Ilya Prigogine

Viscount Ilya Romanovich Prigogine (/prɪˈɡoʊʒiːn/; Russian: Илья́ Рома́нович Приго́жин; 25 January [O.S. 12 January] 1917 – 28 May 2003) was a physical chemist and Nobel laureate noted for his work on dissipative structures, complex systems, and irreversibility.

Ilya Prigogine
Ilya Prigogine 1977c
Prigogine in 1977
Born
Ilya Romanovich Prigogine

25 January 1917
Died28 May 2003 (aged 86)
NationalityBelgian
Alma materUniversité Libre de Bruxelles
Known forDissipative structures
Brusselator
Spouse(s)Hélène Jofé (m. 1945; son Yves Prigogine) Maria Prokopowicz (m. 1961; son Pascal Prigogine)
AwardsFrancqui Prize (1955)
Rumford Medal (1976)
Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1977)
Scientific career
FieldsChemistry
Physics
InstitutionsUniversité Libre de Bruxelles
International Solvay Institute
University of Texas, Austin
Doctoral advisorThéophile de Donder
Doctoral students
InfluencesLudwig Boltzmann
Alan Turing[1]
Henri Bergson[2]
Michel Serres[3]
InfluencedIsabelle Stengers, Immanuel Wallerstein

Biography

Prigogine was born in Moscow a few months before the Russian Revolution of 1917, into a Jewish family.[4][5][6][7][8][9] His father, Roman (Ruvim Abramovich) Prigogine, was a chemical engineer at the Imperial Moscow Technical School; his mother, Yulia Vikhman, was a pianist. Because the family was critical of the new Soviet system, they left Russia in 1921. They first went to Germany and in 1929, to Belgium, where Prigogine received Belgian nationality in 1949. His brother Alexandre (1913–1991) became an ornithologist.[10]

Prigogine studied chemistry at the Université Libre de Bruxelles, where in 1950, he became professor. In 1959, he was appointed director of the International Solvay Institute in Brussels, Belgium. In that year, he also started teaching at the University of Texas at Austin in the United States, where he later was appointed Regental Professor and Ashbel Smith Professor of Physics and Chemical Engineering. From 1961 until 1966 he was affiliated with the Enrico Fermi Institute at the University of Chicago.[11] In Austin, in 1967, he co-founded the Center for Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics, now the Center for Complex Quantum Systems.[12] In that year, he also returned to Belgium, where he became director of the Center for Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics.

He was a member of numerous scientific organizations, and received numerous awards, prizes and 53 honorary degrees. In 1955, Ilya Prigogine was awarded the Francqui Prize for Exact Sciences. For his study in irreversible thermodynamics, he received the Rumford Medal in 1976, and in 1977, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. In 1989, he was awarded the title of Viscount in the Belgian nobility by the King of the Belgians. Until his death, he was president of the International Academy of Science, Munich and was in 1997, one of the founders of the International Commission on Distance Education (CODE), a worldwide accreditation agency.[13][14] Prigogine received an Honorary Doctorate from Heriot-Watt University in 1985[15] and in 1998 he was awarded an honoris causa doctorate by the UNAM in Mexico City.

Prigogine was first married to Belgian poet Hélène Jofé (as an author also known as Hélène Prigogine) and in 1945 they had a son Yves. After their divorce, he married Polish-born chemist Maria Prokopowicz (also known as Maria Prigogine) in 1961. In 1970 they had a son Pascal.[16]

In 2003 he was one of 22 Nobel Laureates who signed the Humanist Manifesto.[17]

Research

Prigogine is best known for his definition of dissipative structures and their role in thermodynamic systems far from equilibrium, a discovery that won him the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1977. In summary, Ilya Prigogine discovered that importation and dissipation of energy into chemical systems could result in the emergence of new structures (hence dissipative structures) due to internal self reorganization.[18] In his 1955 text, Prigogine drew connections between dissipative structures and the Rayleigh-Bénard instability and the Turing mechanism.[19]

Dissipative structures theory

Dissipative structure theory led to pioneering research in self-organizing systems, as well as philosophical inquiries into the formation of complexity on biological entities and the quest for a creative and irreversible role of time in the natural sciences. See the criticism by Joel Keizer and Ronald Fox.[20]

With professor Robert Herman, he also developed the basis of the two fluid model, a traffic model in traffic engineering for urban networks, analogous to the two fluid model in classical statistical mechanics.

