Incheon (Hangul: 인천; Hanja: 仁川; Korean pronunciation: [intɕʰʌn]; formerly romanized as Inchŏn; literally "kind river"), officially the Incheon Metropolitan City (인천광역시), is a city located in northwestern South Korea, bordering Seoul and Gyeonggi to the east. Inhabited since the Neolithic, Incheon was home to just 4,700 people when it became an international port in 1883. Today, about 3 million people live in the city, making it South Korea's third most-populous city after Seoul and Busan. The city's growth has been assured in modern times with the development of its port due to its natural advantages as a coastal city and its proximity to the South Korean capital. It is part of the Seoul Capital Area, along with Seoul itself and Gyeonggi Province, forming the world's fifth largest metropolitan area by population.
Incheon has since led the economic development of Korea by opening its port to the outside world, ushering in the modernization of Korea as a center of industrialization. In 2003, the city was designated as Korea's first free economic zone. Since then, large local companies and global enterprises have increasingly invested in the Incheon Free Economic Zone, including Samsung which chose Songdo International City as its new investment destination for its bio industry.
As an international city, Incheon has held numerous large scale international conferences, such as the Incheon Global Fair & Festival in 2009. The 17th Asian Games Incheon 2014 was also held in Incheon on 19 September 2014. Incheon has established itself as a major transportation hub in northeast Asia with the Incheon International Airport and Incheon Port. The city is also home to the Green Climate Fund, an international organization addressing environmental issues.
|Incheon Metropolitan City|
|Korean name transcription(s)|
|• Revised Romanization||Incheon Gwang-yeoksi|
|• McCune-Reischauer||Inch'ŏn Kwang'yŏkshi|
Seal of Incheon
|Region||Seoul National Capital Area|
|Founded||18 BC as Michuhol 1995 AD as Incheon Metropolitan City|
|• Mayor||Park Nam-chun (Democratic)|
|• Body||Incheon Metropolitan Council|
|• Total||1,062.63 km2 (410.28 sq mi)|
|• Density||2,800/km2 (7,200/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+9 (Korea Standard Time)|
The first historical record of the Incheon area dates back to 475 CE, during the reign of King Jangsu of Goguryeo, by the name of Michuhol, which is supposed to be located on today's Munhak Hill (문학산). The area underwent several name changes with successive kingdoms and dynasties. In Goryeo era, Incheon was called Gyeongwon (경원) or Inju (인주). The current name was turned to Incheon in 1413. Later, Incheon County became Incheon Metropolitan Prefecture (dohobu, 도호부). Old Incheon consisted of today's southern Incheon (i.e. Jung-gu, Dong-gu, Nam-gu, Yeonsu-gu, and Namdong-gu) and northern part of Siheung City. The city centre was Gwangyo-dong, where the prefecture office (도호부청사) and the local academy (hyanggyo, 향교) were located. The "original" two remaining buildings of the Incheon prefecture office are located in Munhak Elementary School, while the newly built (in 2001) prefecture office buildings are right across from Munhak Baseball Stadium.
Another historical name of the city, Jemulpo (alternatively Romanized as Chemulpo), was not widely used until the opening of the port in 1883. After the opening of the Incheon port, the city centre moved from Gwangyo to Jemulpo. Today, either Jemulpo or Gwangyo-dong is considered "Original Incheon" (원인천). It was renamed as Jinsen during Japanese rule in Korean peninsula.
In 1914, the Japanese colonial government merged outer parts of old Incheon (including the former centre of Gwangyo) with Bupyeong County, forming Bucheon County. Through 1936 and 1940, some part of Bucheon County was recombined into Incheon City, by which some part of "old" Bupyeong was annexed into Incheon.
Incheon was originally part of Gyeonggi Province, but was granted Directly Governed (now Metropolitan) City status on July 1, 1981; the city officially separated from the province. In 1989, neighbouring islands and Gyeyang township of Gimpo County were ceded to Incheon and in 1995 Geomdan township of Gimpo Country and two counties of Ganghwa and Onjin were annexed to Incheon Metropolitan City.
Incheon was known as Inchon prior to South Korea's adoption of a new Romanization system in 2000.
During the Korean War, Incheon was occupied by North Korean troops on 4 September 1950. Eleven days later, Incheon was the site of the Battle of Inchon, when United States troops landed to relieve pressure on the Pusan Perimeter and to launch a United Nations offensive northward. The result was a decisive UN victory and it was recaptured on 19 September 1950. The USS Inchon was named after the tide-turning battle that ensued.
