Independent Liberal

Independent Liberal is a description allowed in politics to denote party affiliation. It is used to designate a politician as a liberal, yet independent of the official Liberal Party of a country. Those parties were the Liberal Party of Canada, or the Liberal Party of the United Kingdom, or the New Zealand Liberal Party.

Canada

Independent Liberal Members of Parliament (or of the Canadian Senate or a provincial legislative assembly) are typically former Liberal caucus members who were either expelled from the Liberal Party caucus or resigned the whip due to a political disagreement. More recent examples, include Don Johnston who sat as an Independent Liberal from January 18, 1988 until the adjournment of parliament due to his resignation from the Liberal caucus as a result of his support of the Canada–United States Free Trade Agreement which the party opposed, Jag Bhaduria who sat as an Independent Liberal from 1994 to 1996 following his expulsion from the Liberal caucus and Dennis Mills who briefly left the Liberal caucus in 1996 to sit as an "Independent Liberal" to protest the Liberal government's failure to abolish the Goods and Services Tax (GST).

Independent Liberal candidates for parliament or the legislature have been those who generally subscribe to Liberal Party principles but either have not been selected as an official Liberal Party candidate or decline to seek the party's nomination due to a disagreement with the party on certain issues. Under the current Elections Act a candidate who is not affiliated with a political party can only describe themselves on the ballot as Independent or "No Affiliation" and cannot describe themselves in terms of an existing political party. Accordingly, no candidate for the House of Commons of Canada has officially designated themselves an "Independent Liberal" since the 1968 federal election and no Independent Liberal candidate has been elected to the House of Commons since the 1957 federal election.

A number of Quebec Liberal MPs left the party and sat as Independent Liberals as a result of the Conscription Crisis of 1944 as they opposed the Liberal government's decision to implement conscription. The most prominent of these was Charles Gavan Power who resigned from Cabinet over the issue. Several ran for re-election in the 1945 federal election as Independent Liberals. William Lyon Mackenzie King's government was returned with only a minority of Liberal MPs in parliament but was able to govern as a majority government with the support of Independent Liberal MPs, most of whom rejoined the party in the course of the parliament.

United Kingdom

Independent Liberal is a description once used in British politics to denote a form of non-party affiliation. It was used to designate a politician as a Liberal who was independent of any political party, particularly of the Liberal Party before its transformation in the 1980s into the Liberal Democrats.

Since the Registration of Political Parties Act 1998 came into force, a candidate for election can no longer be described as an "Independent Liberal" on a ballot paper, as the 1998 Act prohibits any description which could cause confusion with a registered political party. In practice, the description used is either the name of a registered party or the word "Independent".

New Zealand

Independent Liberal was a definition in New Zealand politics in the late 19th and early 20th Centuries for Independents that aligned themselves with the New Zealand Liberal Party. It is often difficult to determine whether candidates were official Liberal or Independent Liberal and many electorates had more Liberal candidates standing than seats available. From 1893 to 1908 the New Zealand Liberal Party was the only formalised political party to win any seats in parliament.

1945 Canadian federal election

The Canadian federal election of 1945 was the 20th general election in Canadian history. It was held June 11, 1945 to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada of the 20th Parliament of Canada. Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King's Liberal government was re-elected to its third consecutive government, although this time with a minority government as the Liberals fell five seats short of a majority.

Although the election officially resulted in a minority government, the election of eight "Independent Liberal" MPs, most of whom did not run as official Liberals because of their opposition to conscription (see Conscription Crisis of 1944), gave the King government an effective working majority in parliament. Most of the Independent Liberal MPs joined (or re-joined) the Liberal caucus following World War II when the conscription issue became moot. As King was defeated in his own riding of Prince Albert, fellow Liberal William MacDiarmid, who was re-elected in the safe seat of Glengarry, resigned so that a by-election could be held, which was subsequently won by King.

The federal election was the first since the victory of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation in the Saskatchewan provincial election, and many predicted a major breakthrough for the CCF nationally. A Gallup poll from September 1943 showed the CCF with a one-point lead over both the Liberals and Conservatives. The party was expected to win 70 to 100 seats, possibly even enough to form a minority government. Despite the expectations, the party only won 28 seats.