Prigogine's formal concept of self-organization was used also as a "complementary bridge" between General Systems Theory and thermodynamics, conciliating the cloudiness of some important systems theory concepts with scientific rigour.

Work on unsolved problems in physics

In his later years, his work concentrated on the fundamental role of indeterminism in nonlinear systems on both the classical and quantum level. Prigogine and coworkers proposed a Liouville space extension of quantum mechanics. A Liouville space is the vector space formed by the set of (self-adjoint) linear operators, equipped with an inner product, that act on a Hilbert space.[21] There exists a mapping of each linear operator into Liouville space, yet not every self-adjoint operator of Liouville space has a counterpart in Hilbert space, and in this sense Liouville space has a richer structure than Hilbert space.[22] The Liouville space extension proposal by Prigogine and co-workers aimed to solve the arrow of time problem of thermodynamics and the measurement problem of quantum mechanics.[23]

Prigogine co-authored several books with Isabelle Stengers, including The End of Certainty and La Nouvelle Alliance (Order out of Chaos).

The End of Certainty

In his 1996 book, La Fin des certitudes, co-authored by Isabelle Stengers and published in English in 1997 as The End of Certainty: Time, Chaos, and the New Laws of Nature, Prigogine contends that determinism is no longer a viable scientific belief: "The more we know about our universe, the more difficult it becomes to believe in determinism." This is a major departure from the approach of Newton, Einstein and Schrödinger, all of whom expressed their theories in terms of deterministic equations. According to Prigogine, determinism loses its explanatory power in the face of irreversibility and instability.

Prigogine traces the dispute over determinism back to Darwin, whose attempt to explain individual variability according to evolving populations inspired Ludwig Boltzmann to explain the behavior of gases in terms of populations of particles rather than individual particles.[24] This led to the field of statistical mechanics and the realization that gases undergo irreversible processes. In deterministic physics, all processes are time-reversible, meaning that they can proceed backward as well as forward through time. As Prigogine explains, determinism is fundamentally a denial of the arrow of time. With no arrow of time, there is no longer a privileged moment known as the "present," which follows a determined "past" and precedes an undetermined "future." All of time is simply given, with the future as determined or as undetermined as the past. With irreversibility, the arrow of time is reintroduced to physics. Prigogine notes numerous examples of irreversibility, including diffusion, radioactive decay, solar radiation, weather and the emergence and evolution of life. Like weather systems, organisms are unstable systems existing far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Instability resists standard deterministic explanation. Instead, due to sensitivity to initial conditions, unstable systems can only be explained statistically, that is, in terms of probability.

Prigogine asserts that Newtonian physics has now been "extended" three times: first with the introduction of spacetime in general relativity, then with the use of the wave function in quantum mechanics, and finally with the recognition of indeterminism in the study of unstable systems (chaos theory).

Publications

  • Prigogine, I.; Defay, R. (1954). Chemical Thermodynamics. London: Longmans Green and Co.
  • Prigogine, I. (1955). Introduction to Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.
  • Prigogine, Ilya (1957). The Molecular Theory of Solutions. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Company.
  • Prigogine, Ilya (1961). Introduction to Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes (Second ed.). New York: Interscience. OCLC 219682909.
  • Glansdorff, Paul; Prigogine, I. (1971). Thermodynamics Theory of Structure, Stability and Fluctuations. London: Wiley-Interscience.
  • Prigogine, Ilya; Herman, R. (1971). Kinetic Theory of Vehicular Traffic. New York: American Elsevier. ISBN 0-444-00082-8.
  • Prigogine, Ilya; Nicolis, G. (1977). Self-Organization in Non-Equilibrium Systems. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-02401-5.
  • Prigogine, Ilya (1980). From Being To Becoming. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-1107-9.
  • Prigogine, Ilya; Stengers, Isabelle (1984). Order out of Chaos: Man's new dialogue with nature. Flamingo. ISBN 0-00-654115-1.
  • Prigogine, I. The Behavior of Matter under Nonequilibrium Conditions: Fundamental Aspects and Applications in Energy-oriented Problems, United States Department of Energy, Progress Reports:
  • Nicolis, G.; Prigogine, I. (1989). Exploring complexity: An introduction. New York, NY: W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-1859-6.
  • Prigogine, I. "Time, Dynamics and Chaos: Integrating Poincare's 'Non-Integrable Systems'", Center for Studies in Statistical Mechanics and Complex Systems at the University of Texas-Austin, United States Department of Energy-Office of Energy Research, Commission of the European Communities (October 1990).
  • Prigogine, Ilya (1993). Chaotic Dynamics and Transport in Fluids and Plasmas: Research Trends in Physics Series. New York: American Institute of Physics. ISBN 0-88318-923-2.
  • Prigogine, Ilya; Stengers, Isabelle (1997). The End of Certainty. The Free Press. ISBN 978-0-684-83705-5.
  • Kondepudi, Dilip; Prigogine, Ilya (1998). Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-97394-2.
  • Prigogine, Ilya (2002). Advances in Chemical Physics. New York: Wiley InterScience. ISBN 978-0-471-26431-6. Archived from the original on 2012-12-17. Retrieved 2008-07-29.
  • Editor (with Stuart A. Rice) of the Advances in Chemical Physics book series published by John Wiley & Sons (presently over 140 volumes)
  • Prigogine I, (papers and interviews) Is future given?, World Scientific, 2003. ISBN 9789812385086 (145p.)

