Imperial Japanese Army

The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA; 大日本帝國陸軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun; "Army of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945. It was controlled by the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office and the Ministry of the Army, both of which were nominally subordinate to the Emperor of Japan as supreme commander of the army and the navy. Later an Inspectorate General of Aviation became the third agency with oversight of the army. During wartime or national emergencies, the nominal command functions of the emperor would be centralized in an Imperial General Headquarters (IGHQ), an ad-hoc body consisting of the chief and vice chief of the Army General Staff, the Minister of the Army, the chief and vice chief of the Naval General Staff, the Inspector General of Aviation, and the Inspector General of Military Training.

Imperial Japanese Army
大日本帝國陸軍
Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun
War flag of the Imperial Japanese Army (1868–1945)
The ensign of the Imperial Japanese Army
Active1868–1945
Country Empire of Japan
Allegiance Emperor of Japan
TypeArmy
RoleMilitary ground force
Size6,095,000 in August 1945
Nickname(s)"IJA"
Engagements
Commanders
Notable
commanders

Origins (1868–1871)

In the mid-19th century, Japan had no unified national army and the country was made up of feudal domains (han) with the Tokugawa shogunate (bakufu) in overall control, which had ruled Japan since 1603. The bakufu army, although large force, was only one among others, and bakufu efforts to control the nation depended upon the cooperation of its vassals' armies.[1] The opening of the country after two centuries of seclusion subsequently led to the Meiji Restoration and the Boshin War in 1868. The domains of Satsuma and Chōshū came to dominate the coalition against the shogunate.

Boshin War

Great victory of Kangun Imperial forces
Ukiyo-E, depicting the retreat of shogunate forces in front of the Imperial Army (Kangun). Yodo Castle is shown in the background.

On 27 January 1868, tensions between the shogunate and imperial sides came to a head when Tokugawa Yoshinobu marched on Kyoto, accompanied by a 15,000-strong force consisting of troops that had been trained by French military advisers. They were opposed by 5,000 troops from the Satsuma, Chōshū, and Tosa domains. At the two road junctions of Toba and Fushimi just south of Kyoto, the two forces clashed. On the second day, an Imperial banner was given to the defending troops and a relative of the Emperor, Ninnajinomiya Yoshiaki, was named nominal commander in chief, in effect making the pro-imperial forces officially an Imperial army (官軍 kangun).[2] The bafuku forces eventually retreated to Osaka, with the remaining forces ordered to retreat to Edo. Yoshinobu and his closest advisors left for Edo by ship.[3] The encounter at Toba–Fushimi between the imperial and shogunate forces marked the beginning of the conflict. With the court in Kyoto firmly behind the Satsuma-Chōshū-Tosa coalition, other domains that were sympathetic to the cause—such as Tottori (Inaba), Aki (Hiroshima), and Hizen (Saga)—emerged to take a more active role in military operations.[4] Western domains that had either supported the shogunate or remained neutral also quickly announced their support of the restoration movement.[4]

The nascent Meiji state required a new military command for its operations against the shogunate. In 1868, the "Imperial Army" being just a loose amalgam of domain armies, the government created four military divisions: the Tōkaidō, Tōsandō, San'indō, and Hokurikudō, each of which was named for a major highway.[5] Overseeing these four armies was a new high command, the Eastern Expeditionary High Command (Tōsei daisō tokufu), whose nominal head was prince Arisugawa-no-miya, with two court nobles as senior staff officers.[5] This connected the loose assembly of domain forces with the imperial court, which was the only national institution in a still unformed nation-state.[5] The army continually emphasized its link with the imperial court: firstly, to legitimize its cause; secondly, to brand enemies of the imperial government as enemies of the court and traitors; and, lastly, to gain popular support.[6] To supply food, weapons, and other supplies for the campaign, the imperial government established logistical relay stations along three major highways. These small depots held stockpiled material supplied by local pro-government domains, or confiscated from the bafuku and others opposing the imperial government. Local villagers were routinely impressed as porters to move and deliver supplies between the depots and frontline units.[6]

Struggles to form a centralized army

Initially, the new army fought under makeshift arrangements, with unclear channels of command and control and no reliable recruiting base.[6] Although fighting for the imperial cause, many of the units were loyal to their domains rather than the imperial court. In March 1869, the imperial government created various administrative offices, including a military branch; and in the following month organized an imperial bodyguard of 400 to 500, which consisted of Satsuma and Chōshū troops strengthened by veterans of the encounter at Toba–Fushimi, as well as yeoman and masterless samurai from various domains.[6] The imperial court told the domains to restrict the size of their local armies and to contribute to funding a national officers' training school in Kyoto.[6] However, within a few months the government disbanded both the military branch and the imperial bodyguard: the former was ineffective while the latter lacked modern weaponry and equipment. To replace them, two new organizations were created. One was the military affairs directorate which was composed of two bureaus, one for the army and one for the navy. The directorate drafted an army from troop contributions from each domain proportional to each domain's annual rice production (koku). This conscript army (chōheigun) integrated samurai and commoners from various domains into its ranks.[6] As the war continued, the military affairs directorate expected to raise troops from the wealthier domains and, in June, the organization of the army was fixed, where each domain was required to send ten men for each 10,000 koku of rice produced. However, this policy put the imperial government in direct competition with the domains for military recruitment, which was not rectified until April 1868, when the government banned the domains from enlisting troops. Consequently, the quota system never fully worked as intended and was abolished the following year.[6]

The Imperial forces encountered numerous difficulties during the war, especially during the campaign in Eastern Japan. Headquarters in faraway Kyoto often proposed plans at odds with the local conditions, which led to tensions with officers in the field, who in many cases ignored centralized direction in favor of unilateral action.[7] The army lacked a strong central staff that was capable of enforcing orders. Consequently, military units were at the mercy of individual commanders' leadership and direction. This was not helped by the absence of a unified tactical doctrine, which left units to fight according to the tactics favored by their respective commanders. There was increased resentment by many lower ranked commanders as senior army positions were monopolized by the nobility together with samurai from Chōshū and Satsuma.[7] The use of commoners within the new army created resentment among the samurai class. Although the nascent Meiji government achieved military success, the war left a residue of disgruntled warriors and marginalized commoners, together with a torn social fabric.[8]

Foundation of a national army (1871–1873)

Aritomo Yamagata 3
Prince Aritomo Yamagata, a field marshal in the Imperial Japanese Army and twice Prime Minister of Japan. He was one of the main architects of the military foundations of early modern Japan.

After the defeat of the Tokugawa shogunate and operations in Northeastern Honshu and Hokkaido a true national army did not exist. Many in the restoration coalition had recognized the need for a strong centralized authority and although the imperial side was victorious, the early Meiji government was weak and the leaders had to maintain their standing with their domains whose military forces was essential for whatever the government needed to achieve.[9] The leaders of the restoration were divided over the future organization of the army. Ōmura Masujirō who had sought a strong central government at the expense of the domains advocated for the creation of a standing national army along European lines under the control of the government, the introduction of conscription for commoners and the abolition of the samurai class.[8] Ōkubo Toshimichi preferred a small volunteer force consisting of former samurai.[8][10] Ōmura's views for modernizing Japan's military led to his assassination in 1869 and his ideas were largely implemented after his death by Yamagata Aritomo. Yamagata had commanded mixed commoner-samurai Chōshū units during the Boshin War and was convinced of the merit of peasant soldiers.[11] Although he himself was part of the samurai class, albeit of insignificant lower status, Yamagata distrusted the warrior class, several members of whom he regarded as clear dangers to the Meiji state.[12]

Establishment of the Imperial Guard and institutional reforms

Japanese first Royal Guards
A contingent of the Imperial Guard during an inspection in 1872.

In March 1871, the War Ministry announced the creation of an Imperial Guard (Goshinpei) of six thousand men,[13] consisting of nine infantry battalions, two artillery batteries and two cavalry squadrons.[14] The emperor donated 100,000 ryō to underwrite the new unit, which was subordinate to the court.[15] It was composed of members of the Satsuma, Chōshū and Tosa domains, who had led the restoration. Satsuma provided four battalions of infantry and four artillery batteries; Chōshū provided three battalions of infantry; Tosa two battalions of infantry, two squadrons of cavalry, and two artillery batteries.[13] For the first time, the Meiji government was able to organize a large body of soldiers under a consistent rank and pay scheme with uniforms, which were loyal to the government rather than the domains.[13] The Imperial Guard's principal mission was to protect the throne by suppressing domestic samurai revolts, peasant uprisings and anti-government demonstrations.[16] The possession of this military force was a factor in the government's abolition of the han system.

The military ministry (Hyōbushō) was reorganized in July 1871; on August 29, simultaneously with the decree abolishing the domains, the Dajōkan ordered local daimyos to disband their private armies and turn their weapons over to the government.[16] Although the government played on the foreign threat, especially Russia's southward expansion, to justify a national army, the immediately perceived danger was domestic insurrection.[16] Consequently, on August 31, the country was divided into four military districts, each with its own chindai (garrison) to deal with peasant uprisings or samurai insurrections. The Imperial Guard formed the Tokyo garrison, whereas troops from the former domains filled the ranks of the Osaka, Kumamoto, and Sendai garrisons. The four garrisons had a total of about 8,000 troops—mostly infantry, but also a few hundred artillerymen and engineers.[16] Smaller detachments of troops also guarded outposts at Kagoshima, Fushimi, Nagoya, Hiroshima, and elsewhere. By late December 1871, the army set modernization and coastal defense as priorities; long-term plans were devised for an armed force to maintain internal security, defend strategic coastal areas, train and educate military and naval officers, and build arsenals and supply depots.[16] Despite previous rhetoric about the foreign menace, little substantive planning was directed against Russia. In February 1872, the military ministry was abolished and separate army and navy ministries were established.[16]

Conscription

Nozu Michitsura
Marquis Nozu Michitsura, a field marshal in the early Imperial Japanese Army. He was appointed as chief of staff of the Imperial Guards Brigade in 1874.

