Immanuel J. Klette

LtCol. Immanuel J. Klette (15 February 1918-12 February 1988), aka Manny Klette, was a bomber pilot and squadron commander in the U.S. Army Air Forces during World War II.

Colonel Klette flew 91 combat missions in all, the most of any bomber pilot in the U.S. Eighth Air Force.[1] His first 21, beginning in March 1943, were as a co-pilot in the 369th Bomb Squadron, 306th Bomb Group, based at RAF Thurleigh. In July 1943 he was upgraded to "first pilot" and assigned a crew, flying 7 additional missions before being seriously injured in a crash landing on September 23.

After a lengthy recuperation and a staff assignment at Headquarters, US Strategic Air Forces (USSTAF), he was selected by a former commander, Col. Henry Terry, now commanding the 91st Bomb Group, to command its 324th Bomb Squadron on July 30, 1944. The 324th BS at that time had assigned to it all the H2X radar "Mickey ships" and often led the group, wing, and division on missions where cloud cover was expected to obstruct the target.

Klette flew missions for the duration of the war in Europe, including the last bomb mission of the Eighth Air Force on April 25, 1945. Over 30 of his missions were as group, wing, division, or air force mission commander while serving with the 91st Bomb Group.

His success many have been partly due to his preparations for his bombing missions. He thoroughly studied the details of bombing missions and had learned how to operate every piece of equipment on a B-17 Flying Fortress.


  1. ^ Freeman, Roger A. (1993). Mighty Eighth War Diary. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbook International. pp. 497–500. ISBN 0-87938-495-6. Retrieved 2007-01-26.
91st Bombardment Group

The 91st Bomb Group (Heavy) was an air combat unit of the United States Army Air Forces during the Second World War. Classified as a heavy bombardment group, the 91st operated B-17 Flying Fortress aircraft and was known unofficially as "The Ragged Irregulars" or as "Wray's Ragged Irregulars", after the commander who took the group to England. During its service in World War II the unit consisted of the 322nd, 323rd, 324th, and 401st Bomb Squadrons. The 91st Bomb Group is most noted as the unit in which the bomber Memphis Belle flew, and for having suffered the greatest number of losses of any heavy bomb group in World War II.

The 91st Bomb Group conducted 340 bombing missions with the Eighth Air Force over Europe, operating out of RAF Bassingbourn. Inactivated at the end of the war, the group was brought back in 1947 as a reconnaissance group of the United States Air Force, and then had its lineage and honors bestowed on like-numbered wings of the Strategic Air Command, the Air Force Space Command and the Air Force Global Strike Command.

From 1 July 1947, until its drawdown in February 1952, the 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Group provided worldwide surveillance, flying RB-29s, RB-45s and RB-47s as a subordinate component of the 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Wing, consisting of the 322nd, 323rd, and 324th Strategic Recon Squadrons, and the 91st Air Refueling Squadron (Medium). The group was inactivated on 28 May 1952, as part of an SAC-wide termination of groups as an organizational echelon, while the wing and all subordinate units remained active until 8 November 1957.

The group was activated in 1991 as the 91st Operations Group. Between 1991 and 1994, and since 1996, the 91st Operations Group, initially as part of the 91st Space Wing, and since renamed the 91st Missile Wing, maintains the alert force of Minuteman III intercontinental ballistic missiles maintained at Minot Air Force Base, North Dakota. Its three missile squadrons, however, have no traditional link to the 91st Bomb Group and were previously part of the 455th Strategic Missile Wing and 455th Bomb Group.

Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress

The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is a four-engined heavy bomber developed in the 1930s for the United States Army Air Corps (USAAC). Competing against Douglas and Martin for a contract to build 200 bombers, the Boeing entry (prototype Model 299/XB-17) outperformed both competitors and exceeded the air corps' performance specifications. Although Boeing lost the contract (to the Douglas B-18 Bolo) because the prototype crashed, the air corps ordered 13 more B-17s for further evaluation. From its introduction in 1938, the B-17 Flying Fortress evolved through numerous design advances, becoming the third-most produced bomber of all time, behind the four-engined B-24 and the multirole, twin-engined Ju 88.

