The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.
An example of a verb used in the imperative mood is the English sentence "Leave!" Such imperatives imply a second-person subject (you), but some other languages also have first- and third-person imperatives, with the meaning of "let's (do something)" or "let him/her/them (do something)" (the forms may alternatively be called cohortative and jussive).
Imperative mood is often expressed using special conjugated verb forms. Like other finite verb forms, imperatives often inflect for person and number. Second-person imperatives (used for ordering or requesting performance directly from the person being addressed) are most common, but some languages also have imperative forms for the first and third persons (alternatively called cohortative and jussive respectively).
In English, the imperative is formed using the bare infinitive form of the verb (see English verbs for more details). This is usually also the same as the second-person present indicative form, except in the case of the verb to be, where the imperative is be while the indicative is are. (The present subjunctive always has the same form as the imperative, although it is negated differently – the imperative is negated using do not, as in "Don't touch me!"; see do-support. Occasionally do is not used: Dare not touch me!) The imperative form is understood as being in the second person (the subject pronoun you is usually omitted, although it can be included for emphasis), with no explicit indication of singular or plural. First and third person imperatives are expressed periphrastically, using a construction with the imperative of the verb let:
Other languages such as Latin, French and German have a greater variety of inflected imperative forms, marked for person and number, their formation often depending on a verb's conjugation pattern. Examples can be found in the specific language sections below. In languages that make a T–V distinction (tu vs. vous, du vs. Sie, você vs. tu, tu vs. usted, etc.) the use of particular forms of the second person imperative may also be dependent on the degree of familiarity between the speaker and the addressee, as with other verb forms.
The second person singular imperative often consists of just the stem of the verb, without any ending – this is the case in the Slavic languages, for example.
Imperative sentences sometimes use different syntax than declarative or other types of clauses. There may also be differences of syntax between affirmative and negative imperative sentences. In some cases the imperative form of the verb is itself different when negated. A distinct negative imperative form is sometimes said to be in prohibitive or vetative mood (abbreviated PROH).
Many languages, even not normally null-subject languages, omit the subject pronoun in imperative sentences, as usually occurs in English (see below). Details of the syntax of imperative sentences in certain other languages, and of differences between affirmative and negative imperatives, can be found in some of the other specific language sections below.
Imperatives are used principally for ordering, requesting or advising the listener to do (or not to do) something: "Put down the gun!"; "Pass me the sauce"; "Don't go too near the tiger." They are also often used for giving instructions as to how to perform a task ("Install the file, then restart your computer"). They can sometimes be seen on signs giving orders or warnings ("Stop"; "Give way"; "Do not enter").
The use of the imperative mood may be seen as impolite, inappropriate or even offensive in certain circumstances. In polite speech, orders or requests are often phrased instead as questions or statements, rather than as imperatives:
Politeness strategies (for instance, indirect speech acts) can seem more appropriate in order not to threaten a conversational partner in their needs of self-determination and territory: the partner's negative face should not appear threatened. As well as the replacement of imperatives with other sentence types as discussed above, there also often exist methods of phrasing an imperative in a more polite manner, such as the addition of a word like please or a phrase like if you could.
Imperatives are also used for speech acts whose function is essentially not to make an order or request, but to give an invitation, give permission, express a wish, make an apology, etc.:
When written, imperative sentences are often, but not always, terminated with an exclamation mark.
First person plural imperatives (cohortatives) are used mainly for suggesting an action to be performed together by the speaker and the addressee (and possibly other people): "Let's go to Barbados this year"; "Let us pray". Third person imperatives (jussives) are used to suggest or order that a third party or parties be permitted or made to do something: "Let them eat cake"; "Let him be executed".
There is an additional imperative form that is used for general prohibitions, consisting of the word "no" followed by the gerund form. The best known examples are "No Smoking" and "No Parking". This form does not have a positive form; that is, "Parking" by itself has no meaning unless used as a noun when it tells that parking is permitted.
For more details on imperatives in the languages listed below, and in languages that are not listed, see the articles on the grammar of the specific languages.
English usually omits the subject pronoun in imperative sentences:
However, it is possible to include the you in imperative sentences for emphasis.
