30 days long.

Sawan

Sawan (Hindi: सावन, Punjabi: ਸਾਵਣ) is a fifth month in the Hindu calendar.

It is derived from Sanskrit: श्रावण. Many Indian calendars started in different eras such as Shaka Calendar ( national calendar of India) traditional Vikrama as well as a new Nanakshahi calendar created few years ago by SGPC which governs the activities within Sikhism. This month coincides with Shraavana in the Hindu calendar and the Indian national calendar, and July and August in the Gregorian and Julian calendars and is 31 days long, like the Gregorian and Julian calendars.

This month is the most humid month of the year in south Asia.

Shaka era

This is about the historical calendar era. For the "Śaka calendar" of 1957, see Indian national calendar.

The Shaka era (IAST: Śaka era) is a historical calendar era, corresponding to Julian year 78. It is commonly known in Indian languages as Shalivahana Śaka (era of Shalivahana) or RTGS: Mahasakkarat "Greater Era").

Shitalanatha

Shitalanatha was the tenth tirthankara of the present age according to Jainism. According to Jain beliefs, he became a siddha, a liberated soul which has destroyed all of its karma. Jains believe Shitalanatha was born to King Dradhrath and Queen Nanda at Bhaddilpur into the Ikshvaku dynasty. His birth date was the twelfth day of the Magha Krishna month of the Indian national calendar. Shitalanatha is associated with Svastika (Dig.)/ Srivatasa (Svet.) emblem, Pilurikha tree, Brahma Yaksha and Manavi (Dig.) & Ashoka (Svet.) Yakshi.

Solar calendar

A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the season or almost equivalently the apparent position of the Sun relative to the stars. The Gregorian calendar, widely accepted as standard in the world, is an example of a solar calendar.

The main other type of calendar is a lunar calendar, whose months correspond to cycles of Moon phases. The months of the Gregorian calendar do not correspond to cycles of Moon phase.

Vaisakh

Vaisakh (Punjabi: ਵੈਸਾਖ, Hindi: वैसाख) is the second month in the Nanakshahi calendar. This month coincides with April and May in the Gregorian calendar and to Vaisakha in the Hindu calendar and the Indian national calendar; it comprises the time of crop-harvesting in the Punjab region.

Vaisakhi is the most important festival in the Sikh calendar, taking place on the first lunar month of Vaisakh, which falls on 14 April each year. On this day, the Khalsa was created and much celebration takes place in the form of Samagams, Nagar Kirtan, Gatka exhibitions, Akand Paths and so on.

On the 16th of this month, Guru Angad and Guru Har Krishan took leave for their higher abode and passed the Guruship to Guru Amar Das and Guru Tegh Bahadur respectively. Moreover, on the 18th, the Sikhs celebrate the birthday of Guru Angad Dev (the second Sikh Guru) and Guru Tegh Bahadur (the ninth Sikh Guru).

Vaisakha

Vaisakha (Telugu: వైశాఖ, Kannada: ವೈಶಾಖ Vaiśākha; Marathi: वैशाख Vaiśākh; Bengali: বৈশাখ Boiśākh; Tamil: வைகாசி Vaikāci; Hindi: बैसाख Baisākh; Nepali: बैशाख, Odia: ବୈଶାଖ Baiśākh, Assamese: ব’হাগ Bohag) is a month of the Hindu calendar that corresponds to April/May in the Gregorian Calendar. In the Indian national calendar Vaisakha is the second month of the year. It is the first month of the Nepali calendar (the Vikram Samvat), Odia calendar, Punjabi calendar, Assamese calendar (where it is called Bohag) and the Bengali calendar (where it is called Boishakh). This month lies between the second half of April and the first half of May. Regional calendars used in the Indian subcontinent have two aspects: lunar and solar. Lunar months begin with Chaitra and solar months start with Vaisakha Sankranti. However, regional calendars mark when the official new year is celebrated. In regions such as Maharashtra which begin the official new year with the commencement of the lunar year, the solar year is marked by celebrating Vaisakha Sankranti. Conversely, regions starting the new year with Vaisakha Sankranti, give prominence to the start of the lunar year in Chaitra.

Systems
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In wide use
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Historical
By specialty
Proposals
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Year naming
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