The B-17 was primarily employed by the USAAF in the daylight strategic bombing campaign of World War II against German industrial and military targets. The United States Eighth Air Force, based at many airfields in central, eastern and southern England, and the Fifteenth Air Force, based in Italy, complemented the RAF Bomber Command's nighttime area bombing in the Combined Bomber Offensive to help secure air superiority over the cities, factories and battlefields of Western Europe in preparation for the invasion of France in 1944. The B-17 also participated to a lesser extent in the War in the Pacific, early in World War II, where it conducted raids against Japanese shipping and airfields.From its prewar inception, the USAAC (by June 1941, the USAAF) promoted the aircraft as a strategic weapon; it was a relatively fast, high-flying, long-range bomber with heavy defensive armament at the expense of bombload. It developed a reputation for toughness based upon stories and photos of badly damaged B-17s safely returning to base. The B-17 dropped more bombs than any other U.S. aircraft in World War II. Of approximately 1.5 million tons of bombs dropped on Nazi Germany and its occupied territories by U.S. aircraft, over 640,000 tons were dropped from B-17s. In addition to its role as a bomber, the B-17 was also employed as a transport, antisubmarine aircraft, drone controller, and search-and-rescue aircraft.

As of October 2019, 9 aircraft remain airworthy, though none of them were ever flown in combat. Dozens more are in storage or on static display. The oldest of these is a D-series flown in combat in the Pacific and the Caribbean.

Index of World War II articles (I)

I'll Remember April

I Airborne Corps (United Kingdom)

I Armored Corps (United States)

I Canadian Corps

I Corps (Australia)

I Corps (France)

I Corps (Germany)

I Corps (United Kingdom)

I Corps (United States)

I Kikan

I See a Dark Stranger

I SS Panzer Corps

I Was Monty's Double (film)

I.Ae. 25 Mañque

Iaşi pogrom

Iain Macleod

Iain Moncreiffe of that Ilk

Iain Tennant

Iakovos Kambanelis

Ian Carmichael

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Ian Keith, 12th Earl of Kintore

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Iannis Xenakis

IAR 80

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IBM and the Holocaust

Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia

Ibrahima Sonko

Icchak Cukierman

Ice-Cold in Alex

Icebreaker (Suvorov)

Ichinohe Hyoe

Ida Jenbach

Identification in Nazi camps


Idris I of Libya

If This Is a Man

Iftikhar Khan

IG Farben Building

IG Farben Trial

IG Farben

Ignacio Corleto

Ignacy Jeż

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Ignatius J. Galantin

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II SS Panzer Corps

II. Jagdkorps

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III Corps (India)

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IL-2 Sturmovik (video game series)

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IL-2 Sturmovik: Forgotten Battles

IL-2 Sturmovik: 1946

IL-2 Sturmovik: Cliffs of Dover

IL-2 Sturmovik: Battle of Stalingrad

Il Cuore nel Pozzo


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Ill Met by Moonlight

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Images of the Last Battalion

IMAM Ro.51

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Imeson Field

Imitation General

Immanuel J. Klette

Immokalee Airport

Immortal Sergeant

Imperial General Headquarters

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Imperial Prince Kuniyoshi Kuni

Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors

Imperial Way Faction


Implacable-class aircraft carrier

Imre Ámos

Imre Kertész

In Defense of Internment

In Harm's Way

In Love and War (1958 film)

In the Navy (film)

In the Presence of Mine Enemies

In the Shadow of Your Wings

In Which We Serve

INA Defence Committee

INA trials


Incident At Vichy

Independence-class aircraft carrier

Independence Municipal Airport (Kansas)

Independent Operational Group Narew

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Independent State of Croatia

India in World War II

Indian 26th Infantry Division

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Indian Army Act,1911

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Indiana Jones et le Temple du Péril

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Industrial plans for Germany

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Infoage Science/History Learning Center

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Ingar Nielsen

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Ingeborg Refling Hagen

Inger Aufles

Ingleburn Army Camp

(The) Inglorious Bastards

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Ingo Zechner

Ingram de Ketenis

Inner Mongolian Army

Inoue Yoshika

Insect-class gunboat

Inside Hitler's Bunker

Inside the Third Reich

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International Conference to Review the Global Vision of the Holocaust

International Holocaust Cartoon Competition

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Into the Arms of Strangers: Stories of the Kindertransport

INTRIA (Nazi Germany)

Invalides (Paris Métro and RER)

