An Austronesian language, it is related to such languages as Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian), Tetum, Chamorro, Fijian, Maori, Hawaiian, Samoan, Tahitian, Paiwan and Malagasy. It is closely related to some of the other Austronesian languages of Northern Luzon, and has slight mutual intelligibility with the Balangao language and the eastern dialects of the Bontoc language. 
The Ilokano people had their own distinct indigenous writing system and script known as kur-itan. There have been proposals to revive the kur-itan script by teaching it in Ilokano-majority public and private schools in Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur.
|Iloko, Iluko, Pagsasao nga Ilokano|
|Region||Northern Luzon, many parts of Central Luzon (northern Tarlac, northern sections of Zambales, Aurora, and Nueva Ecija), and few parts of SOCCSKSARGEN|
(Filipinos in Hawaii)
|9.1 million (2015)|
2 million L2 speakers (2000)
Third most spoken native language in the Philippines
|Latin (Ilocano alphabet),|
Official language in
|Regulated by||Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino|
Ilocano, like all Philippine languages, is an Austronesian language, a very expansive language family believed to originate in Taiwan. Ilocano comprises its own branch within the Philippine Cordilleran language subfamily. It is spoken as first language by seven million people.
A lingua franca of the northern region of the Philippines, it is spoken as a secondary language by more than two million people who are native speakers of Ibanag, Ivatan, and other languages in Northern Luzon.
The language is spoken in northwest Luzon, the Babuyan Islands, Cordillera Administrative Region, Cagayan Valley, northern parts of Central Luzon, Mindoro and scattered areas in Mindanao (the SOCCSKSARGEN region in particular). The language is also spoken in the United States, with Hawaii and California having the largest number of speakers. It is the third most spoken non-English language in Hawaii after Tagalog and Japanese, with 17% of those speaking languages other than English at home (25.4% of the population) speaking the language.
In September 2012, the province of La Union passed an ordinance recognizing Ilocano (Iloko) as an official provincial language, alongside Filipino and English, as national and official languages of the Philippines, respectively. It is the first province in the Philippines to pass an ordinance protecting and revitalizing a native language, although there are also other languages spoken in the province of La Union, including Pangasinan and Kankanaey.
The modern Ilokano Alphabet of 28 letters
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Ññ NGng Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Precolonial Ilocano people of all classes wrote in a syllabic system known as Baybayin prior to European arrival. They used a system that is termed as an abugida, or an alphasyllabary. It was similar to the Tagalog and Pangasinan scripts, where each character represented a consonant-vowel, or CV, sequence. The Ilocano version, however, was the first to designate coda consonants with a diacritic mark – a cross or virama – shown in the Doctrina Cristiana of 1621, one of the earliest surviving Ilokano publications. Before the addition of the virama, writers had no way to designate coda consonants. The reader, on the other hand, had to guess whether the vowel was read or not, due to this vowels "e" and "i" are interchangeable and letters "o" and "u", for instance "tendera" and tindira" (shop-assistant)
In recent times, there have been two systems in use: The "Spanish" system and the "Tagalog" system. In the Spanish system words of Spanish origin kept their spellings. Native words, on the other hand, conformed to the Spanish rules of spelling. Most older generation of Ilocanos use the Spanish system.
In the system based on that of Tagalog there is more of a phoneme-to-letter correspondence, and better reflects the actual pronunciation of the word.[a] The letters ng constitute a digraph and counts as a single letter, following n in alphabetization. As a result, numo humility appears before ngalngal to chew in newer dictionaries. Words of foreign origin, most notably those from Spanish, need to be changed in spelling to better reflect Ilocano phonology. Words of English origin may or may not conform to this orthography. A prime example using this system is the weekly magazine Bannawag.
The following are two versions of the Lord's Prayer. The one on the left is written using the Spanish-based orthography, while the one on the right uses the Tagalog-based system.