The conscription ordinance enacted on January 10, 1873, made universal military service compulsory for all male subjects in the country. The law called for a total of seven years of military service: three years in the regular army (jōbigun), two years in the reserve (dai'ichi kōbigun), and an additional two years in the second reserve (daini kōbigun).[17] All able-bodied males between the ages of 17 and 40 were considered members of the national guard (kokumingun), which would only see service in a severe national crisis, such as an attack or invasion of Japan. The conscription examination decided which group of recruits would enter the army, those who failed the exam were excused from all examinations except for the national guard. Recruits who passed entered the draft lottery, where some were selected for active duty. A smaller group would be selected for replacement duty (hojū-eki) should anything happen to any of the active duty soldiers; the rest were dismissed.[17] One of the primary differences between the samurai and the peasant class was the right to bear arms; this ancient privilege was suddenly extended to every male in the nation.[18] There were several exemptions, including criminals, those who could show hardship, the physically unfit, heads of households or heirs, students, government bureaucrats, and teachers.[12] A conscript could also purchase an exemption for ¥270, which was an enormous sum for the time and which restricted this privilege to the wealthy.[12] Under the new 1873 ordinance, the conscript army was composed mainly of second and third sons of impoverished farmers who manned the regional garrisons, while former samurai controlled the Imperial Guard and the Tokyo garrison.[12]

Initially, because of the army's small size and numerous exemptions, relatively few young men were actually conscripted for a three-year term on active duty.[12] In 1873, the army numbered approximately 17,900 from a population of 35 million at the time; it doubled to about 33,000 in 1875.[12] The conscription program slowly built up the numbers. Public unrest began in 1874, reaching the apex in the Satsuma Rebellion of 1877, which used the slogans, "oppose conscription", "oppose elementary schools", and "fight Korea". It took a year for the new army to crush the uprising, but the victories proved critical in creating and stabilizing the Imperial government and to realize sweeping social, economic and political reforms that enabled Japan to become a modern state that could stand comparison to France, Germany, and other European powers.

Further development and modernization (1873–1894)

Foreign assistance

The early Imperial Japanese Army was developed with the assistance of advisors from France,[19] through the second French military mission to Japan (1872–80), and the third French military mission to Japan (1884–89). However, after France's defeat in 1871 the Japanese government switched to the victorious Germans as a model. From 1886 to April 1890, it hired German military advisors (Major Jakob Meckel, replaced in 1888 by von Wildenbrück and Captain von Blankenbourg) to assist in the training of the Japanese General Staff. In 1878, the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office, based on the German General Staff, was established directly under the Emperor and was given broad powers for military planning and strategy.

Other known foreign military consultants were Major Pompeo Grillo from the Kingdom of Italy, who worked at the Osaka foundry from 1884 to 1888, followed by Major Quaratezi from 1889 to 1890; and Captain Schermbeck from the Netherlands, who worked on improving coastal defenses from 1883 to 1886. Japan did not use foreign military advisors between 1890 and 1918, until the French military mission to Japan (1918–19), headed by Commandant Jacques-Paul Faure, was requested to assist in the development of the Japanese air services.[20]

Taiwan Expedition

KoishikawaArtillery1882
Japanese artillery unit, at the Koishikawa arsenal, Tokyo, in 1882. Photographed by Hugues Krafft.

The Japanese invasion of Taiwan under Qing rule in 1874 was a punitive expedition by Japanese military forces in response to the Mudan Incident of December 1871. The Paiwan people, who are indigenous peoples of Taiwan, murdered 54 crewmembers of a wrecked merchant vessel from the Ryukyu Kingdom on the southwestern tip of Taiwan. 12 men were rescued by the local Chinese-speaking community and were transferred to Miyako-jima in the Ryukyu Islands. The Empire of Japan used this as an excuse to both assert sovereignty over the Ryukyu Kingdom, which was a tributary state of both Japan and Qing China at the time, and to attempt the same with Taiwan, a Qing territory. It marked the first overseas deployment of the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy.[21]

An Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors of 1882 called for unquestioning loyalty to the Emperor by the new armed forces and asserted that commands from superior officers were equivalent to commands from the Emperor himself. Thenceforth, the military existed in an intimate and privileged relationship with the imperial institution.

Top-ranking military leaders were given direct access to the Emperor and the authority to transmit his pronouncements directly to the troops. The sympathetic relationship between conscripts and officers, particularly junior officers who were drawn mostly from the peasantry, tended to draw the military closer to the people. In time, most people came to look more for guidance in national matters more to military than to political leaders.

Maresuke Nogi 2 cropped
Count Nogi Maresuke, a general in the Imperial Japanese Army and the third governor of Taiwan.

By the 1890s, the Imperial Japanese Army had grown to become the most modern army in Asia: well-trained, well-equipped, and with good morale. However, it was basically an infantry force deficient in cavalry and artillery when compared with its European contemporaries. Artillery pieces, which were purchased from America and a variety of European nations, presented two problems: they were scarce, and the relatively small number that were available were of several different calibers, causing problems with ammunition supply.

First Sino-Japanese War

Sino Japanese war 1894
Japanese troops during the Sino-Japanese War.

In the early months of 1894, the Donghak Rebellion broke out in southern Korea and had soon spread throughout the rest of the country, threatening the Korea capital Seoul, itself. The Chinese, since the beginning of May had taken steps to prepare the mobilization of their forces in the provinces of Zhili, Shandong and in Manchuria, as a result of the tense situation on the Korean peninsula.[22] These actions were planned more as an armed demonstration intended to strengthen the Chinese position in Korea, rather than as a preparation for war with Japan.[22] On June 3, the Chinese government accepted the requests from the Korean government to send troops to help quell the rebellion, additionally they also informed the Japanese of the action. It was decided to send 2,500 men to Asan, about 70 km from the capital Seoul. The troops arrived in Asan on June 9 and were additionally reinforced by 400 more on June 25, a total of about 2,900 Chinese soldiers were at Asan.[22]

From the very outset the developments in Korea had been carefully observed in Tokyo. Japanese government had soon become convinced that the Donghak Rebellion would lead to Chinese intervention in Korea. As a result, soon after learning word about the Korean government's request for Chinese military help, immediately ordered all warships in the vicinity to be sent to Pusan and Chemulpo.[22] On June 9, a formation of 420 rikusentai, selected from the crews of the Japanese warships was immediately dispatched to Seoul, where they served temporarily as a counterbalance to the Chinese troops camped at Asan.[23] Simultaneously, the Japanese decided to send a reinforced brigade of approximately 8,000 troops to Korea.[24] The reinforced brigade, included auxiliary units, under the command of General Oshima Yoshimasa was fully transported to Korea by June 27.[24] The Japanese stated to the Chinese that they were willing to withdraw the brigade under General Oshima if the Chinese left Asan prior.[24] However, when on 16 July, 8,000 Chinese troops landed near the entrance of the Taedong River to reinforce Chinese troops garrisoned in Pyongyang, the Japanese delivered Li Hongzhang an ultimatum, threatening to take action if any further troops were sent to Korea. Consequently, General Oshima in Seoul and commanders of the Japanese warships in Korean waters received orders allowing them to initiate military operations in the event that any more Chinese troops were sent to Korea.[24] Despite this ultimatum, Li, considered that Japanese were bluffing and were trying to probe the Chinese readiness to make concessions.[24] He decided, therefore to reinforce Chinese forces in Asan with a further 2,500 troops, 1,300 of which arrived in Asan during the night of July 23–24. At the same time, in the early morning of July 23, the Japanese had taken control of the Royal Palace in Seoul and imprisoned the King Gojong, forcing him to renounce ties with China.[25]

During the almost two-month interval prior to the declaration of war, the two service staffs developed a two-stage operational plan against China. The army's 5th Division would land at Chemulpo to prevent a Chinese advance in Korea while the navy would engage the Beiyang fleet in a decisive battle in order to secure control of the seas.[26] If the navy defeated the Chinese fleet decisively and secured command of the seas, the larger part of the army would undertake immediate landings on the coast between Shanhaiguan and Tientsin, and advance to the Zhili plain in order to defeat the main Chinese forces and bring the war to a swift conclusion.[26] If neither side gained control of the sea and supremacy, the army would concentrate on the occupation of Korea and exclude Chinese influence there.[26] Lastly, if the navy was defeated and consequently lost command of the sea, Japanese forces in Korea would be ordered to hang on and fight a rearguard action while the bulk of the army would remain in Japan in preparation to repel a Chinese invasion. This worst-case scenario also foresaw attempts to rescue the beleaguered 5th Division in Korea while simultaneously strengthening homeland defenses. The army's contingency plans which were both offensive and defensive, depended on the outcome of the naval operations.[27]

Clashes between Chinese and Japanese forces at Pungdo and Seongwhan caused irreversible changes to Sino-Japanese relations and meant that a state of war now existed between the two countries.[28] The two governments officially declared war on August 1. Initially, the general staff's objective was to secure the Korean peninsula before the arrival of winter and then land forces near Shanhaiguan.[29] However, as the navy was unable to bring the Beiyang fleet into battle in mid-August, temporarily withdrew from the Yellow Sea to refit and replenish its ships.[30] As a consequence, in late August the general staff ordered an advance overland to the Zhili plain via Korea in order to the capture bases on the Liaodong Peninsula to prevent Chinese forces from interfering with the drive on Beijing.[30] The First Army with two divisions was activated on September 1. In mid-September 17, the Chinese forces defeated at Pyongyang and occupied the city, as the remaining Chinese troops retreated northward. The navy's stunning victory in the Yalu on September 17, was crucial to the Japanese as it allowed the Second Army with three divisions and one brigade to land unopposed on the Liaodong Peninsula about 100 miles north of Port Arthur which controlled the entry to the Bohai Gulf, in mid-October.[30] While, the First Army pursued the remaining Chinese forces from Korea across the Yalu River, Second Army occupied the city of Dairen on November 8 and then seized the fortress and harbor at Port Arthur on November 25. Farther north, the First army's offensive stalled and was beset by supply problems and winter weather.[30]

Boxer Rebellion

JapaneseArmy1900
Soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army in 1900

In 1899–1900, Boxer attacks against foreigners in China intensified, resulting in the siege of the diplomatic legations in Beijing. An international force consisting of British, French, Russian, German, Italian, Austro-Hungarian, American, and Japanese troops was eventually assembled to relieve the legations. The Japanese provided the largest contingent of troops, 20,840, as well as 18 warships.

