Ilkhanate

The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (Persian: ایلخانان‎, Ilxānān; Mongolian: Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu. It was founded in the 13th century and was based primarily in Iran as well as neighboring territories, such as present-day Azerbaijan and the central and eastern parts of present-day Turkey. The Ilkhanate was originally based on the campaigns of Genghis Khan in the Khwarazmian Empire in 1219–24 and was founded by Hulagu Khan, son of Tolui and grandson of Genghis Khan. With the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate. At its greatest extent, the state expanded into territories that today comprise most of Iran, Iraq, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkmenistan, Turkey, western Afghanistan, and the Northwestern edge of the Indian sub-continent. Later Ilkhanate rulers, beginning with Ghazan in 1295, converted to Islam.

Ilkhanate

ایلخانان
1256–1335/1353
The Ilkhanate at its greatest extent
The Ilkhanate at its greatest extent
StatusNomadic empire
Division of the Mongol Empire
Capital
Common languagesPersian(official)[1]
Mongolian[1]
Arabic[2]
Religion
GovernmentMonarchy
Khan 
• 1256–1265
Hulagu Khan
• 1316–1335
Abu Sa'id
LegislatureKurultai
History 
• Established
1256
• Disestablished
1335/1353
Area
1310 est.[3][4]3,750,000 km2 (1,450,000 sq mi)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Mongol Empire
Khwarazmian dynasty
Abbasid Caliphate
Sultanate of Rum
Kingdom of Georgia
Qutlugh-Khanids
Muzaffarids
Kartids
Eretnids
Chobanids
Injuids
Jalayirids
Mamluks
Sarbadars
Kingdom of Georgia
Ottoman Empire

Definition

According to the historian Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, Kublai Khan granted Hulagu (Hülegü) the title of Ilkhan after his defeat of Ariq Böke. The term ilkhan here means " khan of the tribe, khan of the 'ulus'" and this inferior "khanship" refers to the initial deference to Möngke Khan and his successor Great Khans of the Mongol empire. The title "Ilkhan", borne by the descendants of Hulagu and later other Borjigin princes in Persia, does not materialize in the sources until after 1260.[5]

Early Mongol rule in Persia

When Muhammad II of Khwarezm executed a contingent of merchants dispatched by the Mongols, Genghis Khan declared war on the Khwārazm-Shāh dynasty in 1219. The Mongols overran the empire, occupying the major cities and population centers between 1219 and 1221. Persian Iran was ravaged by the Mongol detachment under Jebe and Subedei, who left the area in ruin. Transoxiana also came under Mongol control after the invasion. The undivided area west of the Transoxiana was the inheritance of Genghis Khan's Borjigin family.[6] Thus, the families of the latter's four sons appointed their officials under the Great Khan's governors, Chin-Temür, Nussal, and Korguz, in that region.

Muhammad's son Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu returned to Iran in c. 1224 after his exile in India. The rival Turkic states, which were all that remained of his father's empire, quickly declared their allegiance to Jalal. He repulsed the first Mongol attempt to take Central Persia. However, Jalal ad-Din was overwhelmed and crushed by Chormaqan's army sent by the Great Khan Ögedei in 1231. During the Mongol expedition, Azerbaijan and the southern Persian dynasties in Fars and Kerman voluntarily submitted to the Mongols and agreed to pay tribute.[7] To the west, Hamadan and the rest of Persia was secured by Chormaqan. The Mongols invaded Armenia and Georgia in 1234 or 1236, completing the conquest of the Kingdom of Georgia in 1238. They began to attack the western parts of Greater Armenia, which was under the Seljuks, the following year.

In 1236 Ögedei was commanded to raise up Khorassan and proceeded to populate Herat. The Mongol military governors mostly made camp in the Mughan plain in what is now Azerbaijan. Realizing the danger posed by the Mongols, the rulers of Mosul and Cilician Armenia submitted to the Great Khan. Chormaqan divided the Transcaucasia region into three districts based on the Mongol military hierarchy.[8] In Georgia, the population was temporarily divided into eight tumens.[9] By 1237 the Mongol Empire had subjugated most of Persia (including modern-day Azerbaijan), Armenia, Georgia (excluding Abbasid Iraq and Ismaili strongholds), as well as all of Afghanistan and Kashmir.[10] After the battle of Köse Dağ in 1243, the Mongols under Baiju occupied Anatolia, while the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm and the Empire of Trebizond became vassals of the Mongols.[11] Güyük Khan abolished decrees issued by the Mongol princes that had ordered the raising of revenue from districts in Persia as well as offering tax exemptions to others in c. 1244.[12]

In accordance with a complaint by the governor Arghun the Elder (Arghun agha), Möngke Khan prohibited ortog-merchants and nobles from abusing relay stations and civilians in 1251.[13] He ordered a new census and decreed that each man in the Mongol-ruled Middle East must pay in proportion to his property. Persia was divided between four districts under Arghun. Möngke Khan granted the Kartids authority over Herat, Jam, Pushang (Fushanj), Ghor, Khaysar, Firuz-Kuh, Gharjistan, Farah, Sistan, Kabul, Tirah, and Afghanistan.[14]