With the implementation by the Spanish of the Bilingual Education System of 1897, Ilocano, together with the other seven major languages (those that have at least a million speakers), was allowed to be used as a medium of instruction until the second grade. It is recognized by the Commission on the Filipino Language as one of the major languages of the Philippines. Constitutionally, Ilocano is an auxiliary official language in the regions where it is spoken and serves as auxiliary media of instruction therein.
In 2009, the Philippine Department of Education instituted department order 74, s. 2009 stipulating that "mother tongue-based multilingual education" would be implemented. In 2012, department order 16, s. 2012 stipulated that the mother tongue-based multilingual system was to be implemented for kindergarten to grade 3 effective school year 2012-2013. Ilocano is used in public schools mostly in the Ilocos region and the Cordilleras. It is the primary medium of instruction from kindergarten to grade 3 (except for the Filipino and English subjects) and is also a separate subject from grade 1 to grade 3. Thereafter, English and Filipino are introduced as mediums of instructions.
Ilocano animistic past offers a rich background in folklore, mythology and superstition (see Religion in the Philippines). There are many stories of good and malevolent spirits and beings. Its creation mythology centers on the giants Aran and her husband Angalo, and Namarsua (the Creator).
The epic story Biag ni Lam-ang (The Life of Lam-ang) is undoubtedly one of the few indigenous stories from the Philippines that survived colonialism, although much of it is now acculturated and shows many foreign elements in the retelling. It reflects values important to traditional Ilokano society; it is a hero's journey steeped in courage, loyalty, pragmatism, honor, and ancestral and familial bonds.
Ilocano culture revolves around life rituals, festivities and oral history. These were celebrated in songs (kankanta), dances (salsala), poems (dandaniw), riddles (burburtia), proverbs (pagsasao), literary verbal jousts called bucanegan (named after the writer Pedro Bucaneg, and is the equivalent of the Balagtasan of the Tagalogs) and epic stories.
Modern Ilocano has two dialects, which are differentiated only by the way the letter e is pronounced. In the Amianan (Northern) dialect, there exist only five vowels while the Abagatan (Southern) dialect employs six.
Reduplicate vowels are not slurred together, but voiced separately with an intervening glottal stop:
The letter in bold is the graphic (written) representation of the vowel.
|Close||i /i/||u/o /u/
|Mid||e /ɛ/||o /o/|
For a better rendition of vowel distribution, please refer to the IPA Vowel Chart.
Unstressed /a/ is pronounced [ɐ] in all positions except final syllables, like madí [mɐˈdi] (cannot be) but ngiwat (mouth) is pronounced [ˈŋiwat].
Although the modern (Tagalog) writing system is largely phonetic, there are some notable conventions.
Example: Root: luto cook agluto to cook lutuen to cook (something) example:lutuen dayta
Instances such as masapulmonto, You will manage to find it, to need it, are still consistent. Note that masapulmonto is, in fact, three morphemes: masapul (verb base), -mo (pronoun) and -(n)to (future particle). An exception to this rule, however, is laud /la.ʔud/ (west). Also, u in final stressed syllables can be pronounced [o], like [dɐ.ˈnom] for danum (water).
The two vowels are not highly differentiated in native words due to fact that /o/ was an allophone of /u/ in the history of the language. In words of foreign origin, notably Spanish, they are phonemic.
Example: uso use oso bear
Unlike u and o, i and e are not allophones, but i in final stressed syllables in words ending in consonants can be [ɛ], like ubíng [ʊ.ˈbɛŋ] (child).
Example: kuarta /kwaɾ.ta/ money paria /paɾ.ja/ bitter melon
Unstressed /i/ and /u/ are pronounced [ɪ] and [ʊ] except in final syllables, like pintás (beauty) [pɪn.ˈtas] and buténg (fear) [bʊ.ˈtɛŋ] but bangir (other side) and parabur (grace) are pronounced [ˈba.ŋiɾ] and [pɐ.ˈɾa.buɾ].