Incheon has also hosted a series of major international events. The Global Fair & Festival 2009 Incheon was held in the Songdo District in August 2009. It was open from 7 August to 25 October for a period of 80 days. It was a comprehensive international event with global institutions and corporations as participants.Various musicians and artists performed during the event.
On 27 February 2007, Incheon declared itself an "English City," and inaugurated the "Incheon Free English Zone" program. The goal of the program is to make the city as proficient in English as Hong Kong and Singapore. This is for the ultimate purpose of establishing Incheon as a commercial and business hub of northeast Asia (see Free Economic Zone below). The official slogan of the program is "Smile with English."
Incheon is home to a number of colleges and universities:
Incheon has a humid subtropical climate, and humid continental climate (Köppen Cwa/Dwa, respectively). Like other metropolitan cities, incheon has a strong effect of urban heat island effect. Incheon's climate is about average compared to the rest of Korea, with 8 locations being cooler and 10 locations being warmer, and with 9 locations being wetter and 9 locations being drier.
Incheon experiences each of its four seasons, distinctly feeling the rise and fall of temperature and humidity. The temperature however, never rises to an extreme, and the climate of the city is essentially mild. Incheon is swept by the seasonal winds as the northwesterly winds strike the city in the winter and the summer in Incheon is affected by gusts of the warm southwesterly winds.
Incheon forms the heart of Capital Industrial Region. During the industrialization of South Korea, several industrial complexes were built throughout the city, and as a result, the city was largely dependent on manufacturing industry. But with the designation of Incheon Free Economic Zone in 2003, the city is now making an effort to foster new growth industries. Major industrial parks include Bupyeong industrial complex, which hosts GM Incheon plant(formerly a GM Daewoo Incheon plant), Juan industrial complex, and Namdong Industrial complex.
In recent years, bio industry is emerging as a new growth industry of the city. Currently, with the total production capacity of 330kℓ per year, the city ranks 2nd in the world by production capacity along with San Francisco, United States. The capacity is under expansion, and after completion in 2018, the city will rank 1st with the production capacity of 510kℓ. Also, logistics industry is also experiencing a rapid growth, thanks to Incheon Airport, which was ranked fourth in the world by cargo traffic, and the expansion of Incheon Port.
Incheon is a major domestic and international transport hub for Korea.
Incheon International Airport is South Korea's primary international airport and a regional air hub. In 2015 it was the world's 22nd busiest airport by passenger traffic, with 49,412,750 passengers.
There were a total of 305,446 flights (300,634 international, 4,812 domestic) to and from Incheon International Airport in 2015, an average of 837 flights (824 international, 13 domestic) daily. 50.9% of the flights were serviced by Korea's two main carriers, Korean Air and Asiana Airlines, with low-cost and foreign carriers servicing the remaining 49.1%. The airport is experiencing a rapid increase in passengers, and the opening of the 2nd terminal in December 2017 should spur additional traffic.
Also featured in the Korean drama series, "Air City."
Incheon's sea port is the second largest port in Korea after Busan's sea port.
The International Passenger Terminal located at the port offers ferries to five cities in China: Dalian, Qingdao, Tianjin, Dandong, and Weihai. There are also ferries to Incheon's outlying islands as well as Baengnyeong Island inside of the Northern Limit Line.
Incheon Bus Terminal, located at its eponymous subway stop, offers express bus transportation to all parts of Korea. Many city bus lines offer transportation within city limits as well as to the neighboring cities of Bucheon, Gimpo, Seoul, and Siheung.
Many BRT lines offer transportation between Seoul and Incheon.
Local service to Guro, Seoul, Cheongnyangni, Uijeongbu and Soyosan is offered by Seoul's subway Line 1. The line has 11 stations within Incheon and connects to the Incheon Subway at Bupyeong and Juan stations.
Rapid service on the same line to Yongsan Station in Seoul depart from Dongincheon station and stops at major stations.
The Airport Express (AREX) line runs from Incheon International Airport to Seoul Station via Gimpo International Airport. The Incheon-Gimpo section was opened in March 2007 and was extended to Seoul station in December 2010. Passengers can choose a high-speed service stopping only at Incheon airport and Seoul, which takes 43 minutes but departs only every half-hour; or the all-station service which takes 53 minutes but leaves every six minutes.
KTX service was introduced on the AREX line on 30 June 2014, with stops at Incheon International Airport Station and Geoman Station. There are additional plans to use the newly built Suin Line to bring KTX service to Incheon Station by 2021.