First Ilkhan

The founder of the Ilkhanate dynasty was Hulagu Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan and brother of both Möngke Khan and Kublai Khan. Möngke dispatched Hulagu to establish a firm Toluid control over the Middle East and ordered him return to Mongolia when his task was accomplished.[15] Taking over from Baiju in 1255 or 1256, Hulagu had been charged with subduing the Muslim kingdoms to the west "as far as the borders of Egypt". This occupation led the Turkmens to move west into Anatolia to escape from the Mongolian rule. He established his dynasty over the southwestern part of the Mongol Empire that stretched from Transoxiana to Syria. He destroyed the Ismaili Nizari Hashshashins and the Abbasid Caliphate in 1256 and 1258 respectively. After that he advanced as far as Gaza, briefly conquering Ayyubid Syria.

HulaguAndDokuzKathun
Hulagu Khan, founder of the Ilkhanate, with his Christian queen Doquz Khatun
IlkhanidHorseArcher
A Mongol horse archer in the 13th century.

The death of Möngke forced Hulagu to return from the Persian heartland for the preparation of Khurultai (the selection of a new leader). He left a small force behind to continue the Mongol advance, but it was halted in Palestine in 1260 by a major defeat at the battle of Ain Jalut at the hands of the Mamluks of Egypt. Due to geo-political and religious issues and deaths of three Jochid princes in Hulagu's service, Berke declared open war on Hulagu in 1262 and possibly called his troops back to Iran. According to Mamluk historians, Hulagu might have massacred Berke's troops and refused to share his war booty with Berke.

Hulagu's descendants ruled Persia for the next eighty years, tolerating multiple religions, including Shamanism, Buddhism, and Christianity, and ultimately adopting Islam as a state religion in 1295. However, despite this conversion, the Ilkhans remained opposed to the Mamluks, who had defeated both Mongol invaders and Crusaders. The Ilkhans launched several invasions of Syria, but were never able to gain and keep significant ground against the Mamluks, eventually being forced to give up their plans to conquer Syria, along with their stranglehold over their vassals the Sultanate of Rum and the Armenian kingdom in Cilicia. This was in large part due to civil war in the Mongol Empire and the hostility of the khanates to the north and east. The Chagatai Khanate in Moghulistan and the Golden Horde threatened the Ilkhanate in the Caucasus and Transoxiana, preventing expansion westward. Even under Hulagu's reign, the Ilkhanate was engaged in open warfare in the Caucasus with the Mongols in the Russian steppes. On the other hand, the China-based Yuan Dynasty was an ally of the Ikhanate and also held nominal suzerainty over the latter (the Emperor being also Great Khan) for many decades.[16]

Hulagu took with him many Chinese scholars and astronomers, and the famous Persian astronomer Nasir al-Din al-Tusi learned about the mode of the Chinese calculating tables from them.[17] The observatory was built on a hill of Maragheh.

The dragon clothing of Imperial China was used by the Ilkhanids, the Chinese Huangdi (Emperor) title was used by the Ilkhanids due to heavy clout upon the Mongols of the Chinese system of politics. Seals with Chinese characters were created by the Ilkhanids themselves besides the seals they received from the Yuan dynasty which contain references to a Chinese government organization.[18]

Franco-Mongol alliance

The courts of Western Europe made many attempts to form an alliance with the Mongols, primarily with the Ilkhanate, in the 13th and 14th centuries, starting from around the time of the Seventh Crusade (West Europeans were collectively called Franks by Muslims and Asians in the era of the Crusades). United in their opposition to the Muslims (primarily the Mamluks), the Ilkhanate and the Europeans were nevertheless unable to satisfactorily combine their forces against their common enemy.[19]

Conversion to Islam

In the immediate period following Hulagu, the Ilkhan elite increasingly adopted Tibetan Buddhism, in contrast to the Golden Horde and Chagatai Khanate which had already been drifting towards Islam before the Ilkhanate's conquests, leading to the khans Berke and Mubarak Shah, respectively. Christian powers were encouraged by what appeared to be an inclination towards Nestorian Christianity by Ilkhanate rulers, but this was probably nothing more than the Mongols' traditional even-handedness towards competing religions.[20] The Ilkhans were thus markedly out of step with the Muslims they ruled. Ghazan, shortly before he overthrew Baydu, converted to Islam under influence of Nawrūz, and his official favoring of Islam as a state religion coincided with a marked attempt to bring the regime closer to the non-Mongol majority of the regions they ruled. Christian and Jewish subjects lost their equal status and again had to pay the jizya protection tax. Ghazan gave Buddhists the starker choice of conversion or expulsion and ordered their temples to be destroyed; though he later relaxed this severity.[21]

Tekuder was the first Ilkhanid ruler to embrace Islam. Although he didn't declare Islam as the state religion, he attempted to replace Mongol political traditions with Islamic ones, resulting in a loss of support from the army and being overthrown. Ghazan on the other hand attempted to syntheize both political thoughts. He had been assisted in the seizure of the throne by Nowruz. After his installation, he reportedly endorsed religious persecution of Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians and Buddhists. Nowruz was however deposed and killed in 1297. This resulted in a marked shift of Ghazan's policies, with punishment for religious intolerance and attempts to restore relations with non-Muslims.[22][23]

DiezAlbumsStudyingTheKoran
The Mongol ruler, Ghazan, studying the Qur'an.