The letter ⟨e⟩ represents two vowels in the non-nuclear dialects (areas outside the Ilocos provinces) [ɛ] in words of foreign origin and [ɯ] in native words, and only one in the nuclear dialects of the Ilocos provinces, [ɛ].
Diphthongs are combination of a vowel and /i/ or /u/. In the orthography, the secondary vowels (underlying /i/ or /u/) are written with their corresponding glide, y or w, respectively. Of all the possible combinations, only /aj/ or /ej/, /iw/, /aw/ and /uj/ occur. In the orthography, vowels in sequence such as uo and ai, do not coalesce into a diphthong, rather, they are pronounced with an intervening glottal stop, for example, buok hair /bʊ.ʔuk/ and dait sew /da.ʔit/.
|/iu/||iw||iliw "home sick"|
|/ei/[b]||ey||idiey "there" (Regional variant. Standard: "idiay")|
|/oi/, /ui/[c]||oy, uy||baboy "pig"|
The diphthong /ei/ is a variant of /ai/ in native words. Other occurrences are in words of Spanish and English origin. Examples are reyna /ˈɾei.na/ (from Spanish reina, queen) and treyner /ˈtɾei.nɛɾ/ (trainer). The diphthongs /oi/ and /ui/ may be interchanged since /o/ is an allophone of /u/ in final syllables. Thus, apúy (fire) may be pronounced /ɐ.ˈpui/ and baboy (pig) may be pronounced /ˈba.bui/.
|Affricates||Voiceless||(ts, tiV) [tʃ][g]|
|Nasals||m||n||(niV) [nʲ][g]||ng [ŋ]|
|Semivowels||(w, CuV) [w][g]||(y, CiV) [j][g]|
All consonantal phonemes except /h, ʔ/ may be a syllable onset or coda. The phoneme /h/ is a borrowed sound and rarely occurs in coda position. Although, the Spanish word, reloj, clock, would have been heard as [re.loh], the final /h/ is dropped resulting in /re.lo/. However, this word also may have entered the Ilokano lexicon at early enough a time that the word was still pronounced /re.loʒ/, with the j pronounced as in French, resulting in /re.los/ in Ilokano. As a result, both /re.lo/ and /re.los/ occur.
The glottal stop /ʔ/ is not permissible as coda; it can only occur as onset. Even as an onset, the glottal stop disappears in affixation. Take for example the root aramat [ʔɐ.ra.mat], use. When prefixed with ag-, the expected form is *[ʔɐɡ.ʔɐ.ra.mat]. But, the actual form is [ʔɐ.ɡɐ.ra.mat]; the glottal stop disappears. In a reduplicated form, the glottal stop returns and participates in the template, CVC, agar-aramat [ʔɐ.ɡar.ʔɐ.ra.mat].
Stops are pronounced without aspiration. When they occur as coda, they are not released, for example, sungbat [sʊŋ.bat̚] answer, response.
Ilokano is one of the Philippine languages which is excluded from [ɾ]-[d] allophony, as /r/ in many cases is derived from a Proto-Austonesian *R, compare bago (Tagalog) and baró (Ilokano) new.
The language marginally has a trill [r] which was spelled as "rr", for example, serrek [sɛ.ˈrɛk] to enter. Trill [r] is sometimes an allophone of [ɾ] in word-initial position and word-final positions, spelled as single <r>. But it is different in proper names of foreign origin, mostly Spanish, like Serrano, which is correctly pronounced [sɛ.ˈrano]. Some speakers, however, pronounce Serrano as [sɛ.ˈɾano].
The placement of primary stress is lexical in Ilocano. This results in minimal pairs such as /ˈkaː.yo/ (wood) and /ka.ˈyo/ (you (plural or polite)) or /ˈkiː.ta/ (class, type, kind) and /ki.ˈta/ (see). In written Ilokano the reader must rely on context, thus ⟨kayo⟩ and ⟨kita⟩. Primary stress can fall only on either the penult or the ultima of the root, as seen in the previous examples.