See also

References

  1. ^ H. Bunke, T. Kanade, H. Noltemeier (ed.), Modelling and Planning for Sensor Based Intelligent Robot Systems, World Scientific, 1995, p. 438.
  2. ^ P. A. Y. Gunter (1991). "Bergson and non-linear non-equilibrium thermodynamics: an application of method". Revue Internationale de Philosophie. 45 (177): 108–21.
  3. ^ Michel Serres, Hermes, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982, p. 135.
  4. ^ Francis Leroy. A century of Nobel Prizes recipients: chemistry, physics, and medicine (p. 80). Books.google.com. 2003-03-13. ISBN 9780203014189. Retrieved 2012-03-12.
  5. ^ "Vicomte Ilya Prigogine (Obituary, The Telegraph)". Telegraph.co.uk. 2003-06-05. Retrieved 2012-03-12.
  6. ^ Magnus Ramage, Karen Shipp. Systems Thinkers (p. 227). Books.google.com. 2009-09-29. ISBN 9781848825253. Retrieved 2012-03-12.
  7. ^ "Andrew Robinson. Time and notion". Timeshighereducation.co.uk. 1998-07-17. Retrieved 2012-03-12.
  8. ^ "Time and Change". Chaosforum.com. 2003-05-28. Retrieved 2012-03-12.
  9. ^ "Biography of Ilya Prigogine". Pagerankstudio.com. Retrieved 2012-03-12.
  10. ^ Louette, Michel (1992). "Obituary: Alexandre Prigogine (1913–1991)". Ibis. 134: 89–90. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.1992.tb07238.x.
  11. ^ Todd May (September 11, 2014). Emerging Trends in Continental Philosophy. Routledge. p. 114. ISBN 1317546784.
  12. ^ "Nobel Prize-winning physical chemist dies in Brussels at age 86". Utexas.edu. 2003-05-28. Retrieved 2012-12-19.
  13. ^ "History – International Academy of Science, Munich". www.ias-icsd.org. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  14. ^ International Council for Scientific Development. Presidium. ias-icsd.org
  15. ^ "Heriot-Watt University Edinburgh: Honorary Graduates". www1.hw.ac.uk. Retrieved 2016-04-05.
  16. ^ Ilya Prigogine. (2003). Curriculum Vitae of Ilya Prigogine In Is future given. World Scientific.
  17. ^ "Notable Signers". Humanism and Its Aspirations. American Humanist Association. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. Retrieved 4 October 2012.
  18. ^ P. T. Macklem (3 April 2008). "Emergent phenomena and the secrets of life". Journal of Applied Physiology. 104 (6): 1844–1846. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00942.2007.
  19. ^ I. Prigogine, Introduction to Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes, Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Springfield, Illinois, 1955
  20. ^ Joel Keizer and Ronald Fox (January 1974). "Qualms Regarding the Range of Validity of the Glansdorff-Prigogine Criterion for Stability of Non-Equilibrium States". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 71 (1): 192–196. Bibcode:1974PNAS...71..192K. doi:10.1073/pnas.71.1.192. PMC 387963. PMID 16592132. Also on Academia.edu. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  21. ^ Gregg Jaeger: Quantum Information: An Overview, Springer, 2007, ISBN 978-0-387-35725-6, Chapter B.3 "Lioville space and open quantum systems", p. 248
  22. ^ T. Sida, K. Saitô, Si Si (eds.): Quantum Information and Complexity: Proceedings of the Meijo Winter School, 6–10 January 2003, World Scientific Publishing, 2004, ISBN 978-981-256-047-6, p. 62
  23. ^ T. Petrosky; I. Prigogine (1997). "The Liouville Space Extension of Quantum Mechanics". Adv. Chem. Phys. Advances in Chemical Physics. 99: 1–120. doi:10.1002/9780470141588.ch1. ISBN 978-0-470-14158-8.
  24. ^ Prigogine & Stengers (1997), p. 19–20.

