Immovable property

Immovable property is an immovable object, an item of property that cannot be moved without destroying or altering it – property that is fixed to the earth, such as land or a house. Immovable property includes premises, property rights (for example, inheritable building right), houses, land and associated goods, and chattels if they are located on, or below, or have a fixed address. It is delimited by geographic coordinates or by reference to local landmarks, depending on the jurisdiction.

In much of the world's civil law systems (based as they are on Romano-Germanic law, which is also known as Civil law or Continental law), immovable property is the equivalent of "real property"; it is land or any permanent feature or structure above or below the surface.

To describe it in more detail, immovable property includes land, buildings, hereditary allowances, rights to way, lights, ferries, fisheries or any other benefit which arises out of land, and things attached to the earth or permanently fastened to anything which is attached to the earth. It does not include standing timber, growing crops, nor grass. It includes the right to collect rent, life interest in the income of the immovable property, a right of way, a fishery, or a lease of land.

Other sources describe immovable property as "any land or any building or part of a building, and includes, where any land or any building or part of a building is to be transferred together with any machinery, plant, furniture, fittings or other things, such machinery, plant, furniture, fittings and other things also. Any rights in or with respect to any land or any building or part of building (whether or not including any machinery, plant, furniture, fittings or other things therein) which has been constructed or which is to be constructed, accruing or arising from any transaction (whether by way of becoming a member of, or acquiring shares in, a co-operative society, or other association of persons) or by way of any agreement or any arrangement of whatever nature, not being a transaction by way of sale, exchange or lease of such land, building or part of a building."

Immovable property cannot be altered or remodeled, added to, or reconstructed without entering into an agreement with and getting permission from its owner. Construction, alteration, and demolition may also be subject to government regulation, such as the need to obey zoning laws and obtain building permits.

Also, a property or an object, which can be moved by destroying it would be considered a "destructible property" rather than an "immovable property".

See also

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1849 Costa Rican general election

The Costa Rican general election of 1849 was held to elect the President of the State. This was the first presidential election in Costa Rica's history as the 1848 Constitution created the title of "President", before that point the equivalent office was called "Head of State".

The Costa Rican election of 1849 took place after the coup against José María Castro Madriz, who was forced to resign. At that time, the vice president, Miguel Mora Porras, held the presidency temporarily and his brother, Juan Rafael Mora Porras, was elected over Rafael Moya Murillo and Manuel Antonio Bonilla Nava.The Constitution in force in this period restricted the right to vote for men over 21 years old owners of an immovable property equivalent to 300 pesos and an annual income of at least 150 pesos who also knew how to read and write, so that these elections were carried out mostly among the bourgeoisie.The inhabitants chose 90 Electors who, in the second-grade elections, chose the president. San Jose chose 26, and Guanacaste 12 which voted in block for Mora, while the 17 from Heredia, the 12 from Alajuela and the 2 from Puntarenas did it for Moya. Cartago had 20 electors of which 11 voted for Mora and the remaining 9 who were the only ones who voted for Bonilla.

Comes rerum privatarum

In the late Roman Empire, the comes rerum privatarum (κόμης τη̑ς ἰδικη̑ς παρουσίας, kómis tȋs idikȋs parousías), literally "count of the private fortune", was the official charged with administering the estates of the emperor. He did not administer public lands, although the distinction between the emperor's private property and state property was not always clear or consistently applied. The comes collected rents, handled sales of movable and immovable property, protected the estates from usurpation and accepted lands that came to the emperor by way of grant, bequest, confiscation or forfeiture. Vacant lands (bona vacantia) and heirless property (bona caduca) both escheated to the emperor.The office was probably created around 318, at the same time as that of the comes sacrarum largitionum, although it is not explicitly mentioned until the period 342–45. The comes was one of the comites consistoriales. He held by virtue of his office the rank of vir illustris and was automatically a member of the senate of Rome or the senate of Constantinople. The title comes (literally "companion") indicates that he was a member of the emperor's entourage (comitatus). The two offices (rerum privatarum and sacrarum largitionum) were the highest in the imperial bureaucracy in the fourth through sixth centuries. The department of the rerum privatarum was slightly smaller. It had five sub-departments (scrinia) at court and also officers at the diocesan and provincial levels. In the capital, the scrinia were staffed by the palatini rerum privatarum—the term palatini being common for officials serving at court (palatium). These were sent out annually to oversee the work of the diocesan and provincial officials. According to the Codex Theodosianus, in 399 there were three hundred such officials under the comes rerum privatarum. The comes sometimes grouped estates together to form a domus divinae (literally "divine household") and placed an official separate from the diocesan or provincial one in charge of it.By 414, the domus divinae of Cappadocia had been transferred from the competence of the comes rerum privatarum to that of the praepositus sacri cubiculi. In the western Empire, Emperor Glycerius (473–74) created a new official, the comes patrimonii, to administer the directly-held imperial estates, leaving the comes rerum privatarum only the rented-out properties and the judicial functions connected with forfeitures and grants. Before 509, probably in the 490s, Anastasius I copied Glycerius' reform in the eastern Empire. Gradually, the office lost its fiscal remit and acquired even broader judicial competence, finally dealing even with cases involving of grave robbery and marriage. Before the seventh century was over, the office had disappeared altogether, partially replaced by the sakellarios. During the reign of Justinian I (527–65), most of the domus divinae had been placed in the hands of curators independent of the comes rerum privatarum.