A small, hastily assembled, vanguard force of about 2,000 troops, under the command of British Admiral Edward Seymour, departed by rail, from Tianjin, for the legations in early June.[31] On June 12, mixed Boxer and Chinese regular army forces halted the advance, some 30 miles from the capital. The road-bound and badly outnumbered allies withdrew to the vicinity of Tianjin, having suffered more than 300 casualties.[31] The army general staff in Tokyo became aware of the worsening conditions in China and had drafted ambitious contingency plans,[32] but the government, in light of the Triple Intervention refused to deploy large forces unless requested by the western powers.[32] However, three days later, the general staff did dispatch a provisional force of 1,300 troops, commanded by Major General Fukushima Yasumasa, to northern China. Fukushima was chosen because his ability to speak fluent English which enabled him to communicate with the British commander. The force landed near Tianjin on July 5.[32]

On June 17, with tensions increasing, naval Rikusentai from Japanese ships had joined British, Russian, and German sailors to seize the Dagu forts near Tianjin.[32] Four days later, the Qing court declared war on the foreign powers. The British, in light of the precarious situation, were compelled to ask Japan for additional reinforcements, as the Japanese had the only readily available forces in the region.[32] Britain at the time was heavily engaged in the Boer War, and, consequently, a large part of the British army was tied down in South Africa. Deploying large numbers of troops from British garrisons in India would take too much time and weaken internal security there.[32] Overriding personal doubts, Foreign Minister Aoki Shūzō calculated that the advantages of participating in an allied coalition were too attractive to ignore. Prime Minister Yamagata likewise concurred, but others in the cabinet demanded that there be guarantees from the British in return for the risks and costs of a major deployment of Japanese troops.[32] On July 6, the 5th Infantry Division was alerted for possible deployment to China, but without a timetable being set. Two days later, on July 8, with more ground troops urgently needed to lift the siege of the foreign legations at Peking, the British ambassador offered the Japanese government one million British pounds in exchange for Japanese participation.[32]

Shortly afterward, advance units of the 5th Division departed for China, bringing Japanese strength to 3,800 personnel, of the then-17,000 allied force.[32] The commander of the 5th Division, Lt. General Yamaguchi Motoomi, had taken operational control from Fukushima. A second, stronger allied expeditionary army stormed Tianjin, on July 14, and occupied the city.[32] The allies then consolidated and awaited the remainder of the 5th Division and other coalition reinforcements. In early August, the expedition pushed towards the capital where on August 14, it lifted the Boxer siege. By that time, the 13,000-strong Japanese force was the largest single contingent, making up about 40 percent of the approximately 33,000 strong allied expeditionary force.[32] Japanese troops involved in the fighting had acquitted themselves well, although a British military observer felt their aggressiveness, densely packed formations, and over-willingness to attack cost them excessive casualties.[33] For example, during the Tianjin fighting, the Japanese, while comprising less than one quarter (3,800) of the total allied force of 17,000, suffered more than half of the casualties, 400 out of 730.[33] Similarly at Beijing, the Japanese, constituting slightly less than half of the assault force, accounted for almost two-thirds of the losses, 280 of 453.[33]

Russo-Japanese War

Ōshima Ken'ichi in 1917
Ōshima Ken'ichi, Minister of War during the period.
Guerra ruso-japonesa, entrada del alojamiento del general Asaki, delante de Sandepú
Japanese riflemen in the Russo-Japanese War

The Russo–Japanese War (1904–1905) was the result of tensions between Russia and Japan, grown largely out of rival imperialist ambitions toward Manchuria and Korea. The Japanese army inflicted severe losses against the Russians; however, they were not able to deal a decisive blow to the Russian armies. Over-reliance on infantry led to large casualties among Japanese forces, especially during the siege of Port Arthur.

World War I

The Empire of Japan entered the war on the Entente side. Although tentative plans were made to send an expeditionary force of between 100,000 and 500,000 men to France,[34] ultimately the only action in which the Imperial Japanese Army was involved was the careful and well executed attack on the German concession of Qingdao in 1914.[35]

Inter-war years

Siberian intervention

During 1917–18, Japan continued to extend its influence and privileges in China via the Nishihara Loans. During the Siberian Intervention, following the collapse of the Russian Empire after the Bolshevik Revolution, the Imperial Japanese Army initially planned to send more than 70,000 troops to occupy Siberia as far west as Lake Baikal. The army general staff came to view the Tsarist collapse as an opportunity to free Japan from any future threat from Russia by detaching Siberia and forming an independent buffer state.[36] The plan was scaled back considerably due to opposition from the United States.

In July 1918, the U.S. President, Woodrow Wilson, asked the Japanese government to supply 7,000 troops as part of an international coalition of 24,000 troops to support the American Expeditionary Force Siberia.[37] After a heated debate in the Diet, the government of Prime Minister Terauchi Masatake agreed to send 12,000 troops, but under the command of Japan, rather than as part of an international coalition. Japan and the United States sent forces to Siberia to bolster the armies of the White movement leader Admiral Aleksandr Kolchak against the Bolshevik Red Army.

Once the political decision had been reached, the Imperial Japanese Army took over full control under Chief of Staff General Yui Mitsue; and by November 1918, more than 70,000[37] Japanese troops had occupied all ports and major towns in the Russian Maritime Provinces and eastern Siberia.

In June 1920, the United States and its allied coalition partners withdrew from Vladivostok, after the capture and execution of the White Army leader, Admiral Kolchak, by the Red Army. However, the Japanese decided to stay, primarily due to fears of the spread of communism so close to Japan and Japanese-controlled Korea and Manchuria. The Japanese Army provided military support to the Japanese-backed Provisional Priamurye Government, based in Vladivostok, against the Moscow-backed Far Eastern Republic.

The continued Japanese presence concerned the United States, which suspected that Japan had territorial designs on Siberia and the Russian Far East. Subjected to intense diplomatic pressure by the United States and Great Britain, and facing increasing domestic opposition due to the economic and human cost, the administration of Prime Minister Katō Tomosaburō withdrew the Japanese forces in October 1922.[38]

Rise of militarism

In the 1920s the Imperial Japanese Army expanded rapidly and by 1927 had a force of 300,000 men. Unlike western countries, the Army enjoyed a great deal of independence from government. Under the provisions of the Meiji Constitution, the War Minister was held accountable only to the Emperor (Hirohito) himself, and not to the elected civilian government. In fact, Japanese civilian administrations needed the support of the Army in order to survive. The Army controlled the appointment of the War Minister, and in 1936 a law was passed that stipulated that only an active duty general or lieutenant-general could hold the post.[39] As a result, military spending as a proportion of the national budget rose disproportionately in the 1920s and 1930s, and various factions within the military exerted disproportionate influence on Japanese foreign policy.

The Imperial Japanese Army was originally known simply as the Army (rikugun) but after 1928, as part of the Army's turn toward romantic nationalism and also in the service of its political ambitions, it retitled itself the Imperial Army (kōgun).

Conflict with China

In 1931, the Imperial Japanese Army had an overall strength of 198,880 officers and men, organized into 17 divisions.[40] The Manchurian incident, as it became known in Japan, was a pretended sabotage of a local Japanese-owned railway, an attack staged by Japan but blamed on Chinese dissidents. Action by the military, largely independent of the civilian leadership, led to the invasion of Manchuria in 1931 and, later, to the Second Sino-Japanese War, in 1937. As war approached, the Imperial Army's influence with the Emperor waned and the influence of the Imperial Japanese Navy increased.[41] Nevertheless, by 1938 the Army had been expanded to 34 divisions.[42]

Conflict with the Soviet Union

From 1932 to 1945 the Empire of Japan and the Soviet Union had a series of conflicts. Japan had set its military sights on Soviet territory as a result of the Hokushin-ron doctrine, and the Japanese establishment of a puppet state in Manchuria brought the two countries into conflict. The war lasted on and off with the last battles of the 1930s (the Battle of Lake Khasan and the Battles of Khalkhin Gol) ending in a decisive victory for the Soviets. The conflicts stopped with the signing of the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact on April 13, 1941.[43] However, later, at the Yalta Conference, Stalin agreed to declare war on Japan; and on August 5, 1945, the Soviet Union voided their neutrality agreement with Japan.[44]

World War II

"Japanese Army Uniform" - NARA - 514675
Army uniform between 1941 and 1945

In 1941, the Imperial Japanese Army had 51 divisions[42] and various special-purpose artillery, cavalry, anti-aircraft, and armored units with a total of 1,700,000 men. At the beginning of the Second World War, most of the Japanese Army (27 divisions) was stationed in China. A further 13 divisions defended the Mongolian border, due to concerns about a possible attack by the Soviet Union.[42] From 1942, soldiers were sent to Hong Kong (23rd Army), the Philippines (14th Army), Thailand (15th Army), Burma (15th Army), Dutch East Indies (16th Army), and Malaya (25th Army).[45] By 1945, there were 5.5 million men in the Imperial Japanese Army.

Type 97 Shinhoto Chi-Ha, side view
Type 97 Chi-Ha, the most widely produced Japanese medium tank of World War II.