The Incheon Subway has two subway lines serving the city. The first line connects to the Seoul Metropolitan Subway system at Bupyeong Station (Seoul Subway Line 1), and AREX line at Gyeyang Station. It connects International Business District Station in Songdo to Gyeyang Station. The line has 28 stations on 29.4 kilometres (18.3 miles) of track. The line also has transfer stations with the Suin Line at Woninjae Station, with the Incheon Subway Line 2 at Incheon City Hall Station, and with Seoul Subway Line 7 at Bupyeong-gu Office Station. Incheon Subway Line 2 opened in July 2016 and runs from Geomdan Oryu Station to Unyeon Station. The automated line is 29.2 kilometres (18.1 miles) long, and has 27 stations, including transfer stations at Geomam Station with the AREX line, Juan Station with Seoul Subway Line 1 and Incheon Subway Line 2 at Incheon City Hall Station.
The Incheon subway is operated by the Incheon Rapid Transit Corporation (IRTC).
There are additional plans for a third subway line in Incheon.
Korail has also constructed a new commuter rail line named Suin Line. The line opened in 2012 from Oido Station in Siheung to Songdo Station in Incheon. It was then extended in 2016, and now reaches Incheon Station where passengers can transfer to Seoul Subway Line 1. In 2017, the line will be extended from Oido Station to Suwon Station.
SMRT (one of three operating companies of Seoul Metropolitan Subway) has extended Seoul Metropolitan Subway Line 7 to Bupyeong-gu office by 2011 and provided transfers to the Incheon Subway system. It has 3 stations within Incheon. By 2020, he line will further be extended westwards to Seongnam Station where it will be possible to transfer to Incheon Subway Line 2.
The Incheon Free Economic Zone consists of the three regions of Songdo, Cheongna, and the island of Yeongjong, and has a total area of 51,739 acres (20,938 ha). The goal of IFEZ is to transform these three areas into hubs for logistics, international business, leisure, and tourism for the Northeast Asian region. The term 'Free Economic Zone' applies to the development in these three areas with the aim of improving the business environment for foreign-invested enterprises and the living conditions for foreigners. The zone is a specially designated area to create the most favorable business and living environment where foreign nationals can live and invest freely and conveniently. Incheon's Free Economic Zone, the first in Korea, was officially designated by the Korean government in August 2003. IFEZ is planned to be a self-contained living and business district featuring air and sea transportation, a logistics complex, an international business center, financial services, residences, schools and hospitals, and shopping and entertainment centres.
Songdo International City began development in 1994 and is being built on reclaimed land. It is designated to become a center of diverse international businesses, a hub for international trade, an area for knowledge-based technologies, and a place for eco-friendly urban living. Construction is due to be completed in 2020.
As of 2012, Yeongjong International City’s 34,183 acres (13,833 ha) centering on the Incheon International Airport is being developed as an eco-friendly airport city scheduled to be completed by 2020. Paradise Co, a South Korean casino operator, said in October 2013 that it will build the country's largest casino on Yeongjong Island.
The Cheongna district, on the mainland adjacent Yeongjong Island, will focus on entertainment and will feature a world class theme park. It will also be a residential area with sports facilities, a floriculture complex, and a business area specially designed for international finance.
Incheon is divided into 8 districts (gu) and 2 counties (gun).
According to the census of 2005, of the people of Incheon 36.1% follow Christianity (22.4% Protestantism and 13.7% Catholicism) and 13.8% follow Buddhism. 50.1% of the population is mostly not religious or follow Muism and other indigenous religions.
Incheon is home to the following professional and semi professional sports teams:
The K League 1 team Incheon United FC.
The Incheon team was known to have a popular rivalry against former Bucheon SK (now Jeju United), due to the teams' close geographical relationship.
Munhak Sports Complex: The Munahk Sports Complex houses both a football stadium and a baseball stadium. The football stadium was Incheon's venue for the 2002 Football World Cup, and is also the home venue for Incheon United. The baseball stadium is the home venue for the SK Wyverns.
Yeonhui Cricket Ground: Yeonhui Cricket Ground is a newly built cricket stadium in Incheon. The 2014 Asian Games will feature cricket for both the men's and the women's event and this ground will be used for the scheduled cricket matches to be played in the games. It has been reported that the crowd capacity of this ground will be 2,353. This first cricket stadium in South Korea.
Incheon Football Stadium (Sungui Arena): Incheon Football Stadium is the first football-only stadium in Incheon. It was built in 2012 with a capacity for 20,891 spectators.