Further reading

External links

2003 in Russia

Events from the year 2003 in Russia.

Advances in Chemical Physics

Advances in Chemical Physics is a peer reviewed, scientific journal in the fields of chemistry and physics and related interdisciplinary fields (e.g. biophysics) published by John Wiley & Sons. The form of each publication is a book made of chapters, where all the chapters in a specific book are of a particular field. Every chapter comes from an established scientist in the subject of the book. The books are usually published once (or twice) a year. Examples for the topics covered include:

Special Volume in Memory of Ilya Prigogine: Advances in Chemical Physics, Volume 135, based on the symposium 'Time, Irreversibility and Self-Organization', University of Brussels, December 2–3, 2004.

Advances in Chemical Physics, Volume 145: Advancing Theory for Kinetics and Dynamics of Complex, Many-Dimensional Systems: Clusters and Proteins

Advances in Chemical Physics, Volume 146: Single Molecule Biophysics: Experiments and TheoriesSince the first book in 1958 and until 2010, either Ilya Prigogine or Stuart A. Rice acted as series editor. Since 2011, the series editor is Aaron R. Dinner.

Alexandre Prigogine

Alexandre Romanovich Prigogine (12 April 1913, Moscow - 7 May 1991, Brussels) was a Russian-born mineralogist and ornithologist who worked in Belgium.

Born in a Jewish family, his father Roman (Ruvim Abramovich) Prigogine was a chemical engineer and his mother Julia Vichman, a pianist. His younger brother Ilya Prigogine later won a Nobel Prize in chemistry. In 1921 the family left Russia and travelled through Lithuania and Germany to settle in Belgium in 1929. After studying chemistry at the Université Libre de Bruxelles he moved to the Belgian Congo in 1938 to study its mineral wealth.

Henri Schouteden convinced him in 1946 to take an interest in birds and to collect specimens in the east of the Belgian Congo. This new interest led to him publishing 94 papers on ornithology and he collected nearly 20,000 specimens. He described several new species including Albertine owlet (Glaucidium albertinum), Schouteden's swift (Schoutedenapus schoutedeni), Kabobo apalis (Apalis kaboboensis) and the Itombwe flycatcher (Muscicapa itombwensis) and about 30 new subspecies. Congo bay owl (Pholidus prigoginei), Prigogine's nightjar (Caprimulgus prigoginei) and Prigogine's greenbul (Chlorocichla prigoginei) have been named after him.

Brusselator

The Brusselator is a theoretical model for a type of autocatalytic reaction. The Brusselator model was proposed by Ilya Prigogine and his collaborators at the Université Libre de Bruxelles. It is a portmanteau of Brussels and oscillator.

It is characterized by the reactions

Under conditions where A and B are in vast excess and can thus can be modeled at constant concentration, the rate equations become

where, for convenience, the rate constants have been set to 1.

The Brusselator has a fixed point at

.

The fixed point becomes unstable when

leading to an oscillation of the system. Unlike the Lotka–Volterra equation, the oscillations of the Brusselator do not depend on the amount of reactant present initially. Instead, after sufficient time, the oscillations approach a limit cycle.

The best-known example is the clock reaction, the Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction (BZ reaction). It can be created with a mixture of potassium bromate , malonic acid , and manganese sulfate prepared in a heated solution of sulfuric acid .

Center for Complex Quantum Systems

The Center for Complex Quantum Systems is a research institute within the Department of Physics of The University of Texas at Austin in the United States.

The center, founded in 1967 by Ilya Prigogine, is dedicated to the theoretical and computational research of complex systems, statistical mechanics and chaos theory.

The current research staff includes William C. Schieve and Linda Reichl, the center's director.

Chemical affinity

In chemical physics and physical chemistry, chemical affinity is the electronic property by which dissimilar chemical species are capable of forming chemical compounds. Chemical affinity can also refer to the tendency of an atom or compound to combine by chemical reaction with atoms or compounds of unlike composition.