In foreign relations, the Ilkhanate's conversion to Islam had little to no effect on its hostility towards other Muslim states, and Ghazan continued to fight the Mamluks for control of Syria. The Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar, the only major victory by the Mongols over the Mamluks, ended the latter's control over Syria, though this lasted only a few months. For the most part, Ghazan's policies continued under his brother Öljeitü despite suggestions that he might begin to favor the Shi'a brand of Islam after he came under the influence of Shi'a theologians Al-Hilli and Maitham Al Bahrani.[24]

Öljeitü who had been baptised as an infant, had flirted with Buddhism, became a Hanafi Sunni, though there seems to have been some residual shamanism seems to have. In 1309-10, he became a Shi'ite Muslim.[25] An Armenian scribe in 1304 noted the death of "benevolent and just" Ghazan, who was succeeded by Khar-Banda Öljeitü "who too, exhibits good will to everyone." A colophon from 1306 reports conversion of Mongols to Islam and "they coerce everyone into converting to their vain and false hope. They persecute, they molest, and torment," including "insulting the cross and the church".[26] Some of the Buddhists who survived Ghazan's assaults, made an unsuccessful attempt to bring Öljeitü back into Dharma, showing they were active in the realm for more than 50 years.[27]

The conversion of Mongols was initially a fairly superficial affair. The process of establishment of Islam did not happen suddenly. Öljeitü's historian Qāshāni records that Qutlugh-Shah after losing patience with a dispute between Hanafis and Shafi'is, expressed his view that Islam should be abandoned and Mongols should return to the ways of Genghis Khan. Qāshani also stated that Öljeitü had in fact reverted for a brief period. As Muslims, Mongols showed a marked preference for Sufism with masters like Safi-ad-din Ardabili often treated with respect and favour.[28]

Disintegration

In the 1330s, outbreaks of the Black Death ravaged the Ilkhanate empire. The last il-khan Abu Sa'id and his sons were killed by the plague.[29]

In 1330, the annexation of Abkhazia resulted in the reunification of the Kingdom of Georgia. However, tribute received by the Il-Khans from Georgia sank by about three-quarters between 1336 and 1350 because of wars and famines.[30] Also Anatolian Beyliks were freed from Ilkhanate suzerenaity.

After Abu Sa'id's death in 1335, the Ilkhanate began to disintegrate rapidly and split up into several rival successor states, most prominently the Jalayirids. Hasar's descendant Togha Temür, who was the last of the obscure Ilkhan pretenders, was assassinated by Sarbadars in 1353. Timur later carved a state from the Jalayirids, ostensibly to restore the old khanate. Historian Rashid-al-Din Hamadani wrote a universal history of the khans around 1315 that provides much material about them. In 1357, the Golden Horde conquered the Chobanid-held Tabriz for a year, putting an end to the last hope for the return of the Ilkhanate. After the demise of the Ilkhanate, the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia lost Mongol protection against the Mamluks and was destroyed by them in 1375.

Legacy

IranaftertheIlkhanate
Southwest Asia in 1345, ten years after the death of Abu Sa'id. The Jalayirids, Chobanids, Muzaffarids, Injuids, Sarbadars, and Kartids took the Ilkhanate's place as the major powers in Iran.

The emergence of the Ilkhanate had an important historical impact in the Middle Eastern region. The establishment of the unified Mongol Empire had significantly eased trade and commerce across Asia. The communications between the Ilkhanate and the Yuan Dynasty headquartered in China encouraged this development.[31][32]

The Ilkhanate also helped to pave the way for the later Safavid dynastic state, and ultimately the modern country of Iran. Hulagu's conquests had also opened Iran to Chinese influence from the east. This, combined with patronage from his successors, would develop Iran's distinctive excellence in architecture. Under the Ilkhans, Iranian historians also moved from writing in Arabic to writing in their native Persian tongue.[33]

The rudiments of double-entry accounting were practiced in the Ilkhanate; merdiban was then adopted by the Ottoman Empire. These developments were independent from the accounting practices used in Europe.[34] This accounting system was adopted primarily as the result of socio-economic necessities created by the agricultural and fiscal reforms of Ghazan Khan in 1295-1304.

Lampas with phoenix silk and gold Iran or Irak 14th century

Ilkhanate, Lampas with phoenix, silk and gold, Iran or Iraq, 14th century.

Lampas textile silk and gold Italy second half of 14th century

Ilkhanate, Lampas textile, silk and gold; second half of 14th century.

OljeituToPhilippeLeBel1305

1305 letter of the Ilkhan Mongol Öljaitü (official square red stamp of the Ilkhanate).