English imperatives are negated using don't (as in "Don't work!") This is a case of do-support as found in indicative clauses; however in the imperative it applies even in the case of the verb be (which does not use do-support in the indicative):
It is also possible to use do-support in affirmative imperatives, for emphasis or (sometimes) politeness: "Do be quiet!"; "Do help yourself!".
The subject you may be included for emphasis in negated imperatives as well, following don't: "Don't you dare do that again!"
Latin regular imperatives include amā (2nd pers. singular) and amāte (2nd pers. plural), from the infinitive amāre ("to love"); similarly monē and monēte from monēre ("to advise/warn"); audī and audīte from audīre ("to hear"), etc. The negative imperative is formed with the infinitive of the verb, preceded by the imperative of nōlle ("to not want"): nōlī stāre ("don't stand", 2nd pers. singular) and nōlīte stāre (2nd pers. plural); compare the positive imperative stā ("stand", 2nd pers. singular) and stāte (2nd pers. plural).
For third-person imperatives, the subjunctive mood is used instead.
Latin also has a future imperative form. The corresponding forms are amātō (singular) and amātōte (plural), monētō and monētōte, audītō and audītōte. Unlike the present imperative, the future imperative also has special forms for the third person (amantō, monentō, audiuntō). See Latin conjugation.
German verbs have a singular and a plural imperative. The singular imperative is equivalent to the bare stem or the bare stem + -e. (In most verbs, both ways are correct.) The plural imperative is the same as the second-person plural of the present tense.
In order to emphasize their addressee, German imperatives can be followed by the nominative personal pronouns du (“thou; you [sg.]”) or ihr (“you [pl.]”), respectively. For example: Geh weg! – Geh du doch weg! (“Go away!” – “Why, you go away!”).
German has T/V distinction, which means that the pronouns du and ihr are used chiefly towards persons with whom one is privately acquainted, which holds true for the corresponding imperatives. (For details see German grammar.) Otherwise, the social-distance pronoun Sie (“you”) is used for both singular and plural. Since there exists no actual imperative corresponding to Sie, the form is paraphrased with the third-person plural of the present subjunctive followed by the pronoun:
German can theoretically form past imperatives and passive imperatives, simply by using the imperative form of the respective auxiliary verbs: habe gesungen! (“[you shall] have sung!”), werde geliebt! (“[you shall] be loved!”), sei geliebt worden! (“[you shall] have been loved!”). None of such forms is really current, however.
Like English, German features many constructions that express commands, wishes, etc. They are thus semantically related to imperatives without being imperatives grammatically:
Examples of regular imperatives in French are mange (2nd pers. singular), mangez (2nd pers. plural) and mangeons (1st person plural, "let's eat"), from manger ("to eat") – these are similar or identical to the corresponding present indicative forms, although there are some irregular imperatives that resemble the present subjunctives, such as sois, soyez and soyons, from être ("to be"). A third person imperative can be formed using a subjunctive clause with the conjunction que, as in qu'ils mangent de la brioche ("let them eat cake").
French uses different word order for affirmative and negative imperative sentences:
The negative imperative (prohibitive) has the same word order as the indicative. See French personal pronouns § Clitic order for detail. Like in English, imperative sentences often end with an exclamation mark, e.g. to emphasize an order.
In French there is a very distinctive imperative which is the imperative mood of preterite tense also called (past imperative or imperative of future perfect), expresses a given order with previous future value which must be executed or fulfilled in a future not immediate, as if it were an action to come, but earlier in relation to another that will also happen in the future. However, this type of imperative is peculiar to French which has only one purpose: to order that something be done before the date or time, therefore, this will always be accompanied by a circumstantial complement of time. However, this imperative is formed with the auxiliary verb of the avoir compound tenses and with the auxiliary verb être that is also used to form the tenses composed of the pronominal verbs and some of the intransitive verbs, this means that the structure of the verb imperative in its entirety is composed. Examples:
|Persons||First conjugation||Second conjugation||Third conjugation|
|With the verb avoir|
|2nd sing.||aie aimé||aie fini||aie ouvert||aie reçu||aie rendu||aie mis|
|1st plural||ayons aimé||ayons fini||ayons ouvert||ayons reçu||ayons rendu||ayons mis|
|2nd plural||ayez aimé||ayez fini||ayez ouvert||ayez reçu||ayez rendu||ayez mis|
|With the verb être|
|2nd sing.||sois allé||sois parti||sois venu||sois mort||sois né||sois devenu|
|1st plural||soyons allés||soyons partis||soyons venus||soyons morts||soyons nés||soyons devenus|
|2nd plural||soyez allés||soyez partis||soyez venus||soyez morts||soyez nés||soyez devenus|
In English there is no equivalent grammatical structure to form this tense of the imperative mood; it is translated in imperative mood of present with previous value.