The 2005 season of the K-League kicked off on May 15. The season and playoff format was the same as the one used in the 2004 season. The playoff fixtures are set to take place in late November and early December.
Busan I'Park won the first stage of the 2005 K-League season and guaranteed their slot in the end-of-season Championship playoff. The second stage was won by Seongnam Ilhwa Chunma, with Incheon United and Ulsan Hyundai Horangi joining them in the playoffs.
Ulsan defeated Seongnam 2-1 and Incheon defeated Busan 2-0, so the two victorious teams faced each other in the two-legged Championship final. Ulsan ran out 5-1 victors in the first match at the Incheon stadium and, though Incheon won the second leg 2-1, Ulsan emerged victorious 6-3 on aggregate to lift their second league championship.2006 K League
The 2006 season of the K-League kicked off on March 12. The season and playoff format will be the same as the one used in the 2005 season. The playoff fixtures are set to take place in early November, with the Final being played on two legs in late November.
The league will take a break for the World Cup in June and July. The championship series will take place in November.2008 K League
The 2008 season of the K League began on March 8. The season and playoff format was the same as the one used in the 2007 season. The playoff fixtures took place in late November, with the final played over two legs in early December.
On August 2, 2008, the first ever Jomo Cup kicked off. The K League Allstars squared off against the J-League Allstars at the Tokyo National Stadium. Lee Woon-jae was selected as the K League Allstar team's captain and Cha Bum-kun managed the squad. The K League Allstars were victorious, winning by a score of 3–1.2014 Asian Games
The 2014 Asian Games (Korean: 2014년 아시안 게임, translit. 2014nyeon asian geim, Hanja:2014年 아시안 게임), officially known as the 17th Asian Games, was a pan-Asian multi-sport event held in Incheon, South Korea. This was the third time South Korea hosted the Asian Games, and its' first time since 2002. Previously, it had also hosted the 1986 edition of the games.
Incheon was awarded the right on 17 April 2007, defeating Delhi, India to host the Games and was the third city in South Korea after Seoul (1986) and Busan (2002) to host the Asian Games. The games was held from 19 September to 4 October 2014, although several events had commenced from 14 September 2014. Around 9,501 athletes participated in the event which featured 439 events in 36 sports. It was opened by the President of South Korea, Park Geun-hye at the Incheon Asiad Main Stadium.
The final medal tally was led by China, followed by host South Korea and Japan, while Cambodia won its' first ever Asian Games gold medal. 14 World and 27 Asian records were broken during the Games. Japanese swimmer Kosuke Hagino was announced as the most valuable player (MVP) of the Games. Though there were several controversies, the Games were deemed generally successful with its low hosting cost and with the rising standard of competition amongst the Asian nations.2018 K League 1
The 2018 K League 1 was the 36th season of the top division of professional football in South Korea since its establishment in 1983 as K League and the first season in its current name, the K League 1.Jeonbuk Hyundai Motors were the defending champions.AREX
AREX (Airport Railroad Express), spelled A'REX as a brand name, is a South Korean commuter rail line that links Incheon International Airport with Seoul Station via Gimpo International Airport. The section between the two airports opened on March 23, 2007, the extension to Seoul Station opened December 29, 2010. Korea Train Express high speed trains started to use the line from June 30, 2014 and discontinued in March 2018 due to low ridership.Battle of Inchon
The Battle of Inchon (Hangul: 인천상륙작전; Hanja: 仁川上陸作戰; RR: Incheon Sangryuk Jakjeon) was an amphibious invasion and battle of the Korean War that resulted in a decisive victory and strategic reversal in favor of the United Nations (UN). The operation involved some 75,000 troops and 261 naval vessels, and led to the recapture of the South Korean capital of Seoul two weeks later. The code name for the operation was Operation Chromite.
The battle began on 15 September 1950 and ended on 19 September. Through a surprise amphibious assault far from the Pusan Perimeter that UN and South Korean forces were desperately defending, the largely undefended city of Incheon was secured after being bombed by UN forces. The battle ended a string of victories over the Korean People's Army (KPA). The subsequent UN recapture of Seoul partially severed the KPA's supply lines in South Korea.
The UN and South Korean forces were commanded by General of the Army Douglas MacArthur of the United States Army. MacArthur was the driving force behind the operation, overcoming the strong misgivings of more cautious generals to a risky assault over extremely unfavorable terrain. The battle was followed by a rapid collapse of the North Korean army; within a month of the Inchon landing, the Americans had taken 135,000 KPA troops prisoner.Incheon Airport Maglev
The Incheon Airport Maglev is a maglev line in South Korea opened in February 3, 2016. It is the world's second commercially operating unmanned urban maglev line after Japan's Linimo. The trains are lighter, cutting construction costs in half. The majority of construction was completed by November 2012.