Chemical thermodynamics

Chemical thermodynamics is the study of the interrelation of heat and work with chemical reactions or with physical changes of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics. Chemical thermodynamics involves not only laboratory measurements of various thermodynamic properties, but also the application of mathematical methods to the study of chemical questions and the spontaneity of processes.

The structure of chemical thermodynamics is based on the first two laws of thermodynamics. Starting from the first and second laws of thermodynamics, four equations called the "fundamental equations of Gibbs" can be derived. From these four, a multitude of equations, relating the thermodynamic properties of the thermodynamic system can be derived using relatively simple mathematics. This outlines the mathematical framework of chemical thermodynamics.

Foundations of Physics

Foundations of Physics is a monthly journal "devoted to the conceptual bases and fundamental theories of modern physics and cosmology, emphasizing the logical, methodological, and philosophical premises of modern physical theories and procedures". The journal publishes results and observations based on fundamental questions from all fields of physics, including: quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, special relativity, general relativity, string theory, M-theory, cosmology, thermodynamics, statistical physics, and quantum gravity

Foundations of Physics has been published since 1970. Its founding editors were Henry Margenau and Wolfgang Yourgrau. The 1999 Nobel laureate Gerard 't Hooft was editor-in-chief from January 2007. At that stage, it absorbed the associated journal for shorter submissions Foundations of Physics Letters, which had been edited by Alwyn Van der Merwe since its foundation in 1988. Past editorial board members (which include several Nobel laureates) include Louis de Broglie, Robert H. Dicke, Murray Gell-Mann, Abdus Salam, Ilya Prigogine and Nathan Rosen. Carlo Rovelli was announced as new editor-in-chief in February 2016.

Indeterminism

Indeterminism is the idea that events (or certain events, or events of certain types) are not caused, or not caused deterministically.

It is the opposite of determinism and related to chance. It is highly relevant to the philosophical problem of free will, particularly in the form of metaphysical libertarianism. In science, most specifically quantum theory in physics, indeterminism is the belief that no event is certain and the entire outcome of anything is probabilistic. The Heisenberg uncertainty relations and the "Born rule", proposed by Max Born, are often starting points in support of the indeterministic nature of the universe. Indeterminism is also asserted by Sir Arthur Eddington, and Murray Gell-Mann. Indeterminism has been promoted by the French biologist Jacques Monod's essay "Chance and Necessity".

The physicist-chemist Ilya Prigogine argued for indeterminism in complex systems.

International Society for the Systems Sciences

The International Society for the Systems Sciences (ISSS) is a worldwide organization for systems sciences. The overall purpose of the ISSS is:

"to promote the development of conceptual frameworks based on general system theory, as well as their implementation in practice. It further seeks to encourage research and facilitate communication between and among scientists and professionals from various disciplines and professions at local, regional, national, and international levels."Initially conceived in 1954 as the Society for the Advancement of General Systems Theory, and started in 1955/56, the Society for General Systems Research became the first interdisciplinary and international co-operation in the field of systems theory and systems science. In 1988 it was renamed to the International Society for the Systems Sciences.

Lawrence Paul Horwitz

Lawrence Paul Horwitz (born October 14, 1930) is an American/Israeli physicist and mathematician who has made contributions in particle physics, statistical mechanics, mathematical physics, theory of unstable systems, classical chaos and quantum chaos, relativistic quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, general relativity, representations of quantum theory on hypercomplex Hilbert modules, group theory and functional analysis and stochastic theories of irreversible quantum evolution.

After obtaining his Ph.D. at Harvard University under Julian Schwinger, he worked at the IBM Research Laboratory in Yorktown, New York until 1964. He then worked at the Department of Theoretical Physics at the University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland, until 1966, and became full professor at the Department of Physics, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado.

He has been Full Professor at the School of Physics, Tel Aviv University since 1972 (Professor Emeritus since 1998), and teaching externally as well at Bar Ilan University from 1990. He has been participating as well in research at the Ariel University Center of Samaria.

He has been on the editorial and advisory boards and standing committees for several conferences on mathematical and theoretical physics and journals, and on the Panel of Assessors ARC, Australian National Funding DEET.