Immovable Property Registration Office

The Immovable Property Registration Office (ZRPP) (Albanian: Zyra e Regjistrimit të Pasurive të Paluajtshme) is an entity of the Albanian government responsible for the registration and safekeeping of immovable property titles and other information related to immovable property. ZRPP administers and maintains real estate records, maps indicative of registration and documentation evidencing the ownership and other legal rights over the immovable property.

The organizational structure consists of the central head office and the regional local offices. The limit of their functions is determined by the Prime Minister on the proposal of the Minister of Justice.

Judiciary of Northern Cyprus

The Judiciary of Northern Cyprus is the system of courts which interprets and applies the law in Northern Cyprus. Judicial independence is safeguarded by the Constitution of the country.

Regulations applied in Northern Cyprus' courts are specified in Courts Law's 38th article. According to this article, the applied regulations are those: (a) Constitution of Northern Cyprus (b) regulations in force (as far as they do not violate the Constitution) (c) common law, i.e., judge-made law (as far as they do not violate the Constitution) (d) Evkaf Rules (e) regulations on Sea Law that was in execution in 21 December 1963.

Kosovo Property Agency

The Kosovo Property Agency (KPA) was established on 4 March 2006 under UNMIK Regulation 2006/10, as an administrative agency functioning independently pursuant to Chapter 11.2 of the Constitutional Framework of Kosovo. It is mandated under UNMIK Regulation 2006/50 to resolve the resolution of claims resulting from the armed conflict that occurred between 27 February 1998 and 20 June 1999 in respect of private immovable property, including agricultural and commercial property - and has three main functions; (a) receive, register and resolve specific claims on private immovable property; (b) enforcement of legally final decisions; and (c) administration of abandoned properties. The KPA has, subject to appeal to the Supreme Court of Kosovo, exclusive jurisdiction to resolve the claims for private immovable property resulting from the conflict period specified above.

Under the Regulation, the staff and assets of the Housing and Property Directorate is subsumed into the KPA. The KPA therefore assumes responsibility for the implementation of all residential property claims that were pending with the HPD on 4 March 2006 and it will ensure their resolution in an effective and expeditious manner. Further, the Housing and Property Claims Commission (HPCC) will continue to decide the limited number of remaining residential claims that are currently pending before it.

The Housing and Property Directorate (HPD) and its Housing and Property Claims Commission (HPCC) were originally established by UNMIK regulation 1999/23 on 15 November 1999 to regularize all individual conflict-related housing and property claims.

Lex rei sitae

Lex rei sitae is a legal doctrine of property law and of International private law. It is Latin for "the law where the property is situated". The law governing the transfer of title to property is dependent upon, and varies with, the lex rei sitae.

LEX REI SITAE: "...real estate or immovable property is exclusively subject to the laws of the government within whose territory it is situated.".

Mahim Bay

Mahim Bay is a bay, part of the Arabian Sea in Mumbai India. The southern end is Worli, northern end is Bandra Reclamation and Mahim is in the centre. The bay was named after the islands of Mahim and Salsette were merged in the early 19th century. The Mithi River drains into Mahim Creek which drains into the Bay, and forms the border between the city and its suburbs.

During the colonial era, the Portuguese built a watch tower called Castella de Aguada on the northern side. Later, the British built the Worli Fort to the south and Mahim Fort near the creek to defend the seven islands of Bombay against attacks by the Portuguese and the Marathas.