It links Incheon International Airport to the Yongyu Station and Leisure Complex while crossing Yeongjong island. The line is not considered part of the Seoul Metropolitan Subway. It offers a transfer to Incheon International Airport Station of AREX and is offered free of charge to anyone to ride, operating between 09:00 and 18:00 every 15 minutes. Operating hours are to be extended in the future.
This maglev line specifically utilizes electromagnetic suspension (EMS) and linear induction motor (LIM) propulsion.This maglev train is one of the first commercial maglev trains since the 1980s. Two more stages are planned of 9.7 km and 37.4 km. Once completed it will become a circular line. These lines make up a core project that the Korea Rail Network Authority managed.Incheon International Airport
Incheon International Airport (IIA) (IATA: ICN, ICAO: RKSI) (sometimes referred to as Seoul–Incheon International Airport) is the largest airport in South Korea, the primary airport serving the Seoul Capital Area, and one of the largest and busiest airports in the world. Since 2005, it has been rated the best airport worldwide by Airports Council International every year. It is also rated as the world's cleanest airport and the world's best international transit airport by Skytrax.The airport has a golf course, spa, private sleeping rooms, an ice skating rink, a casino, indoor gardens, and a Museum of Korean Culture. Airport authorities claim that average departure and arrival takes 19 minutes and 12 minutes, respectively, as compared to worldwide average of 60 minutes and 45 minutes, respectively, ranking it among the fastest airports in the world for customs processing. Its duty-free shopping mall has been rated the world's best for three years in a row in 2013 by Business Traveller. Incheon International Airport also claims that it has only a 0.0001% baggage mishandling rate.The airport opened for business on March 29, 2001 to replace the older Gimpo International Airport, which now serves mostly domestic destinations and shuttle flights to several East Asian metropolitan areas including Tokyo, Osaka, Beijing, Shanghai, and Taipei.
Incheon International Airport is located west of Incheon's city center, on an artificially created piece of land between Yeongjong and Yongyu Islands. The two islands were originally separated by shallow sea. That area between the two islands was reclaimed for the construction project, effectively connecting the once separate Yeongjong and Yongyu islands. The reclaimed area as well as the two islands are all part of Jung-gu, an administrative district of Incheon.
The airport holds a record of being ranked the Best Airport Worldwide for 11 consecutive years by the Airports Council International (ACI)'s Airport Service Quality Award from 2005 to 2016, and has also been rated the world's best among airports of its size (25–40 million passengers) and region (Asia-Pacific) since 2012 due to the institution's decision to discontinue the Best Airport Worldwide category.Incheon International Airport's terminal has 111 boarding gates altogether, with 44 in Terminal 1, 30 in Concourse A (connected to terminal 1), and 37 in Terminal 2.
The airport was constructed to share the demand for air transport in the 21st century and to serve as a hub airport in Northeast Asia.Incheon International Airport Expressway
The Incheon International Airport Expressway(Korean: 인천국제공항고속도로, Incheon Gukje Gonghang Gosok Doro) is an expressway in South Korea connecting Incheon International Airport to Goyang, Gyeonggi.Incheon Munhak Stadium
The Incheon Munhak Stadium (also known as Incheon World Cup Stadium or Muhak Stadium) is a sports complex in Incheon, South Korea and includes a multi-purpose stadium, a baseball park, and other sports facilities.Incheon Subway
The Incheon Subway (Hangul: 인천도시철도; Hanja: 仁川都市鐵道; RR: Incheon dosi cheoldo) subway line operator serving the South Korean city of Incheon. The system is operated by Incheon Transit Corporation.Incheon Subway Line 1
Incheon Subway Line 1 is a 29.4-kilometer (18.3 mi) north-south subway line, part of the Incheon Subway system. The line is also included as a part of the overall Seoul Metropolitan Subway network; Bupyeong Station has a free transfer with Seoul Subway Line 1, Gyeyang Station connects with the AREX Line which leads to Incheon International Airport and Seoul Station, Bupyeong-gu Office Station has a free transfer with Seoul Subway Line 7, and Woninjae Station has a free transfer with the Suin Line.Incheon Subway Line 2
Incheon Subway Line 2 is a 27 station subway line 29.2-kilometer (18.1 mi) from Oryu-dong in Seo-gu to Incheon Grand Park., part of the Incheon Subway system. The line is also included as a part of the overall Seoul Metropolitan Subway network; Juan Station has a free transfer with Seoul Subway Line 1, Geomam Station connects with the AREX Line to Incheon International Airport and Seoul Station, and Seongnam will eventually have a free transfer with Seoul Subway Line 7.