From 1943, Japanese troops suffered from a shortage of supplies, especially food, medicine, munitions, and armaments, largely due to submarine interdiction of supplies, and losses to Japanese shipping, which was worsened by a longstanding rivalry with the Imperial Japanese Navy. The lack of supplies caused large numbers of fighter aircraft to become unserviceable for lack of spare parts,[46] and "as many as two-thirds of Japan's total military deaths [to result] from illness or starvation".[47]

War crimes

Throughout the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II, the Imperial Japanese Army had shown immense brutality and engaged in numerous atrocities against civilians, as well as prisoners of war – with the Nanking Massacre being the most well known example.[48] Such atrocities throughout the war caused many millions of deaths.[49]

Post-World War II

Ground Self-Defense Force

Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution renounced the right to use force as a means of resolving disputes.[50] This was enacted by the Japanese in order to prevent militarism, which had led to conflict. However, in 1947 the Public Security Force was formed; later in 1954, in the early stages of the Cold War, the Public Security Force formed the basis of the newly created Ground Self-Defense Force.[51] Although significantly smaller than the former Imperial Japanese Army and nominally for defensive purposes only, this force constitutes the modern army of Japan.

Continued resistance

Separately, some soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army continued to fight on isolated Pacific islands until at least the 1970s, with the last known Japanese soldier surrendering in 1974. Intelligence officer Hiroo Onoda, who surrendered on Lubang Island in the Philippines in March 1974, and Teruo Nakamura, who surrendered on the Indonesian island of Morotai in December 1974, appear to have been the last holdouts.[52][53][54][55][54][55]

Growth and organization of the IJA

Map of Japanese Army Ground Forces in the home islands August 18 1945
Disposition of Japanese Army Ground Forces in Japan at the time of capitulation, 18 August 1945.
  • 1870: consisted of 12,000 men.
  • 1873: Seven divisions of c. 36,000 men (c. 46,250 including reserves)
  • 1885: consisted of seven divisions including the Imperial Guard Division.
  • In the early 1900s, the IJA consisted of 12 divisions, the Imperial Guard Division, and numerous other units. These contained the following:
    • 380,000 active duty and 1st Reserve personnel: former Class A and B(1) conscripts after two-year active tour with 17 and 1/2 year commitment
    • 50,000 Second line Reserve: Same as above but former Class B(2) conscripts
    • 220,000 National Army
      • 1st National Army: 37- to 40-year-old men from end of 1st Reserve to 40 years old.
      • 2nd National Army: untrained 20-year-olds and over-40-year-old trained reserves.
    • 4,250,000 men available for service and mobilization.
  • 1922: 21 divisions and 308,000 men
  • 1924: Post-WWI reductions to 16 divisions and 250,800 men
  • 1925: Reduction to 12 divisions
  • 1934: army increased to 17 divisions
  • 1936: 250,000 active.
  • 1940: 376,000 active with 2 million reserves in 31 divisions
    • 2 divisions in Japan (Imperial Guard plus one other)
    • 2 divisions in Korea
    • 27 divisions in China and Manchuria
  • In late 1941: 460,000 active in 41 divisions
    • 2 divisions in Japan and Korea
    • 12 divisions in Manchuria
    • 27 divisions in China
    • plus 59 brigade equivalents.
      • Independent brigades, Independent Mixed Brigades, Cavalry Brigades, Amphibious Brigades, Independent Mixed regiments, Independent Regiments.
  • 1945: 5 million active in 145 divisions (includes three Imperial Guard), plus numerous individual units, with a large Volunteer Fighting Corps.
    • includes 650,000 Imperial Japanese Army Air Service.
    • Japan Defense Army in 1945 had 55 divisions (53 Infantry and two armor) and 32 brigades (25 infantry and seven armor) with 2.35 million men.
    • 2.25 million Army Labour Troops
    • 1.3 million Navy Labour Troops
    • 250,000 Special Garrison Force
    • 20,000 Kempetai[56]

Total military in August 1945 was 6,095,000 including 676,863 Army Air Service. [57]

Casualties

Over the course of the Imperial Japanese Army's existence, millions of its soldiers were either killed, wounded or listed as missing in action.

  • Taiwan Expedition of 1874: 543 (12 killed in battle and 531 by disease)
  • First Sino-Japanese War: The IJA suffered 1,132 dead and 3,758 wounded
  • Russo-Japanese War: The number of total Japanese dead in combat is put at around 47,000, with around 80,000 if disease is included
  • World War I: 1,455 Japanese were killed, mostly at the Battle of Tsingtao
  • World War II:
    • Deaths
      • Between 2,120,000 and 2,190,000 Imperial Armed Forces dead including non-combat deaths (includes 1,760,955 killed in action),
      • KIA Breakdown by Theatre:
        • Army 1931–1945 [China: 435,600 KIA, Against U.S. Forces: 659,650 KIA, Burma Campaign: 163,000 KIA, Australian Combat Zone: 199,511 KIA, French Indochina: 7,900 KIA, U.S.S.R/Manchuria: 45,900 KIA, Others/Japan: 58,100 KIA][58]
        • Navy: 473,800 KIA All Theatres.
      • 672,000 known civilian dead,
    • 810,000 missing in action and presumed dead.
    • 7,500 prisoners of war

See also

References

  1. ^ Jansen 2002, p. 60.
  2. ^ Drea 2009, p. 8.
  3. ^ Jaundrill 2016, p. 86.
  4. ^ a b Jaundrill 2016, p. 87.
  5. ^ a b c Ravina 2004, p. 154.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Drea 2009, p. 10.
  7. ^ a b Drea 2009, p. 19.
  8. ^ a b c Drea 2009, p. 20.
  9. ^ Jansen 2002, p. 343.
  10. ^ Jaundrill 2016, p. 96.
  11. ^ Jansen 2002, p. 397.
  12. ^ a b c d e f Drea 2009, p. 29.
  13. ^ a b c Jaundrill 2016, p. 95.
  14. ^ Drea 2003, p. 76.
  15. ^ Drea 2009, p. 23.
  16. ^ a b c d e f Drea 2009, p. 24.
  17. ^ a b Jaundrill 2016, p. 107.
  18. ^ Harries & Harries 1994, pp. 22–29.
  19. ^ Harries & Harries 1994, pp. 20–24.
  20. ^ Harries & Harries 1994, p. 363.
  21. ^ Harries & Harries 1994, p. 28.
  22. ^ a b c d Olender 2014, p. 42.
  23. ^ Olender 2014, p. 43.
  24. ^ a b c d e Olender 2014, p. 44.
  25. ^ Olender 2014, p. 45.
  26. ^ a b c Drea 2009, p. 79.
  27. ^ Drea 2009, p. 80.
  28. ^ Olender 2014, p. 56.
  29. ^ Drea 2009, pp. 82–83.
  30. ^ a b c d Drea 2009, p. 83.
  31. ^ a b Drea 2009, p. 97.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Drea 2009, p. 98.
  33. ^ a b c Drea 2009, p. 99.
  34. ^ Harries & Harries 1994, p. 109.
  35. ^ Harries & Harries 1994, pp. 110–111.
  36. ^ Humphreys 1996, p. 25.
  37. ^ a b Harries & Harries 1994, p. 123.
  38. ^ Harries & Harries 1994, p. 124.
  39. ^ Harries & Harries 1994, p. 193.
  40. ^ Kelman, p.41
  41. ^ Harries & Harries 1994, p. 197.
  42. ^ a b c Jowett 2002, p. 7.
  43. ^ Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact April 13, 1941. (Avalon Project at Yale University)
  44. ^ "Battlefield – Manchuria – The Forgotten Victory", Battlefield (documentary series), 2001, 98 minutes.
  45. ^ Jowett 2002, pp. 15–16, 21.
  46. ^ Bergerund, Eric. Fire in the Sky (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000).
  47. ^ Gilmore 1998, p. 150.
  48. ^ Harries & Harries 1994, pp. 475–476.
  49. ^ "Sterling and Peggy Seagrave: Gold Warriors".
  50. ^ Harries & Harries 1994, p. 471.
  51. ^ Harries & Harries 1994, p. 487.
  52. ^ Kristof, Nicholas D. "Shoichi Yokoi, 82, Is Dead; Japan Soldier Hid 27 Years", The New York Times. September 26, 1997.
  53. ^ "The Last PCS for Lieutenant Onoda", Pacific Stars and Stripes, March 13, 1974, p6
  54. ^ a b "Onoda Home; 'It Was 30 Years on Duty'", Pacific Stars and Stripes, March 14, 1974, p7
  55. ^ a b "The Last Last Soldier?", Time, January 13, 1975
  56. ^ The Japanese Army 1931–1945 (2) Osprey Men-at- Arms 369 Page 3 by Phillip Jowett Copyright 2002/03/04/05 ISBN 1 84176 354 3
  57. ^ pg 217–218, "The Army", Japan Year Book 1938–1939, Kenkyusha Press, Foreign Association of Japan, Tokyo
  58. ^ "Dispositions and deaths". Australia–Japan Research Project. 1964. Retrieved 29 December 2017.

Bibliography

  • Drea, Edward J. (2009). Japan's Imperial Army: Its Rise and Fall, 1853–1945. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-8032-1708-0.
  • Drea, Edward J. (2003). "The Imperial Japanese Army (1868–1945): Origins, Evolution, Legacy". War in the Modern World Since 1815. Routledge. ISBN 0-41525-140-0.
  • Gilmore, Allison B. (1998). You Can't Fight Tanks with Bayonets: Psychological Warfare against the Japanese Army in the South West Pacific. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-803-22167-3.
  • Harries, Meirion; Harries, Susie (1994). Soldiers of the Sun: The Rise and Fall of the Imperial Japanese Army. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-679-75303-6.
  • Humphreys, Leonard A. (1996). The Way of the Heavenly Sword: The Japanese Army in the 1920s. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-2375-3.
  • Jansen, Marius B. (2002). The Making of Modern Japan. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-6740-0334-9.
  • Jaundrill, Colin D. (2016). Benjamin A. Haynes (ed.). Samurai to Soldier: Remaking Military Service in Nineteenth-Century Japan. Melissa Haynes. Cornell University Press. ISBN 1-50170-664-0.
  • Jowett, Philip (2002). The Japanese Army 1931–45 (1). Botley, Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-353-5.
  • Olender, Piotr (2014). Sino-Japanese Naval War 1894–1895. MMPBooks. ISBN 8-36367-830-9.
  • Ravina, Mark (2004). The Last Samurai : The Life and Battles of Saigō Takamori. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-08970-2.