In Spanish, imperatives for the familiar singular second person (tú) are usually identical to indicative forms for the singular third person. However, there are irregular verbs for which unique imperative forms for tú exist. vos (alternative to tú) usually takes the same forms as tú (usually with slightly different emphasis) but unique forms exist for it as well. vosotros (plural familiar second person) also takes unique forms for the imperative.
|vosotros / vosotras
|* = unique verb that only exists for this imperative form|
If an imperative takes a pronoun as an object, it is appended to the verb; for example, Dime ("Tell me"). Pronouns can be stacked like they can in indicative clauses:
Imperatives can be formed for usted (singular formal second person), ustedes (plural second person), and nosotros (plural first person) from the respective present subjunctive form. Negative imperatives for these pronouns (as well as tú, vos, and vosotros) are also formed this way, but are negated by no (e.g. No cantes, "Don't sing").
In Portuguese, affirmative imperatives for singular and plural second person (tu / vós) derive from their respective present indicative conjugations, after having their final -s dropped.[pt 1] On the other hand, their negative imperatives are formed by their respective subjunctive forms, as well as both affirmative and negative imperatives for treatment pronouns (você(s)) and plural first person (nós).
|comer||comes||comeis||come||comei||não comas||não comais||(não) coma||(não) comam||(não) comamos|
|beber||bebes||bebeis||bebe||bebei||não bebas||não bebais||(não) beba||(não) bebam||(não) bebamos|
|ter||tens||tendes||tem||tende||não tenhas||não tenhais||(não) tenha||(não) tenham||(não) tenhamos|
|dizer||dizes||dizeis||diz(e)||dizei||não digas||não digais||(não) diga||(não) digam||(não) digamos|
If a verb takes a pronoun, it should be appended to the verb:
Ancient Greek has imperative forms for present, aorist, and perfect tenses for the active, middle, and passive voices. Within these tenses, forms exist for second and third persons, for singular, dual, and plural subjects. Subjunctive forms with μή are used for negative imperatives in the aorist.
Present Active Imperative: 2nd sg. λεῖπε, 3rd sg. λειπέτω, 2nd pl. λείπετε, 3rd pl. λειπόντων.
Irish has imperative forms in all three persons and both numbers, although the first person singular is most commonly found in the negative (e.g. ná cloisim sin arís "let me not hear that again").
In Sanskrit, लोट् लकार् (lōṭ lakār) is used with the verb to form the imperative mood. To form the negative, न (na) is placed before the verb in the imperative mood.
New Indo-Aryan languages like Hindi and Bengali typically use the present indicative as imperatives. For the negative, Hindi uses the preposition mat (from Sanskrit mā) before the verb. Standard modern Bengali uses the negative postposition /nā/ after a future imperative formed using the -iyo fusional suffix (in addition, umlaut vowel changes in the verb root might take place).
In Finnish, there are two ways of forming a first-person plural imperative. A standard version exists, but it is typically replaced colloquially by the impersonal tense. For example, from mennä ("to go"), the imperative "let's go" can be expressed by menkäämme (standard form) or mennään (colloquial).
Forms also exist for second (sing. mene, plur. menkää) and third (sing. menköön, plur. menkööt) person. Only first person singular doesn't have an imperative.