Line 2 has aboveground sections north of Asiad Stadium and east of Namdong-gu Office.Incheon United FC
Incheon United FC is a professional football club based in Incheon, the third biggest city in South Korea. Founded in 2003, the club plays in the K League 1, the top flight of South Korean football. The club is a so-called 'community club', with the Incheon city being the key shareholder. The club's home stadium is the Incheon Football Stadium.List of busiest airports by international passenger traffic
The following is a list of the world's largest airports by international passenger traffic.List of tallest buildings in South Korea
This list of tallest buildings in South Korea ranks skyscrapers in South Korea by height. The tallest building in South Korea is currently the 123–story Lotte World Tower, which rises 555 metres (1,821 ft) and was completed in 22 December 2016. It is also the world's 5th tallest building. There are currently three buildings over 300m under construction in South Korea. The three-building complex Haeundae LCT The Sharp in also under construction in Busan, and will reach 412 metres (1,352 ft). There are various other projects planned over 300 meters, including the 338 metres (1,109 ft) tall Parc1, scheduled to be completed in 2020, the 510 metres (1,673 ft) tall Busan Lotte Tower currently on hold, as well as the 569 metres (1,867 ft) tall Hyundai Global Business Center, which will break ground in 2019.Seoul Capital Area
The Seoul Capital Area (SCA), Sudogwon (Hangul: 수도권; Hanja: 首都圈; RR: Sudogwon; MR: Sudokwŏn, [sudoɡwʌn]) or Gyeonggi region (Hangul: 경기 지방; Hanja: 京畿地方; RR: Gyeonggi Jibang; MR: Kyŏnggi Jibang) is the metropolitan area of Seoul, Incheon, and Gyeonggi-do located in north-west South Korea. It has a population of 25 million (as of 2017) and is ranked as the fifth largest metropolitan area in the world. Its area is about 11,704 km2 (4,519 sq mi). It forms the cultural, commercial, financial, industrial, and residential center of South Korea. The largest city is Seoul, with a population of approximately 10 million people, followed by Incheon, with 3 million inhabitants.Seoul Metropolitan Subway
The Seoul Metropolitan Subway is a metropolitan railway system consisting of 22 rapid transit, light metro, commuter rail and people mover lines located in northwest South Korea. The system serves most of the Seoul Metropolitan Area including the Incheon metropolis and satellite cities in Gyeonggi province. Some regional lines in the network stretch out to rural areas in northern Chungnam province and western Gangwon province that lie over 100 km away from the capital as well as Suwon.The network consists of numbered lines 1–9, which serve Seoul City proper and its surroundings and named regional railways that serve the greater metropolitan region and beyond. Most of the system is operated by three companies – Seoul Metro, Korail (Korea National Railroad) and Metro 9. However, there are several other lines stretching out to regional provinces.
Its first metro line, Line 1, started construction in 1971 and opened in 1974, with through-operation to Korail suburban railways. Today, the network is one of the largest and most efficient urban railway systems in the world, with 331.5 km (206.0 mi) of track on lines 1–9 alone; wireless and internet service on all trains; and platform screen doors at all stations apart from a few.
|Climate data for Incheon (1981–2010, extremes 1904–present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||15.8
|Average high °C (°F)||1.7
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−2.1
|Average low °C (°F)||−5.4
|Record low °C (°F)||−21.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||20.6
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||6.6||5.3||6.7||7.3||8.7||9.7||14.9||12.5||8.2||6.2||8.5||7.3||101.9|
|Average snowy days||7.6||4.3||2.5||0.2||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||1.5||5.8||21.9|
|Average relative humidity (%)||61.5||61.8||63.4||64.1||70.3||74.8||82.2||79.1||73.1||67.3||63.9||62.0||68.6|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||178.0||181.5||204.9||219.4||231.4||203.4||156.8||191.0||197.6||211.2||168.6||171.0||2,314.9|
|Percent possible sunshine||58.0||59.5||55.3||55.6||52.7||46.1||35.0||45.4||52.9||60.6||55.2||57.3||52.0|
|Source: Korea Meteorological Administration (percent sunshine and snowy days)|
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