The Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff (軍令部 Gunreibu) was the highest organ within the Imperial Japanese Navy. In charge of planning and operations, it was headed by an Admiral headquartered in Tokyo.
Created in 1893, the Navy General Staff took over operational (as opposed to administrative) authority over the Imperial Japanese Navy from the Navy Ministry. It was responsible for the planning and execution of national defense strategy. Through the Imperial General Headquarters it reported directly to the Emperor, not to the Prime Minister, Diet of Japan or even the Navy Ministry. It was always headed by an admiral on active duty, and was based in Tokyo.
"The ministry was responsible for the naval budget, ship construction, weapons procurement, personnel, relations with the Diet and the cabinet and broad matters of naval policy. The General Staff directed the operations of the fleet and the preparation of war plans".
After the Washington Naval Conference of 1921-22, where Japan agreed to keep the size of its fleet smaller than that of the United Kingdom and the United States, the Imperial Japanese Navy became divided into the mutually hostile Fleet Faction and Treaty Faction political cliques. The Navy Ministry tended to be pro-Treaty Faction and was anxious to maintain the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. However the Navy General Staff came to be dominated by the Fleet faction, and gradually gained ascendancy in the 1930s with increasing Japanese militarism.The Navy General Staff pushed through the attack on Pearl Harbor against the wishes of the more diplomatic Navy Ministry.
After 1937, both the Navy Minister and the Chief of the Navy General Staff were members of the Imperial General Headquarters.
With the defeat of the Empire of Japan in World War II, the Navy General Staff was abolished together with the Imperial Japanese Navy by the American occupation authorities in November 1945 and was not revived by the post-war Constitution of Japan.
The General Staff was organized as follows:
|№||Chief of the General Staff||Took office||Left office||Time in office|
Baron Itō Toshiyoshi
|8 March 1889||17 May 1889||70 days|
Baron Arichi Shinanojō
|17 May 1889||17 June 1891||2 years, 31 days|
Viscount Inoue Yoshika
|17 June 1891||12 December 1892||1 year, 178 days|
Viscount Nakamuta Kuranosuke
|12 December 1892||18 July 1894||1 year, 218 days|
Count Kabayama Sukenori
|18 July 1894||11 May 1895||297 days|
Count Itō Sukeyuki
|11 May 1895||20 December 1905||10 years, 223 days|
Marquis Tōgō Heihachirō
|20 December 1905||1 December 1909||3 years, 346 days|
Baron Ijuin Gorō
|1 December 1909||22 April 1914||4 years, 142 days|
Baron Shimamura Hayao
|22 April 1914||1 December 1920||6 years, 223 days|
Baron Yamashita Gentarō
|1 December 1920||15 April 1925||4 years, 135 days|
Baron Kantarō Suzuki
|15 April 1925||22 January 1929||3 years, 282 days|
|22 January 1929||11 June 1930||1 year, 140 days|
|11 June 1930||2 February 1932||1 year, 236 days|
Prince Fushimi Hiroyasu
|2 February 1932||9 April 1941||9 years, 66 days|
|9 April 1941||21 February 1944||2 years, 318 days|
|21 February 1944||2 August 1944||163 days|
|2 August 1944||29 May 1945||300 days|
|29 May 1945||15 October 1945||139 days|
Baron Arichi Shinanojō (有地 品之允, 15 March 1843 – 17 January 1919) was an admiral in the early Imperial Japanese Navy, and served as Chief of the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff in the late 19th century.Armed Forces of the Empire of Japan
The Armed Forces of the Empire of Japan during that Empire's existence from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 through World War II until the signing of the Constitution of Japan (1868–1947) included the:
Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese NavyAir forces were divided into the Army Air Service and the Navy Air Service.China Area Fleet
The China Area Fleet (支那方面艦隊, Shina Hōmen Kantai) was a fleet of the Imperial Japanese Navy organized after the Battle of Shanghai. It reported directly to the Imperial General Headquarters and had the same organizational level as the Combined Fleet. This article handles their predecessor fleet the Southern Qing Fleet (南清艦隊, Nanshin Kantai), China Expeditionary Fleet (遣支艦隊, Kenshi Kantai) and 1st/2nd Expeditionary Fleet (第一/第二遣外艦隊, Daiichi/Daini Kengai Kantai) also.Fukoku kyōhei
Fukoku kyōhei (富国強兵, "Enrich the Country, Strengthen the Armed Forces"), originally a phrase from the ancient Chinese historical work on the Warring States period, Zhan Guo Ce, was Japan's national slogan during the Meiji period, replacing the slogan sonnō jōi ("Revere the Emperor, Expel the Barbarians"). It is a yojijukugo phrase.Gozen Kaigi
Imperial Conference (御前会議, Gozen Kaigi) (literally, a conference before [the emperor]) was an extraconstitutional conference on foreign matters of grave national importance that was convened by the government of the Empire of Japan in the presence of the Emperor.House of Peers (Japan)
The House of Peers (貴族院, Kizoku-in) was the upper house of the Imperial Diet as mandated under the Constitution of the Empire of Japan (in effect from 11 February 1889 to 3 May 1947).Ijuin Gorō
Marshal Admiral Baron Ijūin Gorō (伊集院 五郎, 29 September 1852 – 13 January 1921) was a Meiji-period career officer in the Imperial Japanese Navy.Imperial General Headquarters