Generally, in Semitic languages, every word belongs to a word-family, and is, actually, a conjugation of word-family's three consonant roots. The various conjugations are made by adding vowels to the root consonants and by adding prefixes, in front or after the root consonant. For example, the conjugations of the root K.T.B (כ.ת.ב. ك.ت.ب), both in Hebrew and in Arabic, are words that have something to do with writing. Nouns like a reporter or a letter and verbs like to write or to dictate are conjugations of the root K.T.B. The verbs are further conjugated to bodies, times, and so on.
Both in classic Hebrew and in classic Arabic, there is a form for positive imperative. It exists for singular and plural, masculine and feminine second-person. The imperative conjugations look like shortages of the future ones. However, in modern Hebrew, the future tense is often used in its place in colloquial speech, and the proper imperative form is considered formal or of higher register.
The negative imperative in those languages is more complicated. In modern Hebrew, for instance, it contains a synonym of the word "no", that is used only in negative imperative (אַל), and is followed by the future tense.
|The verb to write
in singular, masculine
|Future Indicative||Imperative / Prohibitive|
|Affirmative||tikhtov – תכתוב
(You will write)
|ktov – כתוב|
|Negative||lo tikhtov – לא תכתוב
(You will not write)
|al tikhtov – אל תכתוב|
(In Hebrew, some of the Bs sounds like V, and some like B)
|The verb to write
in singular, feminine
|Future Indicative||Imperative / Prohibitive|
|Affirmative||tikhtevi – תכתבי
(You will write)
|kitvi – כתבי|
|Negative||lo tikhtevi – לא תכתבי
(You will not write)
|al tikhtevi – אל תכתבי|
لَا تَكْتُبِي- lā taktubī
|The verb to dictate
in singular, masculine
|Future Indicative||Imperative / Prohibitive|
|Affirmative||takhtiv – תכתיב
(You will dictate)
|hakhtev – הכתב|
|Negative||lo takhtiv – לא תכתיב
(You will not dictate)
|al takhtiv – אל תכתיב|
Japanese uses separate verb forms as shown below. For the verb kaku (write):
|Affirmative||書く kaku||書け kake|
|Negative||書かない kakanai||書くな kakuna|
Korean has 6 levels of honorific, all of which have their own imperative endings. Auxiliary verbs 않다 anta and 말다 malda are used for negative indicative and prohibitive, respectively. For the verb gada (“go”'):
|Level||Indicative Affirmative||Imperative||Indicative Negative||Prohibitive|
|(formal) Hasipsio-style||가십니다 gasimnida||가십시오 gasipsio||가지 않으십니다 gaji aneusimnida||가지 마십시오 gaji masipsio[vn 1]|
|Haeyo-style||가세요 gaseyo||가세요 gaseyo||가지 않으세요 gaji aneuseyo||가지 마세요 gaji maseyo[vn 1]|
|Hao-style||가시오 gasio||가시오 gasio||가지 않으시오 gaji aneusio||가지 마시오 gaji masio[vn 1]|
|Hage-style||가네 gane||가게 gage||가지 않네 gaji anne||가지 말게 gaji malge|
|Hae-style||가 ga||가 ga||가지 않아 gaji ana||가지 마 gaji ma[vn 2]|
|(informal) Haera-style||간다 ganda||가라 gara||가지 않는다 gaji anneunda||가지 마라 gaji mara[vn 2]|
Standard Chinese uses different words of negation for the indicative and the prohibitive moods. For the verb 做 zuò (do):
|Affirmative||做 zuò||做 zuò|
|Negative||不做 búzuo||别做 biézuò|
For the most common imperative form, the second person singular, Turkish uses the bare verb stem without the infinitive ending -mek/-mak. Other imperative forms use various suffixes. In the second person plural there are two forms: the formal imperative with the suffix -in/-ın/-un/-ün, and the public imperative used for notices and advice, which uses the suffix -iniz/-ınız/-unuz/-ünüz. All Turkish imperative suffixes change depending on the verb stem according to the rules of vowel harmony. For the verb içmek ("to drink", also "to smoke" a cigarette or similar):
|The verb içmek ("to drink")||1st person singular||1st person plural||2nd person singular/informal||2nd person plural/formal||2nd person plural/public advice||3rd person singular||3rd person plural|
|Imperative form||içeyim ("let me drink")||içelim ("let us drink")||iç ("Drink!")||için ("Drink!")||içiniz ("Drink!", e.g. Soğuk içiniz "Drink cold" on soft drinks)||içsin ("let him/her drink")||içsinler ("let them drink")|
Negative imperative forms are made in the same way, but using a negated verb as the base. For example, the second person singular imperative of içmemek ("not to drink") is içme ("Don't drink!"). Other Turkic languages construct imperative forms similarly to Turkish.