He has made frequent visits, long and short term, at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey, the Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Geneva, CERN (Geneva), University of Connecticut (Storrs, Connecticut), ETH (Honggerberg, Zurich), Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques (Bures-sur-Yvette, France), and the Ilya Prigogine Center for Statistical Mechanics and Complex Systems, University of Texas at Austin, United States.

List of Belgian Nobel laureates

This a list of the Belgian Nobel laureates

Marilyn Ferguson

Marilyn Ferguson (April 5, 1938 in Grand Junction, Colorado – October 19, 2008) was an American author, editor and public speaker, best known for her 1980 book The Aquarian Conspiracy and its affiliation with the New Age Movement in popular culture.

A founding member of the Association of Humanistic Psychology, Ferguson published and edited the well-regarded science newsletter Brain/Mind Bulletin from 1975 to 1996. She eventually earned numerous honorary degrees, served on the board of directors of the Institute of Noetic Sciences, and befriended such diverse figures of influence as inventor and theorist Buckminster Fuller, spiritual author Ram Dass, Nobel Prize-winning chemist Ilya Prigogine and billionaire Ted Turner. Ferguson's work also influenced Vice President Al Gore, who participated in her informal network while a senator and later met with her in the White House.

Oregonator

The Oregonator is a theoretical model for a type of autocatalytic reaction. The Oregonator (Orygunator) is the simplest realistic model of the chemical dynamics of the oscillatory Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. It was created by Richard Field and Richard M. Noyes at the University of Oregon. It is a portmanteau of Oregon and oscillator.

Earlier, the Brusselator model was proposed by Ilya Prigogine and his collaborators at the Free University of Brussels as a portmanteau of Brussels and oscillator.

The Oregonator is a reduced model of the FKN mechanism (developed by Richard Field, Endre Kőrös, and Richard M. Noyes) which still involved 11 reactions and 12 species (21 intermediate species and 18 elementary steps). The Oregonator is characterized by the reactions



Radu Bălescu

Radu Bălescu (Bucharest, 18 July 1932 – 1 June 2006, Bucharest) was a Romanian and Belgian (since 1959) scientist and professor at the Statistical and Plasma Physics group of the Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB).

He studied at the Titu Maiorescu high school, in Bucharest (1943 – 1948) and the Athénée Royal d'Ixelles (1948 – 1950). At the ULB (1950 – 1958) he studied chemistry and obtained a PhD in 1958. He started his academic career in 1957 at the ULB as an assistant (with Prof. Ilya Prigogine) at the Service de Physique Théorique et Mathématique. He became a professor at the ULB in 1964. He worked on the statistical physics of charged particles (Bălescu-Lenard collision operator) and on the theory of transport of magnetically confined plasmas. Radu Balescu was involved in the European fusion programme for more than 30 years as a scientist and as the head of research unit of the ULB group in the Euratom-Belgian state Association.

In 1970 he was awarded the Francqui Prize on Exact Sciences. In 2000 he received the Hannes Alfvén Prize.

Systemics

In the context of systems science and systems philosophy, systemics is an initiative to study systems. It is an attempt at developing logical, mathematical, engineering and philosophical paradigms and frameworks in which physical, technological, biological, social, cognitive and metaphysical systems can be studied and modeled.The term "systemics" was coined in the 1970s by Mario Bunge and others, as an alternative paradigm for research related to general systems theory and systems science.

Two-fluid model

Two-fluid model is a macroscopic traffic flow model to represent traffic in a town/city or metropolitan area, put forward in the 1970s by Ilya Prigogine and Robert Herman.There is also a two-fluid model which helps explain the behavior of superfluid helium. This model states that there will be two components in liquid helium below its lambda point (the temperature where superfluid forms). These components are a normal fluid and a superfluid component. Each liquid has a different density and together their sum makes the total density, which remains constant. The ratio of superfluid density to the total density increases as the temperature approaches absolute zero.

Université libre de Bruxelles

The Université Libre de Bruxelles (in English: Free University of Brussels), abbreviated ULB, is a French-speaking private research university in Brussels, Belgium.

The Free University of Brussels was originally established in 1834 by Belgian lawyer Pierre-Théodore Verhaegen and split into the French-speaking ULB and Dutch-speaking Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) in 1970. it is one of the most important Belgian universities. A major research center open to Europe and the world, it has about 24,200 students, 33% of whom come from abroad, and an equally cosmopolitan staff. In 2018, ULB was globally ranked 175th by The Times Higher Education, 151th by Shanghai Ranking (AWRU).

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