The bay holds a small indigenous fishing population known as the Kolis. A large infrastructural project, the Bandra-Worli Sea Link, now links the two ends of the bay by a flyover bridge which reduced the commuting time between the suburbs and the city. During the monsoon season the sea waves hit against the walls and sometimes also enters the small byelanes. The bay is highly polluted due to the drainage of the polluted Mithi river into it. Mahim bay shifts according to the tide; during high tide, water rushes to the Bandra side and during low tide, the Worli side has much water. Recently tar deposits have been found in the bay. The bay is highly unsafe for swimming or Ganpati immersion. The flooding situation is growing worse. Approximately the sea floods the area once a week. It reaches up to the walls of Bombay Scottish School. The school authorities are advised to shut their sea facing gates to ensure safety of the children. The most frightening situation occurred after the start of the Bandra-Worli Sea Link project. the waves entered the small byelanes with great velocity . The Cafe Coffee Day and the Barista outlets were nearly touched by the rising waves.The citizens living on the sea facing side of the Veer Savarkar Marg have been warned repeatedly of building checkwalls to prevent loss of lives and destruction of any movable or immovable property. The students of Bombay Scottish School are also repeatedly told not to go on the beach for safety reasons. The environmentalists in that area have said that the bay has come ahead nearly by 100 metres. This bay is a cause of concern for the local bodies. It is predicted that the waves will nearly submerge Shivaji Park if their arrival to the shore is so fast. The land at the bay has sunk by 5 mm due to the rampant erosion due to the ferocious sea.

Memorial Cemetery, Javor

Memorial cemetery (Javor) is located on Mount Javor, near the town of Ivanjica, Serbia. It is known as monumental mark "Major Ilić", in the central part of the cemetery.

The cemetery is located in the area where the decisive battle took place in the Serbo-Turkish War (1876–78), which is also known as Javor war. The cemetery is now one of the cultural monuments of great importance as immovable property, built in gratitude to Serbian soldiers killed in battle on Javor mountain in 1876. Not far from the cemetery, there is a faucet of Vasilije.At the memorial cemetery on Javor seven thousand Serbian soldiers were buried. They died on Kalipolju on Ivanjdan, on 6 July 1876. Among the mounds in the cemetery of heroes of Javor, a monument to major Mihajlo Ilić was built on 24 June 1907, who was the commander in chief during the fight and was credited for the victory of the Serbian army in the battle of Javor, and later in other battles of the Sandzak.

Ownership

Ownership is the state or fact of exclusive rights and control over property, which may be an object, land/real estate or intellectual property. Ownership involves multiple rights, collectively referred to as title, which may be separated and held by different parties.

The process and mechanics of ownership are fairly complex: one can gain, transfer, and lose ownership of property in a number of ways. To acquire property one can purchase it with money, trade it for other property, win it in a bet, receive it as a gift, inherit it, find it, receive it as damages, earn it by doing work or performing services, make it, or homestead it. One can transfer or lose ownership of property by selling it for money, exchanging it for other property, giving it as a gift, misplacing it, or having it stripped from one's ownership through legal means such as eviction, foreclosure, seizure, or taking. Ownership is self-propagating in that the owner of any property will also own the economic benefits of that property.

Personal property

Personal property is generally considered property that is movable, as opposed to real property or real estate. In common law systems, personal property may also be called chattels or personalty. In civil law systems, personal property is often called movable property or movables – any property that can be moved from one location to another.

Personal property is movable and can be understood in comparison to immovable property or real property, such as land and buildings. Movable property on land, for example, larger livestock, was not automatically sold with the land, it was "personal" to the owner and moved with the owner. The word cattle is the Old Norman variant of Old French chatel, chattel (derived from Latin capitalis, “of the head”), which was once synonymous with general movable personal property.

Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana

Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana, 2016 (PMGKY) (English,

Prime Minister's Poor welfare scheme) is an amnesty scheme launched by the Narendra Modi led Government of India in December 2016 on the lines of the Income declaration scheme, 2016 (IDS) launched earlier in the year. A part of the Taxation Laws (Second Amendment) Act, 2016, the scheme provides an opportunity to declare unaccounted wealth and black money in a confidential manner and avoid prosecution after paying a fine of 50% on the undisclosed income. An additional 25% of the undisclosed income is invested in the scheme which can be refunded after four years, without any interest.

Valid from December 16, 2016 to March 31, 2017, the scheme can only be availed to declare income in the form of cash or bank deposits in Indian bank accounts and not in the form of jewellery, stock, immovable property, or deposits in overseas accounts.Not declaring undisclosed income under the PMGKY will attract a fine of 77.25% if the income is shown in tax returns. In case the income is not shown in tax returns, it will attract a further 10% penalty followed by prosecution.