In computing, a command is a directive to a computer program acting as an interpreter of some kind to perform a specific task. Most commonly a command is either a directive to some kind of command-line interface, such as a shell, or an event in a graphical user interface triggered by the user selecting an option in a menu.
Specifically, the term command is used in imperative computer languages. These languages are called this, because statements in these languages are usually written in a manner similar to the imperative mood used in many natural languages. If one views a statement in an imperative language as being like a sentence in a natural language, then a command is generally like a verb in such a language.
Many programs allow specially formatted arguments, known as flags or options, which modify the default behaviour of the command, while further arguments describe what the command acts on. Comparing to a natural language: the flags are adverbs, whilst the other arguments are objects.Designit
Designit (imperative mood, meaning 'design it' and pronounced 'dɪˈzʌɪn ɪt') is an international strategic design firm founded in Aarhus, Denmark, in 1991 by Anders Geert Jensen and Mikal Hallstrup. Designit headquarters is located in Copenhagen, Denmark, with 17 offices in Aarhus, Barcelona, Bengaluru, Berlin, Stockholm, Sydney, Lima, London, Madrid, Medellín, Munich, Oslo, San Francisco, Tel Aviv, Tokyo and New York City.Designit offers integrated strategic design and innovation services, including product design, service design, and experience design, with an emphasis on mobile and digital media. The company recently expanded its services to include consulting in business design.
Designit's employees work in cross-disciplinary teams, involving clients and end-users in the design process. Designit works in various sectors, including healthcare, finance, IT, telecommunications, automotive and consumer goods.
Designit's work has received more than 100 design awards, including International Forum Design awards (iF), Red Dot and Red Dot Gold, and GOOD design awards.In July 2015, Designit was sold to an Indian major IT firm Wipro for a reported DKK 635 million (USD94 million).French verbs
French verbs are a part of speech in French grammar. Each verb lexeme has a collection of finite and non-finite forms in its conjugation scheme.
Finite forms depend on grammatical tense and person/number. There are eight simple tense–aspect–mood forms, categorized into the indicative, subjunctive and imperative moods, with the conditional mood sometimes viewed as an additional category. The eight simple forms can also be categorized into four tenses (future, present, past, and future-of-the-past), or into two aspects (perfective and imperfective).
The three non-finite moods are the infinitive, past participle, and present participle.
There are compound constructions that use more than one verb. These include one for each simple tense with the addition of avoir or être as an auxiliary verb. There is also a construction which is used to distinguish passive voice from active voice.Grammatical mood
In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.
That is, it is the use of verbal inflections that allow speakers to express their attitude toward what they are saying (e.g. a statement of fact, of desire, of command, etc.). The term is also used more broadly to describe the syntactic expression of modality; that is, the use of verb phrases that do not involve inflexion of the verb itself.
Mood is distinct from grammatical tense or grammatical aspect, although the same word patterns are used for expressing more than one of these meanings at the same time in many languages, including English and most other modern Indo-European languages. (See tense–aspect–mood for a discussion of this.)
Some examples of moods are indicative, interrogative, imperative, subjunctive, injunctive, optative, and potential. These are all finite forms of the verb. Infinitives, gerunds, and participles, which are non-finite forms of the verb, are not considered to be examples of moods.
Some Uralic Samoyedic languages have more than ten moods; Nenets has as many as sixteen. The original Indo-European inventory of moods consisted of indicative, subjunctive, optative, and imperative. Not every Indo-European language has all of these moods, but the most conservative ones such as Avestan, Ancient Greek, and Sanskrit have them all. English has indicative, imperative, and subjunctive moods; other moods, such as the conditional, do not appear as morphologically distinct forms.