GhazanSeal1302LetterToBonifaceVIII

Seal of Ghazan

Ilkhans

House of Hulagu (1256–1335; Ilkhanate Mongol kings)

After the Ilkhanate, the regional states established during the disintegration of the Ilkhanate raised their own candidates as claimants.

House of Ariq Böke

House of Hulagu (1336–1357)

House of Hasar

Claimants from eastern Persia (Khurasan):

  • Togha Temür (c. 1338–1353) (recognized by the Kartids 1338–1349; by the Jalayirids 1338–1339, 1340–1344; by the Sarbadars 1338–1341, 1344, 1353)
  • Luqman (1353–1388) (son of Togha Temür and the protege of Timur)

Ilkhan as a tribal title in 19th/20th century Iran

The title Ilkhan resurfaced among the Qashqai nomads of Southern Iran in the 19th century. Jan Mohammad Khan started using it from 1818/19 and this was continued by all the following Qashqai leaders. The last Ilkhan was Naser Khan, who in 1954 was pushed into exile after his support of Mossadeq. When he returned during the Islamic Revolution in 1979, he could not regain his previous position and died in 1984 as the last Ilkhan of the Qashqai. [35]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Komaroff 2013, p. 78.
  2. ^ Badiee 1984, p. 97.
  3. ^ Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires". Journal of World-systems Research. 12 (2): 223. ISSN 1076-156X. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
  4. ^ Rein Taagepera (September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies Quarterly. 41 (3): 496. doi:10.1111/0020-8833.00053. JSTOR 2600793.
  5. ^ Peter Jackson The Mongols and the West, p.127
  6. ^ Jeremiah Curtin The Mongols: A history, p.184
  7. ^ Timothy May Chormaqan, p.47
  8. ^ Grigor of Akanc The history of the nation of archers, (tr. R.P.Blake) 303
  9. ^ Kalistriat Salia History of the Georgian Nation, p.210
  10. ^ Thomas T. Allsen Culture and Conquest in Mongol Eurasia, p.84
  11. ^ George Finlay The history of Greece from its conquest by the Crusaders to its conquest by the Ottomans, p.384
  12. ^ C. P. Atwood-Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire, see:Monqe Khan
  13. ^ M. Th. Houtsma E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, Volume 1, p.729
  14. ^ Ehsan Yar-Shater Encyclopædia Iranica, p.209
  15. ^ P.Jackson Dissolution of the Mongol Empire, pp.222
  16. ^ Christopher P. Atwood Ibid
  17. ^ H. H. Howorth History of the Mongols, vol.IV, p.138
  18. ^ Central Asiatic Journal. O. Harrassowitz. 2008. p. 46.
  19. ^ "Despite numerous envoys and the obvious logic of an alliance against mutual enemies, the papacy and the Crusaders never achieved the often-proposed alliance against Islam". Atwood, Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire, p. 583, "Western Europe and the Mongol Empire"
  20. ^ David Morgan (2015-06-26). Medieval Persia 1040–1797. p. 64. ISBN 9781317415671.
  21. ^ David Morgan (2015-06-26). Medieval Persia 1040–1797. p. 72. ISBN 9781317415671.
  22. ^ Timothy May (2016). The Mongol Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia - Volume I. ABC-CLIO. p. 141. ISBN 9781610693400.
  23. ^ Angus Donal Stewart (2001-01-01). The Armenian Kingdom and the Mamluks: War and Diplomacy During the Reigns of Het'um II (1289-1307). Brill. p. 182. ISBN 978-9004122925.
  24. ^ Ali Al Oraibi, "Rationalism in the school of Bahrain: a historical perspective", in Shīʻite Heritage: Essays on Classical and Modern Traditions by Lynda Clarke, Global Academic Publishing 2001 p336
  25. ^ Angus Donal Stewart (2001-01-01). The Armenian Kingdom and the Mamluks: War and Diplomacy During the Reigns of Het'um II (1289-1307). Brill. p. 181. ISBN 978-9004122925.
  26. ^ Angus Donal Stewart (2001-01-01). The Armenian Kingdom and the Mamluks: War and Diplomacy During the Reigns of Het'um II (1289-1307). Brill. p. 182. ISBN 978-9004122925.
  27. ^ Johan Elverskog (2011-06-06). Buddhism and Islam on the Silk Road. Harvard University Press. p. 141. ISBN 978-0812205312.
  28. ^ David Morgan (2015-06-26). Medieval Persia 1040–1797. p. 73. ISBN 9781317415671.
  29. ^ Continuity and Change in Medieval Persia By Ann K. S. Lambton
  30. ^ D. M. Lang, Georgia in the Reign of Giorgi the Brilliant (1314-1346). Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 17, No. 1 (1955), pp. 74-91
  31. ^ Gregory G.Guzman - Were the barbarians a negative or positive factor in ancient and medieval history?, The historian 50 (1988), 568-70
  32. ^ Thomas T.Allsen - Culture and conquest in Mongol Eurasia, 211
  33. ^ Francis Robinson, The Mughal Emperors and the Islamic Dynasties of India, Iran and Central Asia, Pages 19 and 36
  34. ^ Cigdem Solas, ACCOUNTING SYSTEM PRACTICED IN THE NEAR EAST DURING THE PERIOD 1220-1350, based ON THE BOOK RISALE-I FELEKIYYE, The Accounting Historians Journal, Vol. 21, No. 1 (June 1994), pp. 117-135
  35. ^ Pierre Oberling, Qashqai tribal confederacy I History, in Encyclopedia Iranica (2003)