Further reading

  • Barker, A.J. (1979) Japanese Army Handbook, 1939-1945 (London: Ian Allan, 1979)
  • Best, Antony. (2002) British intelligence and the Japanese challenge in Asia, 1914-1941 (Palgrave/Macmillan, 2002).
  • Chen, Peter. "Horii, Tomitaro". World War II Database.
  • Bix, Herbert (2000). Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan. New York: HarperCollinsPublishers.
  • Denfeld, D. Colt. (1997) Hold the Marianas: The Japanese Defense of the Mariana Islands (White Mane Publishing Company, 1997).
  • Coox, A.D. (1985) Nomonhan: Japan against Russia, 1939 (Stanford UP, 1985)
  • Coox, A.D. (1988) "The Effectiveness of the Japanese Military Establishment in the Second World War", in A.R. Millett and W. Murray, eds, Military Effectiveness, Volume III: the Second World War (Allen & Unwin, 1988), pp. 1–44
  • Drea, Edward J. (1998). In the Service of the Emperor: Essays on the Imperial Japanese Army. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-1708-0.
  • Ford, Douglas. (2008) "'The best equipped army in Asia'?: US military intelligence and the Imperial Japanese Army before the Pacific War, 1919–1941." International journal of intelligence and counterintelligence 21.1 (2008): 86-121.
  • Ford, Douglas. (2009) "Dismantling the ‘Lesser Men’and ‘Supermen’ myths: US intelligence on the imperial Japanese army after the fall of the Philippines, winter 1942 to spring 1943." Intelligence and National Security 24.4 (2009): 542–573. online
  • Frühstück, Sabine. (2007) Uneasy warriors: Gender, memory, and popular culture in the Japanese army (Univ of California Press, 2007).
  • Gruhl, Werner. (2010) Imperial Japan's World War Two: 1931–1945 (Transaction Publishers).
  • Hayashi, Saburo; Alvin D. Coox (1959). Kogun: The Japanese Army in the Pacific War. Quantico, VA: The Marine Corps Association.
  • Kelman, Richard; Leo J. Daugherty (2002). Fighting Techniques of a Japanese Infantryman in World War II: Training, Techniques and Weapons. Zenith Imprint. ISBN 0-7603-1145-5.
  • Kublin, Hyman. "The 'Modern' Army of Early Meiji Japan". The Far Eastern Quarterly, 9#1 (1949), pp. 20–41.
  • Kuehn, John T. (2014) A Military History of Japan: From the Age of the Samurai to the 21st Century (ABC-CLIO, 2014).
  • Norman, E. Herbert. "Soldier and Peasant in Japan: The Origins of Conscription." Pacific Affairs 16#1 (1943), pp. 47–64.
  • Rottman, Gordon L. (2013) Japanese Army in World War II: Conquest of the Pacific 1941–42 (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2013).
  • Rottman, Gordon L. (2012) Japanese Infantryman 1937–45: Sword of the Empire (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2012).
  • Sisemore, Major James D. (2015) The Russo-Japanese War, Lessons Not Learned (Pickle Partners Publishing, 2015).
  • Wood, James B. (2007) Japanese Military Strategy in the Pacific War: Was Defeat Inevitable? (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2007).
  • Yenne, Bill. (2014) The Imperial Japanese Army: The Invincible Years 1941–42 (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2014).

Primary sources

  • United States War Department. TM 30–480 Handbook On Japanese Military Forces, 1942 (1942) online; 384pp; highly detailed description of wartime IJA by U.S. Army Intelligence.

External links

1936 Emperor's Cup Final

1936 Emperor's Cup Final was the 16th final of the Emperor's Cup competition. The final was played at Imperial Japanese Army Toyama School Ground in Tokyo on June 21, 1936. Keio BRB won the championship.

Army War College (Japan)

This article deals with the Empire of Japan's Army War College. For other war colleges, see: War College (disambiguation).

The Army War College (陸軍大学校, Rikugun Daigakkō); Short form: Rikudai (陸大) of the Empire of Japan was founded in 1882 in Minato, Tokyo to modernize and Westernize the Imperial Japanese Army. Much of the empire's elite including prime ministers during the period of Japanese militarism were graduates of the college.

Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department

The Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department was a department of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1936 to the dissolution of the Army in 1945. While its public mission was to prevent the spread of disease and monitor water supply, several field armies also assigned units the mission of manufacturing biological weapons. Many units also performed human experimentation.

Imperial General Headquarters

The Imperial General Headquarters (大本営, Daihon'ei) was part of the Supreme War Council and was established in 1893 to coordinate efforts between the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy during wartime. In terms of function, it was approximately equivalent to the United States Joint Chiefs of Staff and the British Chiefs of Staff Committee.

Imperial Guard (Japan)

The Japanese Imperial Guard (近衛師団, Konoe Shidan) is the name of two separate organizations dedicated to the protection of the Emperor of Japan and the Imperial Family, palaces and other imperial properties. The first was a quasi-independent branch of the Imperial Japanese Army which was dissolved at the end of World War II. The second is the Imperial Guard Headquarters (皇宮警察本部, Kōgū-Keisatsu Honbu), a civilian Imperial Guard formed as part of the National Police Agency.

Imperial Japanese Army Academy

The Imperial Japanese Army Academy (陸軍士官学校, Rikugun Shikan Gakkō) was the principal officer's training school for the Imperial Japanese Army. The programme consisted of a junior course for graduates of local army cadet schools and for those who had completed four years of middle school, and a senior course for officer candidates.

Imperial Japanese Army Air Service

The Imperial Japanese Army Air Service or Imperial Japanese Army Air Force (IJAAS or IJAAF) (大日本帝國陸軍航空部隊, Dainippon Teikoku Rikugun Kōkūbutai) or, more literally, the Greater Japan Empire Army Air Corps, was the aviation force of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA). Just as the IJA in general was modeled mainly on the German Army, the IJAAS initially developed along similar lines to the Imperial German Army Aviation; its primary mission was to provide tactical close air support for ground forces, as well as a limited air interdiction capability. The IJAAS also provided aerial reconnaissance to other branches of the IJA. While the IJAAS engaged in strategic bombing of cities such as Shanghai, Nanking, Canton, Chongqing, Rangoon, and Mandalay, this was not the primary mission of the IJAAS, and it lacked a heavy bomber force.

It did not usually control artillery spotter/observer aircraft; artillery battalions controlled the light aircraft and balloons that operated in these roles.

The Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service was responsible for long-range bomber and attack aircraft, as well as strategic air defense. It was not until the later stages of the Pacific War that the two air arms attempted to integrate the air defense of the home islands.

Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office

The Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office (参謀本部, Sanbō Honbu), also called the Army General Staff, was one of the two principal agencies charged with overseeing the Imperial Japanese Army.

Imperial Japanese Army Railways and Shipping Section

The Imperial Japanese Army Railway and Shipping Section was the logistics unit of the Imperial Japanese Army charged with shipping personnel, material and equipment from metropolitan Japan to the combat front overseas.

Imperial Way Faction

The Kōdōha or Imperial Way Faction (皇道派) was a political faction in the Imperial Japanese Army active in the 1920s and 1930s. The Kōdōha sought to establish a military government that promoted totalitarian, militarist, and aggressive expansionist ideals, and was largely supported by junior officers. The radical Kōdōha rivaled the moderate Tōseiha (Control Faction) for influence in the army until the February 26 Incident in 1936, when it was de facto dissolved and many supporters were disciplined or executed.

The Kōdōha was never an organized political party and had no official standing within the Army, but its ideology and supporters continued to influence Japanese militarism into the late 1930s.

Index of World War II articles (0–9)

1 Alpine Division Taurinense

1st Alpini Regiment

1 Cent WWII (Dutch coin)

1st Mountain Artillery Regiment (Italy)

1 vs 40 (Zipang manga)

1. Jagd-Division

1.1"/75 caliber gun

10 cm K 17

10.5 cm FlaK 38

10.5 cm leFH 16

10.5 cm leFH 18/40

10.5 cm leFH 18

10.5 cm leFH 18M

10.5 cm Leichtgeschütz 40

10.5 cm Leichtgeschütz 42

10.5 cm schwere Kanone 18

100 mm field gun M1944 (BS-3)

100th Division (United States)

100th Guards Rifle Division

100th Light Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

101st Airborne Division (United States)

101st Infantry Division (France)

101st Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

101st SS Heavy Panzer Detachment

102nd Fortress Division (France)

102nd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

102nd Infantry Division (United States)

103rd Infantry Division (United States)

104th Division (United States)

105 mm Howitzer M3

106th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

106th Infantry Division (United States)

107 mm divisional gun M1940 (M-60)

107 mm gun M1910/30

1077th Anti-Aircraft Regiment (Soviet Union)

10H64

10th Armored Division (United States)

10th Armoured Cavalry Brigade (Poland)

10th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

10th Army (Soviet Union)

10th Canadian Infantry Brigade

10th Division (Australia)

10th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

10th Indian Infantry Division

10th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

10th Infantry Division (Poland)

10th Marine Regiment (United States)

10th Motorized Cavalry Brigade (Poland)

10th Mountain Division (United States)

10th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

10th Reconnaissance Group (United States)

10th SS Panzer Division Frundsberg

10TP

110th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

110th Rifle Division

112 Gripes about the French

114th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

116th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

118th General Hospital US Army

11th (East Africa) Division

11th Airborne Division (United States)

11th Armored Division (United States)

11th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

11th Army (Soviet Union)