1945 was also the first test of the newly named Progressive Conservatives. The Conservative Party had changed its name in 1942 when former Progressive Party Premier of Manitoba John Bracken became its leader. The party improved its standing in terms of number of seats compared to the old Conservative Party, but also recorded a reduced share of the popular vote (indeed, the lowest in any election prior to 1993) and fell far short of challenging Liberal hegemony. Operation Downfall, the invasion of Japan, was scheduled for late 1945-early 1946. Bracken had promised conscription for the invasion of Japan whereas King had promised to commit one division of volunteers to the planned invasion of Japan. Based on the way that the Japanese had fought the battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa it was widely expected that the invasion of the Japanese home islands would be a bloody campaign, and Bracken's promise of conscription for the planned invasion of Japan did much to turn voters against his party.A key issue in this election seems to have been electing a stable government. The Liberals urged voters to "Return the Mackenzie King Government", and argued that only the Liberal Party had a "preponderance of members in all nine provinces". Mackenzie King threatened to call a new election if he was not given a majority: "We would have confusion to deal with at a time when the world will be in a very disturbed situation. The war in Europe is over, but unrest in the east is not over."

The Progressive Conservatives tried to capitalize on the massive mid-campaign victory by the Ontario Progressive Conservative Party in the 1945 Ontario provincial election. PC campaign ads exhorted voters to rally behind their party: "Ontario shows! Only Bracken can win!", and suggesting that it would be impossible to form a majority government in the country without a plurality of seats in Ontario, which only the Tories could win. In the event, the Liberals fell just short of a majority even though they won only 34 seats in Ontario to the PCs' 48 seats. Eight "Independent Liberal" MPs could be expected to support the government.

Social welfare programs were also an issue in the campaign. Another Liberal slogan encouraged voters to "Build a New Social Order" by endorsing the Liberal platform, which included

$750 million to provide land, jobs and business support for veterans;

$400 million of public spending to build housing;

$250 million for family allowances;

establishing an Industrial development Bank;

loans to farmers, floor prices for agricultural products;

tax reductions.Campaigning under the slogan, "Work, Security, and Freedom for All -- with the CCF", the CCF promised to retain war-time taxes on high incomes and excess profits in order to fund social services, and to abolish the Senate of Canada. The CCF fought hard to prevent the support of labour from going to the Labor-Progressive Party (i.e., the Communist Party of Canada).

The LPP, for its part, pointed out that the CCF's refusal to enter into an electoral pact with the LPP had cost the CCF 100,000 votes in the Ontario election, and had given victory to the Ontario PCs. It urged voters to "Make Labour a Partner in Government."

The Social Credit Party of Canada tried, with modest success, to capitalize on the positive image of the Alberta Socred government of William Aberhart, asking voters, "Good Government in Alberta -- Why Not at Ottawa?". Referring to social credit monetary theories, the party encouraged voters to "Vote for the National Dividend".

Charlevoix—Saguenay

Charlevoix—Saguenay was a federal electoral district in Quebec, Canada, that was represented in the House of Commons of Canada from 1925 to 1949.

This riding was created in 1924 from parts of Charlevoix—Montmorency and Chicoutimi—Saguenay ridings.

It initially consisted of the Counties of Charlevoix-East, Charlevoix-West and Saguenay, l'Isle-aux-Coudres, the territories of Ashuanipi and New Quebec, the Island of Anticosti and the County of Montmorency No. 1, excluding the municipalities of St. Jean de Boischatel, L'Ange Gardien and Ste. Brigitte de Laval.

In 1933, it was redefined to consist of

the counties of Charlevoix-East and Charlevoix-West and l'Ile aux Coudres;

the county of Saguenay and the Island of Anticosti;

the county of Montmorency No. 1, excepting the parts included in the municipalities of St-Jean-de-Boischatel and L'Ange-Gardien; and

the territory of New Quebec.The district was abolished in 1947 when it was redistributed into Charlevoix and Saguenay ridings.

Independent Liberal Party (Kosovo)

The Independent Liberal Party (Serbian: Самостална либерална странка, Samostalna liberalna stranka, SLS) is a Serbian political party in Kosovo. The chairman of the party is Slobodan Petrović.

In the 2010 Kosovo parliamentary elections, the party won 2.1% of the popular vote and 8 out of 120 seats. In February 2011, the SLS joined the coalition government of Hashim Thaçi, whose Democratic Party of Kosovo won the largest share of votes in the elections. The SLS got three ministries – Local Self-Government, Communities and Return, and Labor and Social Welfare.In the 2014 Kosovo parliamentary elections, the party won only 0.05% of the popular vote and lost all of its seats.

Independent Liberal Party (Nicaragua)

The Independent Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Independiente - PLI) is a Nicaraguan political party, which separated from Somoza's Nationalist Liberal Party (PLN) in 1944 and took part in the probably fraudulent election of 1947, won by Somoza's favored candidate. The PLI participated in the 1984 election, winning 9.6% of vote for President with its candidate Virgilio Godoy. In 1990 it was part of the National Opposition Union (UNO) - a broad alliance of Sandinista regime opponents - with Virgilio Godoy running as the vice-presidential candidate. UNO won the elections with 54% of the vote. The UNO alliance split in 1993, and in the 1996 elections the PLI, under the candidature of Virgilio Godoy, suffered its worst electoral debacle, receiving only 0.32% of the vote. It joined with Enrique Bolaños's PLC for the 2001 elections, and was part of Montealegre's Nicaraguan Liberal Alliance in the 2006 elections.