References

  • Atwood, Christopher P. (2004). The Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire. Facts on File, Inc. ISBN 0-8160-4671-9.
  • C.E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, New York, 1996.
  • Kadoi, Yuka. (2009) Islamic Chinoiserie: The Art of Mongol Iran, Edinburgh Studies in Islamic Art, Edinburgh. ISBN 9780748635825.
  • R. Amitai-Preiss: Mongols and Mamluks: The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War 1260–1281. Cambridge, 1995.
  • Badiee, Julie (1984). "The Sarre Qazwīnī: An Early Aq Qoyunlu Manuscript?". Ars Orientalis. University of Michigan. 14.
  • Komaroff, Linda, ed. (2013). Beyond the Legacy of Genghis Khan. Brill.

External links

Abaqa Khan

Abaqa Khan (1234–1282, Mongolian: Абаха/Абага хан (Khalkha Cyrillic), ᠠᠪᠠᠬᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ (Traditional script), "paternal uncle", also transliterated Abaġa), was the second Mongol ruler (Ilkhan) of the Ilkhanate. The son of Hulagu Khan and Lady Yesünčin, he reigned from 1265 to 1282 and was succeeded by his brother Tekuder. Much of Abaqa's reign was consumed with civil wars in the Mongol Empire, such as those between the Ilkhanate and the northern khanate of the Golden Horde. Abaqa also engaged in unsuccessful attempts at military invasion of Syria, including the Second Battle of Homs.

Berke–Hulagu war

The Berke–Hulagu war was fought between two Mongol leaders, Berke Khan of the Golden Horde and Hulagu Khan of the Ilkhanate. It was fought mostly in the Caucasus mountains area in the 1260s after the destruction of Baghdad in 1258. The war overlaps with the Toluid Civil War in the Mongol Empire between two members of the Tolui family line, Kublai Khan and Ariq Böke, who both claimed the title of Great Khan (Khagan). Kublai allied with Hulagu, while Ariq Böke sided with Berke. Hulagu headed to Mongolia for the election of a new Khagan to succeed Möngke Khan, but the loss of the Battle of Ain Jalut to the Mamluks forced him to withdraw back to the Middle East. The Mamluk victory emboldened Berke to invade the Ilkhanate. The Berke–Hulagu war and the Toluid Civil War as well as the subsequent Kaidu–Kublai war marked a key moment in the fragmentation of the Mongol empire after the death of Möngke, the fourth Great Khan of the Mongol Empire.

Chobanids

The Chobanids or the Chupanids (Persian: سلسله امرای چوپانی‎), were descendants of a Mongol family of the Suldus clan that came to prominence in 14th century Persia. At first serving under the Ilkhans, they took de facto control of the territory after the fall of the Ilkhanate. The Chobanids ruled over Azerbaijan (where they were based), Arrān, parts of Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and west central Persia, while the Jalayirids took control in Baghdad.

Division of the Mongol Empire

The division of the Mongol Empire began when Möngke Khan died in 1259 in the siege of Diaoyu castle with no declared successor, precipitating infighting between members of the Tolui family line for the title of Great Khan that escalated to the Toluid Civil War. This civil war, along with the Berke–Hulagu war and the subsequent Kaidu–Kublai war greatly weakened the authority of the Great Khan over the entirety of the Mongol Empire and the empire fractured into autonomous khanates, including the Golden Horde in the northwest, the Chagatai Khanate in the middle, the Ilkhanate in the southwest, and the Yuan dynasty in the east based in modern-day Beijing, although the Yuan emperors held the nominal title of Khagan of the empire. The four khanates each pursued their own separate interests and objectives, and fell at different times.

Esen Buqa–Ayurbarwada war

The Esen Buqa–Ayurbarwada war was a war between the Chagatai Khanate under Esen Buqa I and the Yuan dynasty under Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan (Emperor Renzong) and its ally the Ilkhanate under Öljaitü. The war ended with the victory for the Yuan and the Ilkhanate, but the peace only came after the death of Esen Buqa in 1318.

Hamdallah Mustawfi

Ḥamdallāh Mustawfī Qazvīnī (1281–1349; Persian: حمدالله مستوفى قزوینی‎) was a Persian historian, geographer and epic poet who was descended from a family of Arab origin.Mustawfi is the author of Nozhat ol-Gholub (نزهه القلوب), Zafar-Nameh (ظفرنامه), and the Tarikh e Gozideh (تاريخ گزيده). His tomb is a structure with a blue turquoise conical dome, at Qazvin.

Homam-e Tabrizi

Homam-e Tabrizi (Persian: همام الدین تبریزی‎) or HOMĀM-AL-DIN B. ʿALĀʾ TABRIZI (1238/39–1314/15) was a Persian poet of the Ilkhanid era. He was a follower of Saadi and his poetry was mostly in form of ghazal.