While stress is unpredictable in Ilokano, there are notable patterns that can determine where stress will fall depending on the structures of the penult, the ultima and the origin of the word.
|agmaného||(to) drive||Spanish origin (I drive)|
|agrekórd||(to) record||English origin (verb)|
|addá||there is/are||Closed Penult|
|bibíngka||(a type of delicacy)||-ŋ.k sequence|
|ibiáng||to involve (someone or something)||Consonant-Glide-Vowel|
|buggúong||fermented fish or shrimp paste||Vowel-Glottal-Vowel|
|síit||thorn, spine, fish bone||Vowel-Glottal-Vowel|
Secondary stress occurs in the following environments:
|pànnakakíta||ability to see||Syllable before geminate|
|kèddéng||judgement, decision||Syllable before geminate|
|ùbbíng||children||Syllable before geminate|
|agsàsaó||speaks,is speaking||Reduplicate CV|
|àl-aliá||ghost, spirit||Reduplicate CV|
|agdàdáit||sews, is sewing||Reduplicate CV|
Vowel length coincides with stressed syllables (primary or secondary) and only on open syllables except for ultimas, for example, /'ka:.yo/ tree versus /ka.'yo/ (second person plural ergative pronoun).
|/ˈpuː.dut/ (heat)||/-ɯn/ (Goal focus)||/pu.ˈduː.tɯn/||to warm/heat (something)|
|/da.ˈlus/ (clean)||/-an/ (Directional focus)||/da.lu.ˈsan/||to clean (something)|
Ilokano is typified by a predicate-initial structure. Verbs and adjectives occur in the first position of the sentence, then the rest of the sentence follows.
Ilocano uses a highly complex list of affixes (prefixes, suffixes, infixes and enclitics) and reduplications to indicate a wide array of grammatical categories. Learning simple root words and corresponding affixes goes a long way in forming cohesive sentences.
|Word||Source||Original Meaning||Ilocano meaning|
|arak||Arabic||drink similar to sake||generic alcoholic drink|
|karma||Sanskrit||deed (see Buddhism)||spirit|
|sanglay||Hokkien||to deliver goods||to deliver/Chinese merchant|
|agbuldos||English||to bulldoze||to bulldoze|
|kuarta||Spanish||cuarta ("quarter", a kind of copper coin)||money|
|kumusta||Spanish||greeting: ¿Cómo está? ("How are you?")||How are you?|
Ilokano shows a T-V distinction.
|How are you?||Kumustaka?
Kumustakayo? (polite and plural)
|Good day||Naimbag nga aldaw.
Naimbag nga aldawyo. (polite and plural)
|Good morning||Naimbag a bigatmo.
Naimbag a bigatyo. (polite and plural)
|Good afternoon||Naimbag a malemmo.
Naimbag a malemyo. (polite and plural)
|Good evening||Naimbag a rabiim.
Naimbag a rabiiyo. (polite and plural)
|What is your name?||Ania ti naganmo? (often contracted to Ania't nagan mo? or Ana't nagan mo)
Ania ti naganyo?
|Where's the bathroom?||Ayanna ti banio?|
|I do not understand||Saanko a maawatan/matarusan.
Haanko a maawatan/matarusan.
|I love you||Ay-ayatenka.
|Thank you.||Agyamannak apo.
Dios ti agngina.
|Goodbye||Kastan/Kasta pay. (Till then)|
Sige. (Okay. Continue.)