The Imperial General Headquarters (大本営, Daihon'ei) was part of the Supreme War Council and was established in 1893 to coordinate efforts between the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy during wartime. In terms of function, it was approximately equivalent to the United States Joint Chiefs of Staff and the British Chiefs of Staff Committee.Itō Toshiyoshi
Baron Itō Toshiyoshi (伊藤 雋吉, 28 March 1840 – 10 April 1921) was an admiral in the early Imperial Japanese Navy, and served as the first Chief of the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff in the late 19th century.Koshirō Oikawa
Koshirō Oikawa (及川 古志郎, Oikawa Koshirō, 16 February 1883 – May 9, 1958) was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy and Naval Minister during World War II.List of Imperial Japanese Navy fleets
This is a list of fleets of the Imperial Japanese Navy, the navy of the Empire of Japan. This navy existed from 1868 to 1945, when it was replaced by the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force.Ministry of the Navy (Japan)
The Navy Ministry (海軍省, Kaigun-shō) was a cabinet-level ministry in the Empire of Japan charged with the administrative affairs of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN). It existed from 1872 to 1945.Ogasawara Naganari
Viscount Ogasawara Naganari (小笠原 長生, December 15, 1867 – September 20, 1958) was an Admiral and naval strategist in the Imperial Japanese Navy in Meiji and Taishō period Japan, and a member of the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff. He was also known as Ogasawara Chōsei, Ogasawara Nagayo.Osami Nagano
Admiral of the Fleet Osami Nagano (永野 修身, Nagano Osami, June 15, 1880 – January 5, 1947) was a Japanese career naval officer and Admiral of the Fleet in the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1943. He was more of an administrative officer than a sea commander. From April 1941 to February 1944, he served as Chief of the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff. He was the founder of the Chiba Institute of Technology. Nagano was arrested by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East but died of natural causes in prison during the trial.Shōwa Modan
Shōwa Modern (昭和モダン), or "Shōwa's modernness," is the culture of the compromise between Japanese and Western styles that started at the beginning of the Shōwa period. Shōwa began after the Great Kantō earthquake in Taishō period, and its social condition was the times when the May 15 Incident and February 26 Incident happened and the war seems to be begin.
The term was used for the song title of Masayoshi Yamazaki in the 2007 tribute album of Ryoichi Hattori. Hattori was a famous composer during the period.
In those days, the lifestyle was changing rapidly. Japanese women began to wear Western clothes and hats in contrast with the traditional kimono and previous Japanese hairstyles. Female bus conductors were called basu gāru, and wore the latest trends in (Japanese) Western fashion, thus earning the title moga, (from modern girl).
Houses were built along railway lines. People living there did some shopping at the department store of the terminal, and called in at the restaurant or the cafe in the return from it in the holiday.Supreme War Council (Japan)
The Supreme War Council (軍事参議院, Gunji sangiin) was established during the development of representative government in Meiji period Japan to further strengthen the authority of the state. Its first leader was Yamagata Aritomo (1838–1922), a Chōshū native who has been credited with the founding of the modern Imperial Japanese Army and was the first constitutional Prime Minister of Japan. The Supreme War Council developed a German-style general staff system with a chief of staff who had direct access to the Emperor and who could operate independently of the army minister and civilian officials. The Supreme War Council was the de facto inner cabinet of Japan prior to the Second Sino-Japanese War.Takebashi incident
The Takebashi incident was an armed rebellion that occurred on August 23, 1878, in which 260 members of the Imperial Guard of the Imperial Japanese Army mutinied and killed officers. The motivation for the incident was the desire of those individuals to be paid for their part in quelling the Satsuma Rebellion. The rioters were stationed at the Imperial Guard headquarters in Takebashi, which was just north of Akasaka Palace. The rioters were planning on burning down the palace. The government executed 53 of the rioters after putting down the mutiny.Tokubetsu Kōtō Keisatsu
The Tokubetsu Kōtō Keisatsu (特別高等警察, Special Higher Police), also the Tokkō (特高, Tokkō), was established, in 1911, for the high policing, investigation, and control of political groups and ideologies deemed to threaten the public order of the Empire of Japan. As the civilian counterpart to the military police forces of the Kenpeitai (army) and of the Tokkeitai (navy), the Tokkō's functions were criminal investigation and counter-espionage. The Tokubetsu Kōtō Keisatsu was also known as the Peace Police (治安警察, Chian Keisatsu) and as the Thought Police (思想警察, Shisō Keisatsu).Yamashita Gentarō
Baron Yamashita Gentarō (山下 源太郎, 30 July 1863 – 18 February 1931) was an admiral in the early Imperial Japanese Navy.