Not all of the moods listed below are clearly conceptually distinct. Individual terminology varies from language to language, and the coverage of (e.g.) the "conditional" mood in one language may largely overlap with that of the "hypothetical" or "potential" mood in another. Even when two different moods exist in the same language, their respective usages may blur, or may be defined by syntactic rather than semantic criteria. For example, the subjunctive and optative moods in Ancient Greek alternate syntactically in many subordinate clauses, depending on the tense of the main verb. The usage of the indicative, subjunctive, and jussive moods in Classical Arabic is almost completely controlled by syntactic context. The only possible alternation in the same context is between indicative and jussive following the negative particle lā.Imperative
Imperative may refer to:
Imperative mood, a grammatical mood (or mode) expressing commands, direct requests, and prohibitions
Imperative programming, a programming paradigm in computer science
Imperative (film), a 1982 German drama filmImperative logic
Imperative logic is the field of logic concerned with arguments containing sentences in the imperative mood. In contrast to sentences in the declarative mood, imperatives are neither true nor false. This leads to a number of logical dilemmas, puzzles, and paradoxes. Unlike classical logic, there is almost no consensus on any aspect of imperative logic.Imperative programming
In computer science, imperative programming is a programming paradigm that uses statements that change a program's state. In much the same way that the imperative mood in natural languages expresses commands, an imperative program consists of commands for the computer to perform. Imperative programming focuses on describing how a program operates.
The term is often used in contrast to declarative programming, which focuses on what the program should accomplish without specifying how the program should achieve the result.Irrealis mood
In linguistics, irrealis moods (abbreviated IRR) are the main set of grammatical moods that indicate that a certain situation or action is not known to have happened as the speaker is talking. This contrasts with the realis moods.
Every language has a formula for the unreal. Some languages incorporate several different forms of the irrealis moods, especially among Algonquian languages such as Blackfoot.Lesser Polish dialect
The Lesser Polish dialect (Polish: dialekt małopolski) is a cluster of regional varieties of the Polish language around the Lesser Poland historical region. The exact area is difficult to delineate due to the expansion its features and the existence of transitional subdialects.Common subdialects of the Lesser Polish dialect include Podhale, Kraków, Lwów, Sącz, Żywiec, Kielce and some others.
The common traits of the Lesser Polish dialect include:
voiceless-to-voicing shift, including word boundaries (niosłeś->nióześ, kot leci -> kod_leci)
differentiated nasalisation (or lack thereof) of ą and ę in different parts of the area
pronunciation of -enka suffix (typical of many feminine nouns) as εŋka rather than εnka ("dziewczynka", "sukienka")
A more aggressive merger of stop+fricative consonant clusters into affricates. This happens in standard Polish before obstruents ( "drzwi" → "dżwi"), but in Lesser Polish, it may happen before sonorants, including vowels: trzysta ('three hundred') is pronounced as czysta ('clean' fem.) vs. "cz-szysta" in colloquial Standard or "t-szysta" in "hypercorrect" speech.
frequent usage of initial syllable stress, also oxytonic stress in vocative case (as opposed to paroxytonic stress common in other varieties of Polish)
frequent usage of grammatical particle "że" in imperative mood ("weźże" vs. "weź" - take)Macedonian conjugation
Macedonian conjugation (Macedonian: конјугација) is the creation of derived forms of a Macedonian verb from its principal parts by inflection.
Macedonian verbs are conventionally divided into three main conjugations according to the thematic vowel used in the citation form (i.e. 3p-pres-sg):
а–group (e.g. вика, бега);
и–group — further divided into three subgroups according to the thematic vowel in the 1p-aor-sg:
и–subgroup (носи—носив, учи—учив),
е–subgroup (остари—остарев, оздрави—оздравев),
а–subgroup (стои—стојав, лежи—лежав).