11th Army Group

11th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

11th Guards Army

11th Indian Infantry Division

11th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

11th SS Panzer Army

11th SS Volunteer Panzergrenadier Division Nordland

11th/28th Battalion, Royal Western Australia Regiment

12th Alpini Regiment

12.8 cm FlaK 40

12.8 cm PaK 44

120 mm M1 gun

121st Engineer Battalion (United States)

122 mm gun M1931/37 (A-19)

122 mm howitzer M1909/37

122 mm howitzer M1910/30

122 mm howitzer M1938 (M-30)

12th (Eastern) Division

12th Armored Division (United States)

12th Army (Soviet Union)

12th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

12th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

12th Infantry Regiment (United States)

12th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend

13 JG 52

13 Rue Madeleine

13. Unterseebootsflottille

13.2 mm Hotchkiss machine gun

138mm/40 Modèle 1927 gun

13th Airborne Division (United States)

13th Armored Division (United States)

13th Army (Soviet Union)

13th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

13th Foreign Legion Demi-Brigade

13th Guards Rifle Division

13th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

13th Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Handschar (1st Croatian)

140th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

141st Reserve Division (Germany)

142nd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

143rd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

148th Reserve Division (Germany)

14th Armored Division (United States)

14th Army (Soviet Union)

14th Army involvement in Transnistria

14th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

14th Indian Infantry Division

14th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

14th Infantry Division (Poland)

14th Mixed Brigade (Imperial Japanese Army)

14th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Galicia (1st Ukrainian)

15 cm Kanone 18

15 cm sFH 13

15 cm sFH 18

15 cm sIG 33

150th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

150th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

151st Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

152 mm gun M1910/30

152 mm gun M1910/34

152 mm gun M1935 (Br-2)

152 mm howitzer-gun M1937 (ML-20)

152 mm howitzer M1909/30

152 mm howitzer M1910/37

152 mm howitzer M1938 (M-10)

152 mm howitzer M1943 (D-1)

152 mm mortar M1931 (NM)

152nd Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

153rd Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

153rd Rifle Division

154th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

155 mm Long Tom

15th (Scottish) Division

15th Airborne Corps

15th Army Group

15th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

15th Infantry Division (Poland)

15th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Latvian)

16 inch Coast Gun M1919

16"/50 caliber Mark 7 gun

161st Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

163rd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

164th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

164th Infantry Regiment (United States)

169th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

16th Armored Division (United States)

16th Battalion, Royal Western Australia Regiment

16th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

16th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

16th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

16th SS Panzergrenadier Division Reichsführer-SS

17 cm Kanone 18

176th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

17th Airborne Division (United States)

17th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

17th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

17th Infantry Division (India)

17th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

17th SS Panzergrenadier Division Götz von Berlichingen

183rd Volksgrenadier Division (Germany)

184th Rifle Division

18th Army (Soviet Union)

18th Army Group

18th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

18th Infantry Division (France)

18th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

18th Infantry Division (Poland)

18th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

1938 Changsha Fire

1939-40 Winter Offensive

1939 Tarnow rail station bomb attack

193rd Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

1940-1944 insurgency in Chechnya

1941 (film)

1941 Iraqi coup d'état

1941 Odessa massacre

1942 (video game)

1942 Luxembourgian general strike

1942: Joint Strike

1942: The Pacific Air War

1943 Naples post office bombing

1943 steel cent

1943: The Battle of Midway

1944-1945 killings in Bačka

1944 in France

1944: The Loop Master

1945 (Conroy novel)

1945 (Gingrich and Forstchen novel)

1945 Prime Minister's Resignation Honours

19th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

19th Infantry Division (India)

19th Infantry Division Gavninana

19th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

19th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (2nd Latvian)

1st (African) Division

1st Air Fleet of the Imperial Japanese Navy

1st Armored Division (France)

1st Armored Division (United States)

1st Armoured Brigade (Poland)

1st Armoured Brigade (United Kingdom)

1st Armoured Division (Australia)

1st Armoured Division (Poland)

1st Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

1st Armoured Reconnaissance Brigade (United Kingdom)

1st Baltic Front

1st Belgrade Special Combat detachment

1st Belorussian Front

1st Canadian Armoured Brigade

1st Canadian Infantry Division

1st Canadian Tank Brigade

1st Cavalry Army (Soviet Union)

1st Cavalry Division (United States)

1st Colonial Infantry Division (France)

1st Cossack Division

1st Czechoslovak Armoured Brigade

1st Division (Australia)

1st Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

1st Far East Front

1st Free French Division

1st Grenadiers Division (Poland)

1st Guards Army (Soviet Union)

1st Guards Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

1st Guards Special Rifle Corps

1st Guards Tank Army (Soviet Union)

1st Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

1st Infantry Division (Slovak Republic)

1st Infantry Division (South Africa)

1st Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

1st Infantry Division (United States)

1st Legions Infantry Division (Poland)

1st Light Cavalry Division (France)

1st Light Division (Germany)

1st Light Mechanized Division (France)

1st Marine Division (United States)

1st Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment

1st Moroccan Infantry Division

1st Motor Machine Gun Brigade

1st Mountain Division (Wehrmacht)

1st Naval Infantry Division (Germany)

1st Operations Group

1st Panzer Army

1st Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

1st Parachute Army (Germany)

1st Parachute Battalion (Australia)

1st Parachute Division (Germany)

1st Photo Squadron (Detachment C)

1st Red Banner Army

1st Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

1st Shock Army

1st Ski Division (Germany)

1st Special Service Brigade (United kingdom)

1st SS Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler

1st Tank Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

1st Ukrainian Front

2-inch mortar

2 Alpine Division Tridentina

2nd Engineer Regiment (Italy)

2 cm FlaK 30

2 cm KwK 30

2nd Mountain Artillery Regiment (Italy)

2 or 3 Things I Know About Him

2. Jagd-Division

2.8 cm sPzB 41

2/11th Australian Infantry Battalion

2/12th Field Ambulance (Australia)

2/18th Australian Infantry Battalion

2/1st Australian Infantry Battalion

2/25th Australian Infantry Battalion

2/2nd Australian Infantry Battalion

2/3rd Australian Infantry Battalion

2/4th Australian Infantry Battalion

2/5th Australian Infantry Battalion

2/6th Australian Infantry Battalion

2/6th Cavalry Commando Regiment (Australia)

2/7th Australian Infantry Battalion

2/8th Australian Infantry Battalion

20 mm AA Machine Cannon Carrier Truck

20 mm Anti-Aircraft Tank "Ta-Se"

200th Division (National Revolutionary Army)

201st Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

202nd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

203 mm howitzer M1931 (B-4)

203mm/50 Modèle 1924 gun

203mm/55 Modèle 1931 gun

205th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

206th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

207th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

208th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

208th Rifle Division

20th Armored Division (United States)

20th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

20th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

20th Infantry Division (India)

20th Infantry Division (Poland)

20th Mountain Army (Wehrmacht)

20th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

20th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Estonian)

21 cm Mörser 18

210 mm gun M1939 (Br-17)

210th Coastal Defense Division (Germany)

210th Independent Infantry Brigade (Home)

212th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

214th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

216th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

218th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

21st Army (Wehrmacht)

21st Army Group

21st Infantry Division (France)

21st Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

21st Mountain Infantry Division (Poland)

21st Norwegian Army (Germany)

21st Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

21st Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Skanderbeg (1st Albanian)

223rd Independent Infantry Brigade (Home)

22nd Air Landing Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

22nd Army (Soviet Union)

22nd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

22nd Infantry Division (France)

22nd Mountain Infantry Division (Poland)

22nd Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

22nd SS Volunteer Cavalry Division Maria Theresia

230th Coastal Defense Division (Germany)

23rd (Northumbrian) Division

23rd Army (Soviet Union)

23rd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

23rd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

23rd Infantry Division (India)

23rd Infantry Division (Poland)

23rd Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

23rd Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Kama

240 mm howitzer M1

240mm/50 Modèle 1902 gun

243rd Static Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

246th Volksgrenadier Division (Wehrmacht)

24th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

24th Infantry Division (United States)

24th Mixed Brigade (Imperial Japanese Army)

24th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

24th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

25 Cent WWII (Dutch coin)

25 mm automatic air defense gun M1940 (72-K)

25 mm Hotchkiss anti-aircraft gun

25 mm Hotchkiss anti-tank gun

25. Unterseebootsflottille

25th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

25th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

25th Infantry Division (India)

25th Infantry Division (United States)

25th Motorized Division (France)

25th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

25th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

25th SS Grenadier Division Hunyadi (1st Hungarian)

25th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Hunyadi (1st Hungarian)

25th/49th Battalion, Royal Queensland Regiment

26th Armoured Brigade (United Kingdom)

26th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

26th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

26th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

26th Infantry Division (United States)

26th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (2nd Hungarian)

270th Rifle Division

273rd Reserve Panzer Division

275th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

277th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

27th Armoured Brigade

27th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

27th Guards Rifle Division

27th Home Army Infantry Division (Poland)

27th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

27th Infantry Division (Poland)

27th Infantry Division (Sila)

27th Infantry Division (United States)

27th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

27th Truck-Moveable Division (Brescia)

281st Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

286th Security Division (Germany)

289th Military Police Company

28th Armoured Brigade (United Kingdom)

28th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

28th Infantry Division (Poland)

28th Infantry Division (United States)

28th Jäger Division (Wehrmacht)

292nd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

299th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

29th Armoured Brigade (United Kingdom)

29th Army (Soviet Union)

29th Flight Training Wing

29th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

29th Infantry Division (United States)

29th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Italian)

2nd (African) Division

2nd Armored Division (France)

2nd Armored Division (United States)

2nd Armoured Division (Australia)

2nd Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

2nd Armoured Regiment (Poland)

2nd Belorussian Front

2nd Canadian Armoured Brigade

2nd Canadian Infantry Division

2nd Cavalry Division (United States)

2nd Division (Australia)

2nd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

2nd Division (Norway)