Innakon. (I'm going)
Inkamin. (We are going)
Ditakan. (You stay)
Ilocano uses two number systems, one native and the other derived from Spanish.
awan (lit. none)
|10||sangapulo (lit. a group of ten)||dies|
|11||sangapulo ket maysa||onse|
|100||sangagasut (lit. a group of one hundred)||sien, siento|
|1,000||sangaribo (lit. a group of one thousand)||mil|
|10,000||sangalaksa (lit. a group of ten thousand)||dies mil|
|1,000,000||sangariwriw (lit. a group of one million)||milion|
|1,000,000,000||sangabilion (American English, billion)||bilion|
Ilocano uses a mixture of native and Spanish numbers. Traditionally Ilokano numbers are used for quantities and Spanish numbers for time or days and references. Examples:
Days of the week are directly borrowed from Spanish.
Like the days of the week, the names of the months are taken from Spanish.
The names of the units of time are either native or are derived from Spanish. The first entries in the following table are native; the second entries are Spanish derived.
dominggo (lit. Sunday)
To mention time, Ilokanos use a mixture of Spanish and Ilokano:
The Abakada alphabet was an "indigenized" Latin alphabet adopted for the Tagalog-based Filipino national language in 1940.
The alphabet, which contains 20 letters, was introduced in the grammar book developed by Lope K. Santos for the newly-designated national language based on Tagalog. The alphabet was officially adopted by the Institute of National Language (Filipino: Surián ng Wikang Pambansâ).
The Abakada alphabet has since been superseded by the modern Filipino alphabet adopted in 1987.Ariel S. Tabag
Ariel S. Tabag (born August 16, 1978), is a bilingual Ilocano fiction author (he writes in Ilocano language and Tagalog/Filipino), poet, editor, translator, and musician. He has received the Palanca Awards for his Ilokano short stories. He has also been awarded the Talaang Ginto-Gantimpalang Collantes. He has received awards from Ilocano literary contests such as AMMAFLA, GUMIL California, SABALI, RFAAFIL, ATILA, Tugade Awards. He is the author of Karapote (Curion), an anthology of Ilocano short stories. Tabag is also a fellow to the 41st UP National Writers Workshop (2002).
As a musician, he plays bass guitar for the underground band Pilo and the Ilocano rock band Manong Diego (formerly Samtoy). With Mighty C. Rasing, another Ilocano writer-musician, they started Danirock, a poetry performance with rock music.Bagoong terong
Bagoong Terong or bagoong, and bugguong in the Ilocano language, is a common ingredient used in the Philippines and particularly in Northern Ilocano cuisine. It is made by salting and fermenting the bonnet mouth fish. This bagoong is coarser than Bagoong Monamon, and contains fragments of the salted and fermented fish ; they are similar in flavor. The odor is distinct and unique. Those who are unfamiliar with this condiment may find the smell repulsive. Bagoong is an essential ingredient in many curries and sauces. Fish sauce, common throughout Southeast Asian cuisine, is a by-product of the bagoong process. Known in the Philippines as patis, it is distinguished as the clear refined layer floating on the thicker bagoong. Patis and bagoong can be interchanged in recipes, depending on personal taste and preference.
Bagoong is used as a flavor enhancing agent in the place of salt, soy sauce, or monosodium glutamate (MSG). It is used to make a fish stock, the base of many Ilocano dishes, such as pinakbet, dinengdeng, inabraw or as a dressing for cold steamed greens in the dish kinilnat (ensalada), like ferns, bitter melon leaves, or sweet potato leaves. Bagoong is used as a condiment, or dipping sauce, for chicharon, whole fried fish, green and ripe mangoes, or hard boiled eggs.
It is similar in taste and odor to anchovy paste.Bannawag
Bannawag (Iloko word meaning "dawn") is a Philippine weekly magazine published in the Philippines by Liwayway Publications Inc. It contains serialized novels/comics, short stories, poetry, essays, news features, entertainment news and articles, among others, that are written in Ilokano, a language common in the northern regions of the Philippines.