Kaidu–Kublai war

The Kaidu–Kublai war was a war between Kaidu, the leader of the House of Ögedei and the de facto khan of the Chagatai Khanate in Central Asia, and Kublai Khan, the founder of the Yuan dynasty in China and his successor Temür Khan that lasted a few decades from 1268 to 1301. It followed the Toluid Civil War (1260–1264) and resulted in the permanent division of the Mongol Empire. By the time of Kublai's death in 1294, the Mongol Empire had fractured into four separate khanates or empires: the Golden Horde khanate in the northwest, the Chagatai Khanate in the middle, the Ilkhanate in the southwest, and the Yuan dynasty in the east based in modern-day Beijing. Although Temür Khan later made peace with the three western khanates in 1304 after Kaidu's death, the four khanates continued their own separate development and fell at different times.

Mongol Armenia

Mongol Armenia or Ilkhanid Armenia refers to the period in which both Armenia (during its union with the Kingdom of Georgia) and the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia became tributary and vassal to the Mongol Empire (the later Ilkhanate) in the 1230s.

Armenia and Cilicia remained under Mongol influence until around 1335.

During the time period of the later Crusades (1250s to 1260s), there was a short-lived Armenian-Mongol alliance, engaged in some combined military operations against their common enemy, the Mameluks. They succeeded in capturing Baghdad in 1258, but suffered defeat eight years later.

The Armenian calls for a wider Christian-Mongol alliance against Mameluk Islam, advocated notably by Hayton of Corycus, were ignored by the Latin powers in the Levant, leading to the demise of the European Crusader States and the imminent failure of the Crusades as a whole.

Mongol Empire

The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren listen ; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн; Mongolian pronunciation: [mɔŋɡ(ɔ)ɮˈiːŋ ɛt͡sˈɛnt ˈɡurəŋ]; also Орда, 'the Horde' in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history. Originating from Mongolia, the Mongol Empire eventually stretched from Eastern Europe and parts of Central Europe to the Sea of Japan, extending northwards into Siberia, eastwards and southwards into the Indian subcontinent, Indochina and the Iranian Plateau; and westwards as far as the Levant and the Carpathian Mountains.

The Mongol Empire emerged from the unification of several nomadic tribes in the Mongol homeland under the leadership of Genghis Khan, whom a council proclaimed ruler of all the Mongols in 1206. The empire grew rapidly under his rule and that of his descendants, who sent invasions in every direction. The vast transcontinental empire connected the East with the West with an enforced Pax Mongolica, allowing the dissemination and exchange of trade, technologies, commodities and ideologies across Eurasia.The empire began to split due to wars over succession, as the grandchildren of Genghis Khan disputed whether the royal line should follow from his son and initial heir Ögedei or from one of his other sons, such as Tolui, Chagatai, or Jochi. The Toluids prevailed after a bloody purge of Ögedeid and Chagataid factions, but disputes continued among the descendants of Tolui. A key reason for the split was the dispute over whether the Mongol Empire would become a sedentary, cosmopolitan empire, or would stay true to their nomadic and steppe lifestyle. After Möngke Khan died (1259), rival kurultai councils simultaneously elected different successors, the brothers Ariq Böke and Kublai Khan, who fought each other in the Toluid Civil War (1260–1264) and also dealt with challenges from the descendants of other sons of Genghis. Kublai successfully took power, but civil war ensued as he sought unsuccessfully to regain control of the Chagatayid and Ögedeid families.

During the reigns of Genghis and Ögedei, the Mongols suffered the occasional defeat when a less skilled general was given a command. The Siberian Tumads defeated the Mongol forces under Borokhula around 1215–1217; Jalal al-Din defeated Shigi-Qutugu at the Battle of Parwan; and the Jin generals Heda and Pu'a defeated Dolqolqu in 1230. In each case, the Mongols returned shortly after with a much larger army led by one of their best generals, and were invariably victorious. The Battle of Ain Jalut in Galilee in 1260 marked the first time that the Mongols would not return to immediately avenge a defeat, due to a combination of the death of Möngke Khan, the Toluid Civil War between Arik Boke and Khubilai, and Berke of the Golden Horde attacking Hulegu in Persia. Although the Mongols launched many more invasions of the Levant, briefly occupying it and raiding as far as Gaza after a decisive victory at the Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar in 1299, they withdrew due to various geopolitical factors.

By the time of Kublai's death in 1294, the Mongol Empire had fractured into four separate khanates or empires, each pursuing its own separate interests and objectives:

The Golden Horde khanate in the northwest.

The Chagatai Khanate in Central Asia.

The Ilkhanate in the southwest.

The Yuan dynasty in the east based in modern-day Beijing.In 1304, the three western khanates briefly accepted the nominal suzerainty of the Yuan dynasty, but in 1368 the Han Chinese Ming dynasty took over the Mongol capital. The Genghisid rulers of the Yuan retreated to the Mongolian homeland and continued to rule there as the Northern Yuan dynasty. The Ilkhanate disintegrated in the period 1335–1353. The Golden Horde had broken into competing khanates by the end of the 15th century whilst the Chagatai Khanate lasted in one form or another until 1687.