2nd Far Eastern Front

2nd Guards Army (Soviet Union)

2nd Guards Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

2nd Guards Mixed Brigade (Japan)

2nd Guards Tank Army (Soviet Union)

2nd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

2nd Infantry Division (India)

2nd Infantry Division (South Africa)

2nd Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

2nd Infantry Division (United States)

2nd Infantry Regiment (United States)

2nd Light Cavalry Division (France)

2nd Light Division (Germany)

2nd Light Mechanized Division (France)

2nd London Infantry Division

2nd Marine Division (United States)

2nd Marine Regiment (United States)

2nd Mountain Division (Wehrmacht)

2nd Naval Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

2nd North African Infantry Division

2nd Panzer Army

2nd Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

2nd Panzer Group

2nd Parachute Division (Germany)

2nd Red Banner Army

2nd Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

2nd Shock Army

2nd SS Division Das Reich

2nd Tank Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

3 Alpine Division Julia

3rd Alpini Regiment

3 inch Gun M5

3rd Mountain Artillery Regiment (Italy)

3"/50 caliber gun

3.7 cm FlaK 43

3.7 cm KwK 36

3.7 cm PaK 36

3.7 inch Mountain Howitzer

301 Military Hospital

301st Air Refueling Wing

302nd Static Infantry Division (Germany)

305 mm howitzer M1939 (Br-18)

305mm/45 Modèle 1906 gun

305th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

308th Armament Systems Wing

30th Armoured Brigade

30th Infantry Division (United States)

30th Mechanized Brigade (Ukraine)

30th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Belarussian)

30th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (2nd Russian)

318th Fighter Group

31st Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

31st Guards Rifle Division

31st Infantry Division (United States)

322nd Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

323d Flying Training Wing

324th Fighter Group

324th Rifle Division

326th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

32nd Infantry Division (France)

32nd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

32nd Infantry Division (United States)

32nd Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

33/5

330mm/50 Modèle 1931 gun

331st Bombardment Group

332d Fighter Group

332nd Static Infantry Division (Germany)

333d Bombardment Group

334th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

336th Training Group

33rd Army (Soviet Union)

33rd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

33rd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

33rd Infantry Division (United States)

33rd Mixed Brigade (Imperial Japanese Army)

33rd Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Charlemagne (1st French)

340mm/45 Modèle 1912 gun

340th Bombardment Group

345th Bomb Group

346th Bombardment Group

349th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

349th Squadron (Belgium)

34th Brigade (Australia)

34th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

34th Infantry Division (United States)

350th Squadron (Belgium)

351st Bomb Group

352d Fighter Group

352nd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

357th Fighter Group

359th Fighter Group

35th Army (Soviet Union)

35th Infantry Division (United States)

35th SS and Police Grenadier Division

36 Hours (1965 film)

361st Fighter Group

365th Fighter Group

369th (Croatian) Reinforced Infantry Regiment

369th (Croatian) Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

36th Battalion (Australia)

36th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

36th Infantry Division (United States)

36th Infantry Regiment (Poland)

37 mm anti-tank gun M1930 (1-K)

37 mm automatic air defense gun M1939 (61-K)

37 mm Gun M3

37mm Gun M1

37th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

37th Infantry Division (United States)

37th SS Volunteer Cavalry Division Lützow

373rd (Croatian) Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

38 cm SKC 34 naval gun

380mm/45 Modèle 1935 gun

380th Bomb Group

381st Training Group

382d Bombardment Group

383d Bombardment Group

383rd Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

385th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

38th (Irish) Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

38th (Welsh) Division

38th Infantry Division (United States)

391st Bombardment Group

392nd (Croatian) Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

392nd Strategic Missile Wing

393d Bombardment Group

394th Bombardment Group

396th Bombardment Group

397th Bombardment Wing

399th Bombardment Group

39M Csaba

39th Battalion (Australia)

39th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

39th Infantry Division (India)

39th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

3d Armored Cavalry Regiment (United States)

3d Combat Cargo Group

3d United States Infantry Regiment (The Old Guard)

3M-54 Klub

3rd Algerian Infantry Division

3rd Armored Division (France)

3rd Armored Division (United States)

3rd Armoured Division (Australia)

3rd Army (Soviet Union)

3rd Battalion 3rd Marines

3rd Belorussian Front

3rd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division (United States)

3rd Canadian Infantry Division

3rd Division (Australia)

3rd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

3rd Division (New Zealand)

3rd Guards Army (Soviet Union)

3rd Guards Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

3rd Guards Tank Army (Soviet Union)

3rd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

3rd Infantry Division (South Africa)

3rd Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

3rd Infantry Division (United States)

3rd Light Division (Germany)

3rd Light Mechanized Division (France)

3rd Marine Division (United States)

3rd Motor Rifle Division

3rd Mountain Division (Wehrmacht)

3rd North African Infantry Division

3rd Panzer Army

3rd Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

3rd Panzer Group

3rd Polish Infantry Brigade

3rd Shock Army (Soviet Union)

3rd SS Division Totenkopf

3rd Tank Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

3rd/4th County of London Yeomanry (Sharpshooters)

4 Alpine Division Cuneense

4th Alpini Regiment

4th Mountain Artillery Regiment (Italy)

4"/50 caliber gun

4.2 cm PaK 41

4.5 inch Gun M1

40 cm/45 Type 94

40 M Turan I

400th Bombardment Group

405th Fighter Group

409th Bombardment Group

40th Air Expeditionary Wing

40th Army (Soviet Union)

40th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

40th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

40th Infantry Division (United States)

413th Fighter Group

414th Fighter Group

41st Infantry Division (France)

41st Infantry Division (United States)

42nd (East Lancashire) Division

42nd Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

42nd Infantry Division (United States)

43rd (Wessex) Infantry Division

43rd Infantry Division (United States)

441st Troop Carrier Group

443d Troop Carrier Group

444th Bombardment Group

449th Bombardment Wing

44th (Home Counties) Infantry Division

44th Airborne Division (India)

44th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

44th Infantry Division (United States)

45 mm anti-tank gun M1937 (53-K)

45 mm anti-tank gun M1942 (M-42)

453rd Bombardment Group

454th Bombardment Wing

456th Bomb Group

458th Bombardment Group

45th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

45th Infantry Division (United States)

45th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

460th Parachute Field Artillery Battalion (United States)

461st Bombardment Wing

462d Bombardment Group

463d Airlift Group

464th Tactical Airlift Wing

465th Bombardment Wing

466th Bombardment Group

467th Bombardment Group

468th Bombardment Group

46th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

46th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

47 mm APX anti-tank gun

470th Bombardment Group

477th Fighter Group

483d Composite Wing

489th Bombardment Group

48th (South Midland) Division

48th Armored Medical Battalion

490th Bombardment Group

491st Bombardment Group

493d Bombardment Group

494th Bombardment Group

49th (West Riding) Infantry Division

49th Hutsul Rifle Regiment

49th Parallel

4th Armored Division (United States)

4th Army (Soviet Union)

4th Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division (United States)

4th Canadian (Armoured) Division

4th Canadian Armoured Brigade

4th Canadian Infantry Brigade

4th Cavalry Regiment (United States)

4th Combat Cargo Group

4th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

4th Fighter Group

4th Guards Army (Soviet Union)

4th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

4th Infantry Division (India)

4th Infantry Division (Poland)

4th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

4th Infantry Division (United States)

4th Infantry Regiment (United States)

4th Light Cavalry Division (France)

4th Luftwaffe Field Division (Germany)

4th Marine Division (United States)

4th Mixed Brigade (Imperial Japanese Army)

4th Mountain Division (Wehrmacht)

4th North African Infantry Division

4th Panzer Army

4th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

4th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

4th SS Polizei Division

4th SS Volunteer Panzergrenadier Brigade Netherlands

4th Tank Army (Soviet Union)

4th Tank Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

4th Territorial Army Corps (Romania)

4th Ukrainian Front

5 Alpine Division Pusteria

5th Alpini Regiment

5 cm KwK 38

5 cm KwK 39

5 cm PaK 38

5th Mountain Artillery Regiment (Italy)

5"/25 caliber gun

5"/38 caliber gun

5"/51 caliber gun

500th SS Parachute Battalion

501st Parachute Infantry Regiment (United States)

502d Bombardment Group

502nd Heavy Tank Battalion (Germany)

503rd heavy tank battalion (Germany)

504th Bombardment Group

509th heavy tank battalion (Germany)

509th Operations Group

50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division

51st (Highland) Infantry Division (World War II)

51st Army (Soviet Union)

52nd (Lowland) Division

53rd (Welsh) Division

53rd Infantry Division (France)

5535 Annefrank

55th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

55th Infantry Division (France)

55th Infantry Division (Poland)

55th Operations Group

562nd Grenadier Division (Germany)

56th (London) Division

56th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

56th Field Artillery Command

56th Fighter Group

56th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

57 mm anti-tank gun M1943 (ZiS-2)

57th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

58th Army (Soviet Union)

58th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

596th Parachute Combat Engineer Company (United States)

59th Guards Rifle Division

5th Armored Division (France)

5th Armored Division (United States)

5th Army (Wehrmacht)

5th Army (Soviet Union)

5th Canadian (Armoured) Division

5th Canadian Division

5th Canadian Infantry Brigade

5th Cavalry Brigade (United Kingdom)

5th Division (Australia)

5th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

5th Guards Tank Army (Soviet Union)

5th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

5th Infantry Division (India)

5th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

5th Infantry Division (United States)

5th Light Cavalry Division (France)

5th Marine Division (United States)

5th Motorized Division (France)

5th Mountain Division (Wehrmacht)

5th North African Infantry Division

5th Panzer Army

5th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

5th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

5th SS Panzergrenadier Division Wiking

5th SS Volunteer Sturmbrigade Wallonien

6 Alpine Division Alpi Graie

6th Alpini Regiment

6 inch 26 cwt howitzer

6th Mountain Artillery Regiment (Italy)

60 pounder

60th Infantry Division (France)