Invasion and Occupation of the Andaman Islands during World War II

Invasion and occupation of the Andaman Islands during World War II

Invasion of French Indochina

Invasion of Iceland

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Involvement of Croatian Catholic clergy with the Ustaša regime

Ioan Cantacuzino

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Iowa-class battleship

Ip massacre

IRA-Abwehr collaboration in World War II

IRA Abwehr World War II

Ira C. Eaker

Ira Hayes


Irena Iłłakowicz

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Irene Galitzine

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Irene Tanner

Irgun and Lehi internment in Africa

Irina Livezeanu


Iris Chang

Iris Clert Gallery

Irish neutrality during World War II

Irma Grese

Irmfried Eberl

Irmgard Huber

Iron Cross

Iron Duke-class battleship

Iron Guard

Iron Range National Park

Iron Wolf (Lithuania)

Irvan Perez

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Irène Némirovsky

Is Paris Burning?

Isaac C. Kidd, Jr.

Isaac C. Kidd

Isaac D. White

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Isaac Klein

Isaac Pierre de Villiers

Isaac Westergren

Isabella of France

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Isamu Chō

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Isao Harimoto

Isaías Medina Angarita

Ischa Meijer

Ise-class battleship

Ishimoto Shinroku

Ishinosuke Uwano

Isidor Zuckermann

Isidore Cohen

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Isidore Goudeket

Island at War

Isle Louvier, Paris

Ismar Isidor Boas

Ismet Muftić

Isoroku Yamamoto's sleeping giant quote

Isoroku Yamamoto

Israel's Department Store

Israel Brodie

Israel Eldad

Israel Gelfand

Israel Gutman

Israel Halperin

Israel Holmgren

Israel Shahak

Israfil Mamedov

Issei Japanese American

Issen gorin

Issey Miyake


István Barta

István Bárány

István Horthy

István Nyers



It's Everybody's War

It Ain't Half Hot Mum

It Happened Here

Itagaki Taisuke

Italia irredenta

Italian-occupied France

Italian 101 Motorised Division Trieste

Italian 102 Motorised Division Trento

Italian 24 Infantry Division Gran Sasso

Italian 26 Infantry Division Assiette

Italian 29 Division Peloritana

Italian 30 Infantry Division Sabauda

Italian 5 Infantry Division Cosseria

Italian American internment

Italian Army equipment in World War II

Italian Army in Russia

Italian battleship Andrea Doria

Italian battleship Caio Duilio

Italian battleship Conte di Cavour

Italian battleship Giulio Cesare

Italian battleship Littorio

Italian battleship Roma (1940)

Italian battleship Vittorio Veneto

Italian bombings on Palestine in World War II

Italian Campaign (World War II)

Italian Co-Belligerent Air Force

Italian Co-Belligerent Army

Italian Co-Belligerent Navy

Italian colonial ship Eritrea

Italian concentration camps

Italian conquest of British Somaliland

Italian cruiser Alberico da Barbiano

Italian cruiser Alberto da Giussano

Italian cruiser Armando Diaz

Italian cruiser Bartolomeo Colleoni

Italian cruiser Duca degli Abruzzi

Italian cruiser Emanuele Filiberto Duca d'Aosta

Italian cruiser Eugenio di Savoia

Italian cruiser Giovanni delle Bande Nere

Italian cruiser Giuseppe Garibaldi (1936)

Italian cruiser Gorizia

Italian cruiser Luigi Cadorna

Italian cruiser Muzio Attendolo

Italian cruiser Raimondo Montecuccoli

Italian cruiser Zara

Italian Expeditionary Corps in Russia

Italian guerrilla war in Ethiopia

Italian invasion of France

Italian Libyan Colonial Division

Italian resistance movement

Italian ship Ramb I

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Italian ship Ramb IV

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Italian submarine Alagi

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Italian submarine Enrico Toti

Italian submarine Iride

Italian submarine Scirè (1938)

Italian submarine Vettor Pisani

Italian war in Soviet Union, 1941-1943

Italian war prisoners in Soviet Union 1942-1954

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Italie 2

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Œuvre de secours aux enfants

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Iwao Takamoto

Iwo Jima

IX Corps (United Kingdom)

IX Corps (United States)

IX Troop Carrier Command

IX Waffen Alpine Corps of the SS (Croatian)


Izumo-class cruiser

Izzy Cohen

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