Mongol invasions of the Levant

Starting in the 1240s, the Mongols made repeated invasions of Syria or attempts thereof. Most failed, but they did have some success in 1260 and 1300, capturing Aleppo and Damascus and destroying the Ayyubid dynasty. The Mongols were forced to retreat within months each time by other forces in the area, primarily the Egyptian Mamluks. Since 1260, it had been described as the Mamluk-Ilkhanid War.

Qutlugh-Khanids

The Qutlugh-Khanids was a Khitan dynasty situated in the region of Kirman, ruling from 1222/3 to 1306 as continually vassals of the Khwarazmian dynasty, Mongol Empire, and the Ilkhanate. The dynasty was removed from power by the Ilkhanate ruler Öljaitü, who appointed a officer named Nasir al-Din Muhammad ibn Burhan as governor.

Rashid-al-Din Hamadani

Rashīd al-Dīn Ṭabīb (Persian: رشیدالدین طبیب‎), also known as Rashīd al-Dīn Faḍlullāh Hamadānī (رشیدالدین فضل‌الله همدانی, 1247–1318), was a statesman, historian and physician in Ilkhanate-ruled Iran. He was born into a Persian Jewish family from Hamadan.

Having converted to Islam by the age of 30, Rashid al-Din became the powerful vizier of the Ilkhan, Ghazan. Later he was commissioned by Ghazan to write the Jāmiʿ al-Tawārīkh, now considered the most important single source for the history of the Ilkhanate period and the Mongol Empire. He retained his position as a vizier until 1316.

After being charged with poisoning the Ilkhanid king Öljaitü, he was executed in 1318.Historian Morris Rossabi calls Rashid-al-Din "arguably the most distinguished figure in Persia during Mongolian rule". He was a prolific author and established the Rab'-e Rashidi academic foundation in Tabriz.

Salghurids

The Salghurids of Fars (Persian: اتابکان فارس 'Atābakān-e Fārs' or سلغُریان 'Salghoriān'), were a dynasty of Turkmen origin that ruled Fars, first as vassals of the Seljuqs then for the Khwarazm Shahs in the 13th century. The Salghurids were established by Sunqur in 1148, who had profited from the rebellions during the reign of Seljuq sultan Mas'ud b. Muhammad. Later the Salghurids were able to solidify their position in southern Persia to the point of campaigning against Kurds and involving themselves in the succession of the Kirman Seljuqs, holding Seljuq sultan Malik-Shah III's son Mahmud as a possible claimant to the Seljuq throne. They captured Isfahan in 1203-4, and later occupied Bahrain taken from the Uyunid dynasty in 1235.Under Sa'd I b. Zangi, the Salghurids experienced a significant prosperity, which was marred by his acknowledging the Khwarazm Shahs as his overlord. Saadi Shirazi, the Persian poet, dedicated his Bostan and Gulistan to Sa'd I and Sa'd II. Following Sa'd I's death, his brother Zangi b. Mawdud took power in 1161. Dekele/Tekele followed his father, Zangi, only after eliminating Sonqur's son Toghril.During the 13th century, the Salghurids patronized a cultural and intellectual atmosphere which included, Kadi al-Baydawi, Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi, Saadi Shirazi and the historian Wassaf.During the closing years of Aku Bakr and Sa'd II, Fars fell under the dominion of Mongol empire and later the Ilkhanate of Hulegu. Under the Mongols, Abu Bakr was given the title of Qutlugh Khan. Later Salghurids were powerless figureheads, until the daughter of Sa'd II, Abish Khatun was given the title of Atabegate of Fars. She was the sole ruler of Fars for one year whereupon she married, Mengu Temur, eleventh son of Hulegu. Following their deaths, Fars was ruled directly by the Ilkhanate.

Siege of Aleppo (1260)

The Siege of Aleppo lasted from 18 January to 24 January 1260.After receiving the submission of Haran and Edessa, Hulagu Khan crossed the Euphrates, sacked Menbij and placed Aleppo under siege. For six days the city was under siege. Assisted by catapults and mangonels, Mongol, Armenian and Frankish forces overran the entire city, except for the citadel which held out until 25 February and was demolished following its capitulation. The ensuing massacre, that lasted six days, was methodical and thorough, in which nearly all Muslims and Jews were killed, though most of the women and children were sold into slavery. Also included in the destruction, was the burning of the Great Mosque of Aleppo.Following the siege, Hulagu had some of Hethum's troops executed for burning the mosque, Some sources state Bohemond VI of Antioch (leader of the Franks) personally saw to the mosque's destruction. Later, Hulagu Khan returned castles and districts to Hethum which had been taken by the Ayyubids.