60th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

61st Infantry Division (France)

61st Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

61st Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

62nd Army (Soviet Union)

62nd Battalion (Australia)

633 Squadron

63rd Army (Soviet Union)

63rd Infantry Division (United States)

64 Baker Street

65th Infantry Division (United States)

66th (East Lancashire) Infantry Division

66th Infantry Division (United States)

68th Infantry Division (France)

68th Observation Group

69th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

69th Infantry Division (United States)

6th Airlanding Brigade (United Kingdom)

6th Armored Division (United States)

6th Armoured Division (South Africa)

6th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

6th Army (Soviet Union)

6th Canadian Infantry Brigade

6th Canadian Infantry Division

6th Cavalry Regiment (United States)

6th Division (Australia)

6th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

6th Guards Tank Army

6th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

6th Infantry Division (Poland)

6th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

6th Infantry Division (United States)

6th Infantry Regiment (United States)

6th Luftwaffe Field Division (Germany)

6th Marine Division (United States)

6th Marine Division on Okinawa

6th Mountain Division (Wehrmacht)

6th Panzer Army

6th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

6th Parachute Division (Germany)

6th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

6th SS Mountain Division Nord

6th SS Volunteer Sturmbrigade Langemarck

7th Alpini Regiment

7 cm Mountain Gun

7.5 cm FK 16 nA

7.5 cm FK 18

7.5 cm FK 38

7.5 cm FK 7M85

7.5 cm Infanteriegeschütz 37

7.5 cm Infanteriegeschütz 42

7.5 cm KwK 37

7.5 cm KwK 40

7.5 cm KwK 42

7.5 cm L/45 M/16 anti aircraft gun

7.5 cm L/45 M/32 anti aircraft gun

7.5 cm leichtes Infanteriegeschütz 18

7.5 cm Leichtgeschütz 40

7.5 cm PaK 39

7.5 cm PaK 40

7.5 cm PaK 41

7.5 cm PaK 97/38

7.62 cm PaK 36(r)

7.92 mm DS

700 Naval Air Squadron

709th Static Infantry Division (Germany)

70th Armor Regiment (United States)

70th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

70th Infantry Division (United States)

715th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

716th Static Infantry Division (Germany)

719th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

71st Infantry Division (France)

71st Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

71st Infantry Division (United States)

71st Infantry Regiment (New York)

72nd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

72nd Mechanized Brigade (Ukraine)

73rd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

74th Infantry Regiment (Poland)

75 mm gun (US)

75 mm Schneider-Danglis 06/09

758th Tank Battalion (United States)

75th Guards Rifle Division

75th Infantry Division (United States)

76 mm air defense gun M1938

76 mm divisional gun M1902/30

76 mm divisional gun M1936 (F-22)

76 mm divisional gun M1939 (USV)

76 mm divisional gun M1942 (ZiS-3)

76 mm gun M1

76 mm mountain gun M1938

76 mm regimental gun M1927

76 mm regimental gun M1943

761st Tank Battalion (United States)

76th Division (United States)

76th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

76th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

76th Reconnaissance Group

76th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

77th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

77th Infantry Division (United States)

78th Division (United States)

78th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

78th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

78th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

79th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

79th Fighter Group

79th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

79th Infantry Division (United States)

79th Light Anti-Aircraft Battery

7th Armored Division (United States)

7th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

7th Army (Wehrmacht)

7th Army (Soviet Union)

7th Canadian Infantry Brigade

7th Canadian Infantry Division

7th Cavalry Regiment (United States)

7th Division (Australia)

7th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

7th Field Artillery Regiment (United States)

7th Guards Army

7th Indian Infantry Division

7th Infantry Division (United States)

7th Marine Regiment (United States)

7th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

7th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

7th SS Volunteer Mountain Division Prinz Eugen

7TP

8th Alpini Regiment

8 cm FK M. 17

8 cm PAW 600

8 cm sGrW 34

8 inch Gun M1

8.8 cm KwK 36

8.8 cm KwK 43

8.8 cm PaK 43

805th Engineer Aviation Battalion (United States)

80th Division (United States)

80th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

80th Rifle Division

81st (West Africa) Division

81st Infantry Division (United States)

82-PM-37

82nd (West Africa) Division

82nd Airborne Division (United States)

83rd Infantry Division (Germany)

83rd Infantry Division (United States)

84 Avenue Foch

84th Division (United States)

85 mm air defense gun M1939 (52-K)

85th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

86th Infantry Division (United States)

87th Division (United States)

87th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

88 mm gun

88th Division (National Revolutionary Army)

88th Infantry Division (United States)

89th "Tamanyan" Rifle Division

89th Division (United States)

8th Armored Division (United States)

8th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

8th Army (Soviet Union)

8th Division (Australia)

8th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

8th Guards Army (Soviet Union)

8th Infantry Division (France)

8th Infantry Division (India)

8th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

8th Infantry Division (United States)

8th Marine Regiment (United States)

8th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer

9th Alpini Regiment

9 Parachute Squadron RE

90 mm gun

904 Expeditionary Air Wing (United Kingdom)

90th Infantry Division (United States)

90th Light Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

914th Grenadier Regiment

916th Grenadier Regiment (Germany)

91st Bomb Group

91st Division (United States)

91st Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

92nd Infantry Division (United States)

93rd Infantry Division (United States)

94th Infantry Division (United States)

95th Bomb Group

95th Infantry Division (United States)

96th Infantry Division (United States)

97th Infantry Division (United States)

97th Mechanized Brigade (Ukraine)

98th Division (United States)

98th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

999th Light Afrika Division (Germany)

99th Infantry Division (United States)

99th Light Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

99th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

9th (Highland) Infantry Division

9th Armored Division (United States)

9th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

9th Army (Soviet Union)

9th Division (Australia)

9th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

9th Infantry Division (India)

9th Infantry Division (Poland) (interwar)

9th Infantry Division (Soviet Union)

9th Infantry Division (United States)

9th Luftwaffe Field Division (Germany)

9th Motorized Division (France)

9th Mountain Division (Wehrmacht)

9th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

9th Parachute Division (Germany)

9th SS Panzer Division Hohenstaufen

Japanese Burma Area Army

The Japanese Burma Area Army (緬甸方面軍, Biruma hōmen gun) was a field army of the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II.

Japanese aircraft carrier Akitsu Maru

Akitsu Maru (あきつ丸) was a Japanese landing craft depot ship and escort aircraft carrier operated by the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA). In some sources Akitsu Maru and her sister ship Nigitsu Maru (にぎつ丸) are also considered to be the first amphibious assault ships.

Kwantung Army

The Kwantung Army was an army group of the Imperial Japanese Army in the first half of the 20th century. It became the largest and most prestigious command in the IJA. Many of its personnel, such as Chiefs of staff Seishirō Itagaki and Hideki Tōjō, were promoted to high positions in both the military and civil government in the Empire of Japan and it was largely responsible for the creation of the Japanese-dominated Empire of Manchuria. In August 1945, the army group, around 713,000 (from a previous total of 1,320,000) men at the time, was defeated by and surrendered to Soviet troops as a result of the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation.

Ministry of the Army

The Army Ministry (陸軍省, Rikugun-shō), also known as the Ministry of War, was the cabinet-level ministry in the Empire of Japan charged with the administrative affairs of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA). It existed from 1872 to 1945.

Ranks of the Imperial Japanese Army

The following tables present the rank insignia of the Imperial Japanese Army before and during World War II. These designs were worn on shoulders as passants (shoulder straps) between the years 1911 and 1938, then on collars afterwards until 1945, when the army was dissolved.

The same officer ranks were used for both the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy, the only distinction being the placement of the word Rikugun (army) or Kaigun (navy) before the rank. Thus, for example, a captain in the navy shared the same rank designation as that of a colonel in the army: Taisa (colonel), so the rank of Rikugun Taisa denoted an army colonel, while the rank of Kaigun daisa denoted a naval captain.

Sadao Araki

Baron Sadao Araki (荒木 貞夫, Araki Sadao, May 26, 1877 – November 2, 1966) was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army before and during World War II. As one of the principal nationalist right-wing political theorists in the Empire of Japan, he was regarded as the leader of the radical faction within the politicized Imperial Japanese Army and served as Minister of War under Prime Minister Inukai. He later served as Minister of Education during the Konoe and Hiranuma administrations. After World War II, he was convicted of war crimes and given a life sentence.

Sakurakai

Sakurakai, or Cherry Blossom Society (桜会, Sakurakai) was an ultranationalist secret society established by young officers within the Imperial Japanese Army in September 1930, with the goal of reorganizing the state along totalitarian militaristic lines, via a military coup d'état if necessary. Their avowed goal was a Shōwa Restoration, which they claimed would restore the Emperor Hirohito to his rightful place, free of party politics and evil bureaucrats in a new military dictatorship.The Sakurakai was led by Imperial Japanese Army Lieutenant Colonel Kingoro Hashimoto, then chief of the Russian section of the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff and Captain Isamu Cho with the support of Sadao Araki. The society began with about ten members, active-duty field grade officers of the Army General Staff, and expanded to include regimental-grade and company-grade officers, so that its membership increased to more than 50 by February 1931, and possibly up to several hundred by October 1931. One prominent leader was Kuniaki Koiso, future Prime Minister of Japan.

"The Sakura group sought political reform: the elimination of party government by a coup d'etat and the establishment of a new cabinet based upon state socialism, in order to stamp out Japan's allegedly corrupt politics, economy, and thought."Twice in 1931 (the March Incident and the Imperial Colors Incident), the Sakurakai and civilian ultranationalist elements attempted to overthrow the government. With the arrest of its leadership after the Imperial Colors Incident, the Sakurakai was dissolved.

Many of its former members migrated to the Toseiha faction within the Army.

Uniforms of the Imperial Japanese Army

Imperial Japanese Army uniforms tended to reflect the uniforms of those countries who were the principal advisors to the Imperial Japanese Army at the time.

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