Bannawag has been acknowledged as one foundation of the existence of contemporary Iloko literature. It is through the Bannawag that every Ilokano writer has proved his mettle by publishing his first Iloko short story, poetry, or essay, and thereafter his succeeding works, in its pages. The magazine is also instrumental in the establishment of GUMIL Filipinas, the umbrella organization of Ilokano writers in the Philippines and in other countries.F. Sionil José
Francisco Sionil José (born 3 December 1924) is one of the most widely read Filipino writers in the English language. His novels and short stories depict the social underpinnings of class struggles and colonialism in Filipino society. José's works—written in English—have been translated into 28 languages, including Korean, Indonesian, Czech, Russian, Latvian, Ukrainian and Dutch..Filipino alphabet
The modern Filipino alphabet (Filipino: makabagong alpabetong Filipino), otherwise known as the Filipino alphabet (Filipino: alpabetong Filipino), is the alphabet of the Filipino language, the official national language and one of the two official languages of the Philippines. The modern Filipino alphabet is made up of 28 letters, which includes the entire 26-letter set of the ISO basic Latin alphabet, the Spanish Ñ and the Ng digraph of Tagalog. It replaced the Pilipino alphabet of the Fourth Republic. Today, the modern Filipino alphabet may also be used to write all autochthonous languages of the Philippines and Chavacano, a Spanish-derived creole.
In 2013, the Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino released the Ortograpiyang Pambansa ("National Orthography"), a new set of guidelines that resolved phonemic representation problems previously encountered when writing some Philippine languages and dialects.GUMIL Filipinas
GUMIL Filipinas (Gunglo dagiti Mannurat nga Ilokano iti Filipinas) or Ilokano Writers Association of the Philippines, is one of the most active group of regional writers in the Philippines. It has hundreds of active writer-members in provincial and municipal chapters as well as in overseas chapters in the mainland U.S. and Hawaii and in Greece.Greg Laconsay
Gregorio “Greg” C. Laconsay (born March 12, 1931) is a Filipino-Ilocano editor and writer in the Philippines. He was the former chief editor for two prominent literary magazines in the Philippines, namely the Ilocano-language Bannawag and the Tagalog-language Liwayway.Gregorio C. Brillantes
Gregorio C. Brillantes, a Palanca Award Hall of Famer and a multi-awarded fiction writer, is one of the Philippines' most popular writers in English.
Known for his sophisticated and elegant style, he has been compared to James Joyce. He often writes about individuals under thirty, adolescent or post adolescent ones who struggle with alienation from family, society and from themselves. His earlier collection of short stories earned him the title of the "Catholic Writer". But elements of the fantastic also come in his works. In the 2006 Graphic/Fiction Awards, the main local sponsor of the contest, specialty book shop Fully Booked, acknowledged Brillantes as one of the godfathers of fantastic literature in English by naming the first category the Gregorio C. Brillantes Prize for Prose.
Brillantes is a native of Camiling, Tarlac. He obtained his Litt. B. degree in the Ateneo de Manila University. He has edited Sunburst, The Manila Review, Focus, Asia-Philippines Leader and the Philippines Free Press. Among his published collections of short stories are: The Distance to Andromeda and Other Stories, The Apollo Centennial, Help, and On a Clear Day in November Shortly Before the Millennium, Stories for a Quarter Century.
He also has published collections of essays: Looking for Rizal in Madrid, Chronicles of Interesting Times, and The Cardinal's Sins, the General's Cross, the Martyr's Testimony and other Affirmations.
He acted as one of the judges of the Philippine Graphic Novel Awards in 2007. LovelyIlocano numbers
Ilocano has two number systems: one is native and the other is derived from Spanish. The systems are virtually used interchangeably. Yet, the situation can dictate which system is preferred.
Typically, Ilocanos use native numbers for one through 10, and Spanish numbers for amounts of 10 and higher.
Specific time is told using the Spanish system and numbers for hours and minutes, for example, Alas dos (2 o'clock).
For dates, cardinal Spanish numbers are the norm; for example, 12 (dose) ti Julio (the twelfth of July).