During the 2011 presidential election, the party participated as part of an alliance against the ruling FSLN that also included the Movimiento vamos con Eduardo, a faction led by former PLC member Eduardo Montealegre, the Sandinista Renovation Movement, PAC, Partido Multiétnico por la Unidad Costeña, dissident Conservatives, Sociedad Civil and independents. The candidate for presidency was the veteran journalist and writer Fabio Gadea Mantilla. The election was eventually won by incumbent president Daniel Ortega with Gadea finishing second.

After many years of infighting between different factions, and five months before the 2016 general election, the Nicaraguan Supreme Electoral Court removed disputed PLI leader Eduardo Montealegre, replacing him with Pedro Reyes. Reyes, a little known figure in Nicaraguan politics, despite having been the PLI vice-presidential candidate in 1996 and PLI Secretary General from 1995-2005, was elected vice-president of the PLI, behind Rollin Tobie, in February 2011 at a disputed party convention, and claimed the presidency after Tobie's death in November 2011. After PLI and allied Sandinista Renovation Movement deputies objected, Nicaragua's Supreme Electoral Council ordered them removed from the National Assembly and empowered Reyes to select their replacements.

Independent Liberal Party (UK, 1918)

The Independent Liberal Party is a name used for the Parliamentary Liberal Party created in 1918 and led by H. H. Asquith, in opposition to the Coalition government led by the Liberal David Lloyd George. The Coalition candidates (whether Conservatives or Liberal) were marked at the 1918 election by the Coalition Coupon. In fact, the parliamentary party was not independent from the Liberal Party, of which it formed part. Rather, it was independent of Lloyd George. It was sometimes known by the epithet the Wee Free Party.The issuing of the Coalition Coupon to some Liberals, but not to others, led Asquith's followers to form a Parliamentary Liberal Party in opposition to them, so that in most constituencies the election of 1918 saw a three-way contest between the Coalition Government, the Independent Liberal Party, and the Labour Party.After the 1918 election, the party remained in existence in parliament until 1922, although greatly weakened. Only 28 were returned, and even Asquith himself lost his East Fife seat. Between 1918 and 1922, there were twenty-four three-cornered parliamentary by-elections, but in each of them the Independent Liberal candidates polled only between 24 and 28 per cent of the votes.

Independent Liberals (UK, 1931)

At the 1931 general election, a small group of official Liberal candidates led by former Liberal Party leader, David Lloyd George, and mostly related to him, stood on a platform of opposition to the National Government and were sometimes referred to as Independent Liberals.

Independent politician

An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party. There are numerous reasons why someone may stand for office as an independent.

Independents may support policies which are different from those of the major political parties.

In some parts of the world, electors may have a tradition of electing independents, so standing for a political party is a disadvantage.

In some countries (such as Russia), a political party can only be registered if it has a large number of members in more than one region, but in certain regions only a minority of electors support the major parties.

In some countries (including Kuwait), political parties are unlawful and all candidates thus stand as independents.

In some countries where politics are otherwise traditionally partisan, such as the United States, subnational bodies and offices such as the Nebraska State Legislature and various directly-elected judicial and executive positions are nonpartisan and require politicians to abstain from running for office as part of a political party, even if they may be a member of one.

In some countries where politics is otherwise traditionally partisan, such as Mongolia, the incumbent President must always be an independent and cannot run for reelection as a member of a political party.Some independent politicians may be associated with a political party, perhaps as former members of it, or else have views that align with it, but choose not to stand in its name, or are unable to do so because the party in question has selected another candidate. Others may belong to or support a political party at the national level but believe they should not formally represent it (and thus be subject to its policies) at another level.

In running for public office, independents sometimes choose to form a party or alliance with other independents, and may formally register their party or alliance. Even where the word "independent" is used, such alliances have much in common with a political party, especially if there is an organization which needs to approve the "independent" candidates.

Kappeyne van de Coppello cabinet

The Kappeyne van de Coppello cabinet was the cabinet of the Netherlands from 3 November 1877 until 20 August 1879. The cabinet was formed by Independent Liberals after the election of 1877. The centre-right cabinet was a minority government in the House of Representatives. Independent Classical Liberal Jan Kappeyne van de Coppello was Prime Minister.