Siege of Baghdad (1258)

The Siege of Baghdad, which lasted from January 29 until February 10, 1258, entailed the investment, capture, and sack of Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, by Ilkhanate Mongol forces and allied troops. The Mongols were under the command of Hulagu Khan (or Hulegu Khan), brother of the khagan Möngke Khan, who had intended to further extend his rule into Mesopotamia but not to directly overthrow the Caliphate. Möngke, however, had instructed Hulagu to attack Baghdad if the Caliph Al-Musta'sim refused Mongol demands for his continued submission to the khagan and the payment of tribute in the form of military support for Mongol forces in Persia.

Hulagu began his campaign in Persia with several offensives against Nizari groups, including the Assassins, who lost their stronghold of Alamut. He then marched on Baghdad, demanding that Al-Musta'sim accede to the terms imposed by Möngke on the Abbasids. Although the Abbasids had failed to prepare for the invasion, the Caliph believed that Baghdad could not fall to invading forces and refused to surrender. Hulagu subsequently besieged the city, which surrendered after 12 days. During the next week, the Mongols sacked Baghdad, committing numerous atrocities and destroying the Abbasids' vast libraries, including the House of Wisdom. The Mongols executed Al-Musta'sim and massacred many residents of the city, which was left greatly depopulated. The siege is considered to mark the end of the Islamic Golden Age, during which the caliphs had extended their rule from the Iberian Peninsula to Sindh, and which was also marked by many cultural achievements.

Wassaf

Wassaf or Vassaf (Persian: عبدالله ابن فضل‌الله شرف‌الدین شیرازی‎) Abdallah ibn Faḍlallah Sharaf al-Din Shīrāzī (fl. 1299-1323) was a 14th-century Persian historian of the Ilkhanate. Waṣṣāf, sometimes lengthened to Waṣṣāf al-Ḥaḍrat or Vassaf-e Hazrat (Persian: وصّافِ حضرت‎), is a title meaning "Court Panegyrist".A native of Shiraz, Wassaf was a tax administrator in Fars during the reigns of Ghazan Mahmud and Öljaitü.He is the author of the historical work Tārīkḣ-i Waṣṣāf, also known as Tajziyat al-amṣār wa-tazjiyat al-a'ṣār (The allocation of cities and the propulsion of epochs).

Zij-i Ilkhani

Zīj-i Īlkhānī (Persian: زیجِ ایلخانی‎) or Ilkhanic Tables (literal translation: "The Ilkhan Stars", after ilkhan Hulagu, who was the patron of the author at that time) is a Zij book with astronomical tables of planetary movements. It was compiled by the Persian astronomer Nasir al-Din al-Tusi in collaboration with his research team of astronomers at the Maragha observatory. It was written in Persian and later translated into Arabic.

The book contains tables for calculating the positions of the planets and the names of the stars. It included data derived from the observations made over the course of 12 years in the Maragha observatory, completed in 1272. The planetary positions of the Zij-i Ilkhani, derived from the Zijs of Ibn Al-`Alam and Ibn Yunis (ct. 10 AD), were so at fault that later astronomers, such as Shams al-Din Muhammad al-Wabkanawi (1254-1320 AD) and Rukn al-DIn al-Amuli, criticized it severely.

The Zīj-i Īlkhānī set the precession of the equinoxes at 51 arcseconds per annum, which is very close to the modern value of 50.2 arcseconds. The book also describes a method of interpolation between the observed positions, which in modern terms may be described as a second-order interpolation scheme.

Zu'l-Fiqar Shirvani

Zu'l Fiqar Shirvani (died c. 1291) was a Persian poet of the Ilkhanid-era. His divan consists of 9,000 verses. Mohammad Dabirsiaqi / Encyclopædia Iranica notes that "he was generally recognized as a master of versification".

Ilkhanate family tree
 
Temüjin
 
Börte Ujin
(b. 1162–d. 1230)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tolui
(b. 1193–d. 1232)
 
Sorghaghtani Beki
(b. 1198–d. 1252)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
Hulagu Khan
(b. 1217–d. 1265)
Ilkhan
1256–1265
 
Doquz Khatun
(d. 1265)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3
Tekuder
(b. 1233–d. 1284)
Ilkhan
1282–1284
 
 
2
Abaqa Khan
(b. 1234–d. 1282)
Ilkhan
1262–1282
 
 
 
Taraqai
 
Mengu Timur
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4
Arghun
(b. 1258–d. 1292)
Ilkhan
1284–1291
 
 
 
5
Gaykhatu
(d. 1295)
Ilkhan
1291–1295
 
6
Baydu
(d. 1295)
Ilkhan
1295
 
Ambarji
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7
Ghazan
(b. 1272–d. 1304)
Ilkhan
1295–1304
 
8
Öljaitü
(b. 1280–d. 1316)
Ilkhan
1304–1316
 
Alafireng
 
Ali
 
Timur
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
15
Sati Khatun
(c. 1300–1345)
Ilkhan
1338–1339
 
9
Abu Sa'id
(b. 1305–d. 1335)
Ilkhan
1316–1335
 
14
Jahan Temür
Ilkhan
1339–1340
 
10
Musa
(d. 1336)
Ilkhan
1336–1337
 
Yul Qotloq
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
12
Muhammad
(d. 1338)
Ilkhan
1336–1338
 
Notes:
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