As with other roots in the language, numbers can undergo various forms of agglutination.Ilongot
The Ilongot (or Ibilao) are a tribe who inhabit the southern Sierra Madre and Caraballo Mountains, on the east side of Luzon in the Philippines, primarily in the provinces of Nueva Vizcaya and Nueva Ecija and along the mountain border between the provinces of Quirino and Aurora. An alternative name of this tribe and its language is "Bugkalot". They are known as a tribe of headhunters.
Presently, there are about 87,000 Ilongots. The Ilongots tend to inhabit areas close to rivers, as they provide a food source and a means for transportation. Their native language is the Ilongot language, currently spoken by about 50,000 people. They also speak the Ilocano language.Jose Garvida Flores
José Garvida Flores (December 9, 1900 – August 12, 1944) was an Ilocano poet and playwright, from Bangui, Ilocos Norte, Philippines. His works include Wayawaya ken Sabsabali a Dandaniw (Liberty and a Collection of Poems), Pitik Ti Puso (Heartbeat), Kaanunto (When Will It Be), Tanda Ti Ayanayat (In Remembrance of Love), and plays such as Dagiti Ayayat ni Dr. Rizal (The Many Loves of Dr. Rizal), and Ayat Iti Ili ken Dadduma Pay a Drama (Love of Country and Other Dramas).
His articles were not only written in Ilocano (Bannawag* and Ti Bagnos*), but also in English (The Tribune), and in Spanish (La Lucha* and El Norte*), etc. He was also editor-in-chief of Dangadang*, another Ilocano newspaper, which he published together with Santiago S. Fonacier.Jose Maria Sison
José María Canlás Sison (born February 8, 1939), also known by his nickname Joma, is a Filipino writer and activist who founded the Communist Party of the Philippines and added elements of Maoism to its philosophy. He applied the theory of Marxism-Leninism-Maoism on Philippine history and current circumstances.
Since August 2002, he has been classified as a "person supporting terrorism" by the United States. The European Union's second highest court ruled in September 2009 to delist him as a "person supporting terrorism" and reversed a decision by member governments to freeze assets. He is a recognized political refugee in The Netherlands and enjoys the protection of the Refugee Convention and Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights.KNDI
KNDI is a radio station located in Honolulu, Hawaii. The station is owned by Geronimo and Nellie Malabed, through licensee Geronimo Broadcasting, LLC, and offers a multicultural format, broadcasting at 1270. Its on-air liners are "Voices from Around the World" and has been on the air since 1960. It was also Hawaii's first radio station to have an all-female airstaff, hence the KNDI calls, which phonetically spells out "Candy." KNDI features programming in Philippine languages (Ilocano and Tagalog), Chinese (Cantonese and Mandarin), Okinawan, Vietnamese, Lao, Spanish, Samoan, Tongan, Marshallese, Chuukese, Pohnpeian and English.Kankanaey language
Kankanaey (also spelled Kankana-ey) is a South-Central Cordilleran language under the Austronesian family spoken on the island of Luzon in the Philippines primarily by the Kankanaey people. Alternate names for the language include Central Kankanaey, Kankanai, and Kankanay. It is widely used by Cordillerans, alongside Ilocano, specifically people from the Mountain Province and people from the northern part of the Benguet Province. Kankanaey has a slight mutual intelligibility with the Ilocano language.Manuel Arguilla
Manuel Estabilla Arguilla (Nagrebcan, Bauang, June 17, 1911 – beheaded, Manila Chinese Cemetery, August 30, 1944) was an Ilokano writer in English, patriot, and martyr.
He is known for his widely anthologized short story "How My Brother Leon Brought Home a Wife," the main story in the collection How My Brother Leon Brought Home a Wife and Other Short Stories, which won first prize in the Commonwealth Literary Contest in 1940.
His stories "Midsummer" and "Heat" were published in Tondo, Manila by the Prairie Schooner.