List of Ministers of Defence of the Netherlands

The Minister of Defence (Dutch: Minister van Defensie) is the head of the Ministry of Defence and a member of the Cabinet of the Netherlands. The current Minister of Defence is Ank Bijleveld of the Christian Democratic Appeal, who has been in office since 26 October 2017.

List of Ministers of Kingdom Relations of the Netherlands

The Minister of the Interior and Kingdom Relations (Dutch: Minister van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties) is also serving as Minister of the Interior and the head of the Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations and a member of the Cabinet of the Netherlands. The current Minister of the Interior and Kingdom Relations is Kajsa Ollongren of the Democrats 66, who has been in office since 26 October 2017 and who also serves as Second Deputy Prime Minister.

List of Prime Ministers of the Netherlands

The following is a list of Prime Ministers of the Netherlands since the inception of that office as a result of a revision of the Constitution of the Netherlands in 1848. The Prime Minister is the Chairman of the Council of Ministers; since 1945 he has held the Dutch title of minister-president van Nederland, also referred to as premier.

Mark Rutte is currently serving as the 50th and current Prime Minister of the Netherlands, having been appointed to the office for the first time on 14 October 2010.

List of Speakers of the House of Representatives (Netherlands)

This is a list of Speakers of the House of Representatives of the Netherlands.

List of UK minor party and independent MPs elected

This is a list of members of the United Kingdom House of Commons who were elected as an independent or as a member of a minor political party.

Excluded are the Speaker, who traditionally stands for re-election without party affiliation, and MPs who were elected from a major party but then defected during a parliamentary term.

Northumberland East

Northumberland East was a federal electoral district represented in the House of Commons of Canada from 1867 to 1917. It was located in the province of Ontario. It was created by the British North America Act of 1867.

The original definition of the riding is not known. In 1882, the East Riding of the county of Northumberland was defined to consist of the townships of Cramahe, Brighton, Murray, Percy and Seymour, the villages of Colborne, Brighton, Campbellford, and Hastings.

The electoral district was abolished in 1914 when it was merged into Northumberland riding.

Prescott (electoral district)

Prescott was a federal electoral district represented in the House of Commons of Canada from 1867 to 1953. It was located in the province of Ontario. It was created by the British North America Act of 1867, and consisted of the County of Prescott.

The electoral district was abolished in 1952 when it was merged into Glengarry—Prescott riding.

Saint-Maurice—Laflèche

Saint-Maurice—Laflèche (previously known as St-Maurice—Laflèche) was a federal electoral district in Quebec, Canada, that was represented in the House of Commons of Canada from 1935 to 1968.

It was created as "St-Maurice—Laflèche" riding in 1933 from parts of Champlain and Three Rivers and St. Maurice ridings. In 1947, the riding's English name was changed to "Saint-Maurice—Laflèche". The electoral district was abolished in 1966 when it was redistributed into Berthier, Champlain and Saint-Maurice ridings.

St. Ann (electoral district)

St. Ann (also known as St. Anne) was a federal electoral district in Quebec, Canada, that was represented in the House of Commons of Canada from 1892 to 1968.

It was created as "St. Anne" riding from parts of Montreal Centre in 1892. It consisted initially of the Centre, West and St. Anne's wards in the city of Montreal. In 1914, the riding's name was changed to "St. Ann", and it was redefined to consist of, in of the city of Montreal, the Centre, West and St. Ann's wards and the part of St. Gabriel ward south of the Grand Trunk Railway tracks; and the parish and town of Verdun (transferred from the county of Jacques-Cartier.

The electoral district was abolished in 1966 when it was redistributed into Lasalle, Saint-Henri and Saint-Jacques ridings.

St. Henri (electoral district)

St. Henri (also known as St. Henry, St-Henri, Saint-Henri and Saint-Jacques) was a federal electoral district in Quebec, Canada, that was represented in the House of Commons of Canada from 1925 to 1988.

This riding was created in 1924 as "St. Henri" riding from parts of Westmount—St. Henri. In 1933, its English name was changed to "St. Henry". In 1947, "St. Henry" was abolished when it was redistributed into "St-Henri" and St. Antoine—Westmount ridings.

In 1952, "St-Henri" was abolished, and its territory transferred into a new riding named "Saint-Henri". In 1977, it was renamed Saint-Jacques.

Following the 2003 redistribution, the area of the old St-Henri riding is now part of the riding of Jeanne-Le Ber.

Third Thorbecke cabinet

The Third Thorbecke cabinet was the cabinet of the Netherlands from 4 January 1871 until 6 July 1872. The cabinet was formed by Independent Liberals (Ind. Lib.). The Centre-right cabinet was a minority government in the House of Representatives. Independent Liberal Johan Rudolph Thorbecke was Prime Minister.

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