Property law

Property law is the area of law that governs the various forms of ownership and tenancy in real property (land as distinct from personal or movable possessions) and in personal property, within the common law legal system. In the civil law system, there is a division between movable and immovable property. Movable property roughly corresponds to personal property, while immovable property corresponds to real estate or real property, and the associated rights, and obligations thereon.

The concept, idea or philosophy of property underlies all property law. In some jurisdictions, historically all property was owned by the monarch and it devolved through feudal land tenure or other feudal systems of loyalty and fealty.

Though the Napoleonic code was among the first government acts of modern times to introduce the notion of absolute ownership into statute, protection of personal property rights was present in medieval Islamic law and jurisprudence, and in more feudalist forms in the common law courts of medieval and early modern England as well

Real estate

Real estate is "property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, (more generally) buildings or housing in general. Also: the business of real estate; the profession of buying, selling, or renting land, buildings, or housing."

It is a legal term used in jurisdictions whose legal system is derived from English common law, such as India, England, Wales, Northern Ireland, United States, Canada, Pakistan, Australia, and New Zealand.

Real property

In English common law, real property, real estate, realty, or immovable property is land which is the property of some person and all structures (also called improvements or fixtures) integrated with or affixed to the land, including crops, buildings, machinery, wells, dams, ponds, mines, canals, and roads, among other things. The term is historic, arising from the now-discontinued form of action, which distinguished between real property disputes and personal property disputes. Personal property was, and continues to be, all property that is not real property.

In countries with personal ownership of real property, civil law protects the status of real property in real-estate markets, where estate agents work in the market of buying and selling real estate. Scottish civil law calls real property "heritable property", and in French-based law, it is called immobilier ("immovable property").

SDO s45 Transfer between associated bodies corporate

SDO s45 Transfer between associated bodies corporate is section 45 of Hong Kong Stamp Duty Ordinance Cap.117 (In short, HK SDO). It regulates the Hong Kong Stamp Duty exemption for certain property transfer between associated corporations, (intra group).

HK SDO section 45 exemption does apply to the following transactions:

Conveyance on sale of immovable property;

Agreement for sale of residential property;

Transfer of Hong Kong stock.Therefore, HK SDO s45 exemption does not apply to leasing transaction.

Sasine

Sasine in Scots law is the delivery of feudal property, typically land.

Feudal property means immovable property, and includes everything that naturally goes with the property. For land, that would include such things as buildings, trees, and underground minerals. A superior (e.g., a heritor) might authorise his agent or factor to give possession of his property to someone else through a document known as a "precept of sasine".

Over time, sasine came to be used in common speech as a reference to the deed or document recording the transfer, rather than to the transfer itself. Hence phrases such as "to give sasines", "to deliver sasines", "to receive sasines", "to take sasines".

Alternate spellings: seizin, seisin, sasin, seasin, sasing, seasing, sesin, seasin, sesine, seasine, saisine.

Tailzie

Tailzie () is a feudal concept in Scots law of the inheritance of immovable property according to an arbitrary course that has been laid out, such as in a document known as a "deed of tailzie". It was codified by the Entail Act 1685.

Tailzie is similar to the common law concept of fee tail, as the "heir in tailzie" is entailed to the property. An "heir in tailzie" could not sell the property so inherited, except to the feu superior (that is, to the holder of the dominum directum of the feu).

Alternate spellings of the word are tailie, taillie, tailze, tailyie, tailye, taylzie, teally, teilzie, telyie, teylyie tyle, talyee. It is derived from the Old French tailler (to cut) and taille (a cutting). The 'z' was originally a yogh (tailȝie) and so is not sounded.The definition was constructed from the sources.

Tax Deducted at Source

Tax Deducted at Source (TDS) is a means of collecting income tax in India, under the Indian Income Tax Act of 1961. Any payment covered under these provisions shall be paid after deducting a prescribed percentage. It is managed by the Central Board for Direct Taxes (CBDT) and is part of the Department of Revenue managed by Indian Revenue Service . It has a great importance while conducting tax audits. Assessee is also required to file quarterly return to CBDT. Returns states the TDS deducted & paid to government during the Quarter to which it relates.

Transfer of Property Act 1882

The Transfer of Property Act 1882 is an Indian legislation which regulates the transfer of property in India. It contains specific provisions regarding what constitutes a transfer and the conditions attached to it. It came into force on 1 July 1882.

According to the Act, 'transfer of property' means an act by which a person conveys the property to one or more persons, or himself and one or more other persons. The act of transfer may be done in the present or for the future. The person may include an individual, company or association or body of individuals, and any kind of property may be transferred, including the transfer of immovable property.

By owner
By nature
Commons
Theory
Applications
Disposession/
redistribution
Scholars
(key work)

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