е–group — further divided into four subgroups according to the thematic vowel in the 1p-aor-sg:
а–subgroup (викне—викнав, падне—паднав),
е–subgroup (умре—умрев, задре—задрев),
о–subgroup (пече—пеков, сече—секов),
∅–subgroup (i.e. with an athematic stem; пие—пив, трие—трив).Futurity is expressed by placing the invariable particle ќе before a verb phrase.Nota bene
Nota bene (/ˈnoʊtə ˈbɛneɪ/, /ˈnoʊtə ˈbɛni/ or /ˈnoʊtə ˈbiːni/; plural form notate bene) is a Latin phrase meaning 'note well'. The phrase first appeared in English writing c. 1711. Often abbreviated as NB, n.b., or with the ligature , the phrase is Latin for "note well" and comes from the Latin roots notāre ("to note") and bene ("well"). It is in the singular imperative mood, instructing one individual to note well the matter at hand, i.e., to take notice of or pay special attention to it. In Modern English, it is used, particularly in legal papers, to draw the attention of the reader to a certain (side) aspect or detail of the subject on hand. While NB is also often used in academic writing, note is a common substitute.
The markings used to draw readers' attention in medieval manuscripts are also called nota bene marks. The common medieval markings do not, however, include the abbreviation NB. The usual medieval equivalents are anagrams from the four letters in the word nota, the abbreviation DM from dignum memoria ('worth remembering'), or a symbol of a little hand (☞), called a manicule or index, with the index finger pointing towards the beginning of the significant passage.Portuguese verb conjugation
Portuguese verbs display a high degree of inflection. A typical regular verb has over fifty different forms, expressing up to six different grammatical tenses and three moods. Two forms are peculiar to Portuguese within the Romance languages:
The personal infinitive, a non-finite form which does not show tense, but is inflected for person and number.
The future subjunctive, is sometimes archaic in some dialects (including peninsular) of related languages such as Spanish, but still active in Portuguese.It has also several verbal periphrases.Propositive mood
The propositive mood (abbreviated PROP) expresses proposals or suggestions as a grammatical mood. An example in Korean:
가게에 간다. gage-e ganda. – "Goes to the shop." (declarative)
→ 가게에 가자. gage-e gaja. – "Let's go to the shop." (propositive)It is similar to the imperative mood, which expresses commands, in that it is directed to the audience.
Languages featuring a propositive mood, as distinct from an imperative, include Korean and Japanese.Skynd
Skynd is the name of a troll in a Danish fairy tale.
"Skynd" - the imperative mood of the Danish verb "skynde" (to hurry) is the name of the troll in...
the Danish tale of a man from whom a Hill-troll had stolen no fewer than three wives. Riding home late one night afterwards, he saw a great crowd of Hill-folk dancing and making merry; and among them he recognized his three wives. One of these was Kirsten, his best beloved, and he called out to her and named her name. The troll, whose name was Skynd, or Hurry, came up to him and asked him why he presumed to call Kirsten. The man explained that she had been his favourite wife, and begged him with tears to give her back to him. The troll at last consented, but with the proviso that he should never hurry (skynde) her. For a long time the condition was observed; but one day, as she was delayed in fetching something for her husband from the loft, he cried out to her: “Make haste (skynde dig), Kirsten!” And he had hardly spoken the words when the woman was gone, compelled to return to the troll's abode.Spanish verbs
Spanish verbs form one of the more complex areas of Spanish grammar. Spanish is a relatively synthetic language with a moderate to high degree of inflection, which shows up mostly in Spanish conjugation.
As is typical of verbs in virtually all languages, Spanish verbs express an action or a state of being of a given subject, and like verbs in most Indo-European languages, Spanish verbs undergo inflection according to the following categories:
Tense: past, present, or future
Number: singular or plural
Person: first, second or third
T–V distinction: familiar or formal
Mood: indicative, subjunctive, or imperative
Aspect: perfective or imperfective (distinguished only in the past tense as preterite and imperfect)
Voice: active or passiveThe modern Spanish verb system has sixteen distinct complete paradigms (i.e. sets of forms for each combination of tense and mood (tense refers to when the action takes place, and mood or mode refers to the mood of the subject – e.g., certainty vs. doubt), plus one incomplete paradigm (the imperative), as well as three non-temporal forms (the infinitive, gerund, and past participle).