Most of Arguilla's stories depict scenes in Barrio Nagrebcan, Bauang, La Union, where he was born. His bond with his birthplace, forged by his dealings with the peasant folk of Ilocos, remained strong even after he moved to Manila, where he studied at the University of the Philippines, finished his BS in Education in 1933, and became a member and later the president of the U.P. Writer's Club and editor of the university's Literary Apprentice.
He married Lydia Villanueva, another talented writer in English, and they lived in Ermita, Manila. Here, F. Sionil José, another seminal Filipino writer in English, recalls often seeing him in the National Library, which was then in the basement of what is now the National Museum. "You couldn't miss him", José describes Arguilla, "because he had this black patch on his cheek, a birthmark or an overgrown mole. He was writing then those famous short stories and essays which I admired."He became a creative writing teacher at the University of Manila and later worked at the Bureau of Public Welfare as managing editor of the bureau's publication Welfare Advocate until 1943. He was later appointed to the Board of Censors. He secretly organized a guerrilla intelligence unit against the Japanese.
On August 5, 1944, he was captured and tortured by the Japanese army at Fort Santiago.
In one account, he was later transferred to the grounds of the Manila Chinese Cemetery. Along with him were guerrilla leaders, along with more than 10 men. They were then asked to dig their own graves, after which, they were immediately, one by one, beheaded with swords. His remains, as well as the others', have never been recovered, as they were dumped into one unmarked grave.
The remains of the executed men were said to be located and identified by their compatriots after the war, after a Japanese-American officer (working in the Japanese Army as a spy), revealed what he had seen and the location of the grave after the executions of August 30 of 1944. At present, their remains lie within the Manila North Cemetery..Philippine Braille
Philippine Braille or Filipino Braille, is the braille alphabet of the Philippines. Besides Filipino (Tagalog), essentially the same alphabet is used for Ilocano, Cebuano, Hiligaynon and Bicol (UNESCO 2013).Philippine Braille is based on the 26 letters of the basic braille alphabet used for Grade-1 English Braille, so the print digraph ng is written as a digraph ⠝⠛ in braille as well. The print letter ñ is rendered with the generic accent point, ⠈⠝. These are considered part of the alphabet, which is therefore,
Numbers and punctuation are as in traditional English Braille, though the virgule / is ⠸⠌ as in Unified English Braille.Reynaldo A. Duque
Reynaldo A. Duque (October 29, 1945–April 8, 2013) was a multilingual Ilocano writer (he writes in Ilocano, Filipino, and English), is the former editor-in-chief of Liwayway magazine, the leading Filipino (Tagalog) weekly magazine in the Philippines. He is a fictionist, novelist, poet, playwright, radio/TV/movie scriptwriter, editor, and translator.A multi-awarded author, among his numerous literary decorations is the Palanca Hall of Fame Award bestowed on him in 2003 for having won five first prizes in the prestigious Palanca Awards. He is also first prize winner in Filipino Epic in the 1998 Centennial Literary Awards sponsored by the Philippine Government.
He is a native of Bagani Ubbog, Candon, Ilocos Sur.Roy V. Aragon
Roy V. Aragon (born October 31, 1968) is a Filipino writer writing in the Iloko and Filipino languages. He is an award-winning fictionist and poet, and also works as a translator. Among his awards and prizes are two third-place prizes and one second-place prize in the Don Carlos Palanca Memorial Awards for Literature's short story contest in the Iloko and Filipino divisions, received in 1999, 2001, and 2014 respectively. He has also won numerous prizes in Ilokano literary contests, such as the Gov. Roque Ablan Awards for Iloko Literature (GRAAFIL). He has published most of his short stories, poems, and feature articles in Bannawag, the leading Ilokano magazine in the Philippines.
He is a member of GUMIL Filipinas, the leading association of Ilokano writers which is considered the most active regional writer's group in the Philippines.
He is a native of Mabasa, Dupax del Norte, Nueva Vizcaya.