The fourteen regular tenses are also subdivided into seven simple tenses and seven compound tenses (also known as the perfect). The seven compound tenses are formed with the auxiliary verb haber followed by the past participle. Verbs can be used in other forms, such as the present progressive, but in grammar treatises they are not usually considered a special tense but rather periphrastic verbal constructions.Syntactic pivot
The syntactic pivot is the verb argument around which sentences "revolve" in a given language. This usually means the following:
If the verb has more than zero arguments, then one argument is the syntactic pivot.
If the verb agrees with at least one of its arguments, then it agrees with the syntactic pivot.
In coordinated propositions, in languages where an argument can be left out, the omitted argument is the syntactic pivot.The first two characteristics have to do with simple morphosyntax, and from them, it is quite obvious the syntactic pivot in English (and most other European languages) is called the subject. An English verb cannot lack a subject (even in the imperative mood, the subject is implied to be "you" and is not ambiguous or unspecified) and cannot have just a direct object and no subject; and (at least in the present tense, and for the verb to be) it agrees partially with the subject.
The third point deserves an explanation. Consider the following sentence:
I shot the deer and killed it.There are two coordinated propositions, and the second proposition lacks an explicit subject, but since the subject is the syntactic pivot, the second proposition is assumed to have the same subject as the first one. One cannot do so with a direct object (in English). The result would be ungrammatical or have a different meaning:
*I shot the deer and I killed.The syntactic pivot is a feature of the morphosyntactic alignment of the language. In nominative–accusative languages, the syntactic pivot is the so-called "subject" (the argument marked with the nominative case). In ergative–absolutive languages, the syntactic pivot may be the argument marked with the absolutive case but not always so since ergative languages are often not "pure" and show a mixed behaviour (they can have ergative morphology and accusative syntax).
Languages with a passive voice construction may resort to it to allow the default syntactic pivot to shift its semantic role (from agent to patient) in a coordinated proposition:
He worked hard and was awarded a prize.It is easier in English because it is secundative in passives and dative/unmarked in active and in passive with pronouns.Talysh language
The Talysh language (Talışi / Толыши / تالشه زَوُن) is a Northwestern Iranian language spoken in the northern regions of the Iranian provinces of Gilan and Ardabil and the southern regions of the Republic of Azerbaijan by around 200,000 people. Talysh language is closely related to the Tati language. Historically, the language and its people can be traced through the middle Iranian period back to the ancient Medes. It includes many dialects usually divided into three main clusters: Northern (in Azerbaijan and Iran), Central (Iran) and Southern (Iran). Talyshi is partially, but not fully, intelligible with respect to Persian. Talysh is classified as "vulnerable" by UNESCO's Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger.The Revolutionists Stop for Orangeade
"The Revolutionists stop for Orangeade" is a poem from the second, 1931,
edition of Wallace Stevens's first book of poetry,
Although the poem's title is not atypical in being gaudy, it may be an
exception to the rule that the titles of Stevens's poems are not
guides to their content. The revolutionists are imploring
their leader to let them stop singing in the sun, or at least to
resume singing in the shade. And while the captain starts the singing
in a voice rougher than a grinding shale, orangeade all around would
not be amiss.
The poem reflects Stevens's affection for the Caribbean, and it is as
light as a feather compared to other poems added to the 1931 edition
of Harmonium, like "Sea Surface full of Clouds".
Direct address and imperative mood ("Ask us not....", "Sing a
song....", "Wear the breeches...", "Hang a feather....") keeps the
pace brisk in the poem's four stanzas, enhanced in the fourth by the
unusual rhyming.Yatzachi Zapotec
Yatzachi Zapotec is an Oto-Manguean language of the Zapotecan branch, spoken in northern central Oaxaca, Mexico. 2,500 self-reported being Yatzachi speakers for the 1990 Mexican census, but the actual number of speakers is unknown. The Yatzachi dialect belongs to the Villa Alta group of Zapotec dialects, of which the main dialect is San Bartolomé Zoogocho. The degree of mutual intelligibility between Yatzachi and the San Bartolomé Zoogocho dialect is estimated to be around 90 percent.