Il Popolo d'Italia

Il Popolo d'Italia ("The People of Italy"), was an Italian newspaper which published editions every day with the exception for Mondays founded by Benito Mussolini in 1914,[1] after his split from the Italian Socialist Party.[2] The paper was founded as a pro-war newspaper during WW1.[3]

Il Popolo d'Italia ran from November 15, 1914 until July 24, 1943 and became the foundation for the Fascist movement in Italy after World War I. The paper, advocating militarism and irredentism, was subsidized by the French and industrialists on the pretext of influencing Italy to join the Entente Powers. The word “socialist” was displayed on the newspaper's masthead until 1918 to attract followers to “his idea of a ‘revolutionary war.’”[4]

Mussolini often wrote anonymously for his newspaper, such as when he mocked a proposal for an Italian copy of "Heil Hitler",[5] or to spread his ideas about Italy increasing its birth rate. From 1936 to 1943 it was edited by Giorgio Pini.[6]

Among the co-founders were Manlio Morgagni, who became an ardent supporter of Fascism and the chairman of news agency Agenzia Stefani.

Il Popolo d'Italia
Il Popolo d'Italia
Founder(s)Benito Mussolini
Manlio Morgagni
FoundedNovember 15, 1914
Political alignmentFascist



  1. ^ benito, mussolini,. "Il popolo d'Italia". The Library of Congress. Retrieved 2017-11-07.
  2. ^ Maulsby, Lucy M. (2014). Fascism, Architecture, and the Claiming of Modern Milan, 1922-1943. University of Toronto Press. p. 136. ISBN 9781442646254.
  3. ^ "Italy - World War I and fascism | history - geography". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-11-07.
  4. ^ Philip Morgan (2003), Fascism in Europe, 1919-1945, New York: NY: Routledge, p. 27
  5. ^ Gunther, John (1940). Inside Europe. New York: Harper & Brothers. pp. 246, 259.
  6. ^ Rees, Philip (1990). Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890. p. 296.
1914 in Italy

See also:

1913 in Italy,

other events of 1914,

1915 in Italy.

Events from the year 1914 in Italy.

1919 in Italy

See also:

1918 in Italy,

other events of 1919,

1920 in Italy.

Events from the year 1919 in Italy.

1921 in Italy

Events from the year 1921 in Italy.

Adriana Bisi Fabbri

Adriana Bisi Fabbri (1881–1918) was an Italian painter.

Agostino Lanzillo

Agostino Lanzillo (31 October 1886 – 3 March 1952) was an Italian revolutionary syndicalist leader who later became a member of Benito Mussolini's fascist movement.

Arnaldo Mussolini

Arnaldo Mussolini (January 11, 1885 – December 21, 1931) was an Italian journalist and politician. He was the brother of Italy's Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini, and a Fascist himself.

Ernest A. Cole

Ernest Alfred Cole (1890–1979) was a British sculptor and printmaker born in Greenwich, London. He studied at Goldsmiths' College School of Art and the Royal College of Art and in Italy and Paris. While at the RCA his work came to the attention of Selwyn Image and Charles Ricketts, the latter becoming a great supporter of Cole's work which he compared to that of Alfred Stevens. In 1913 a life size figure of John the Baptist by Cole was erected at Holland Park.He was commissioned in 1914 by Ralph Knott to contribute twelve figure groups for the London County Hall, of which he completed five and a half before enlisting for military service in the Artists Rifles in 1916. He then served in France in 1917 as a second lieutenant in the 4th Reserve York and Lancaster Regiment before being transferred to military intelligence. After World War I Cole resumed his work, but Knott was dissatisfied with the work, and terminated his contract in 1921 with only six groups completed. Additional sculptures for County Hall were provided by Alfred Frank Hardiman in the late 1920s. Cole's work aroused some controversy at its unveiling, although he was still supported by Ricketts, Image and Laurence Binyon.While in the United States on military intelligence during 1917–18, Cole met his wife, Laurie Manly (d.1957).From 1921 to 1924, Cole continued his studies in New York, Italy and Germany before settling in Kingston, Kent. In 1924 he briefly succeeded Francis Derwent Wood as Professor of Sculpture at the Royal College of Art, but left after a few months. Afterwards, he and his wife lived reclusively in Kingston in a house which Cole had commissioned, claiming it was the first steel-frame bungalow to have been built. At the outbreak of World War II the Coles were briefly imprisoned under suspicion of being Fascist sympathists, due to Cole's subscription to Il Popolo d'Italia, and his wife apparently an admirer of and correspondent with Benito Mussolini.Cole was reported as having destroyed much of his work soon after completion.

Fasci Autonomi d'Azione Rivoluzionaria

The Fasci Autonomi d'Azione Rivoluzionaria (English: Autonomous Fasci of Revolutionary Action) was founded in November 1914 by Benito Mussolini. On 11 December 1914, the Fasci Autonomi d'Azione Rivoluzionaria and the Fasci d'Azione Internazionalista merged into the Fasci d'Azione Rivoluzionaria led by Mussolini.Due to Mussolini's support of Italian intervention in the then-ongoing World War I, this enabled him to raise funds from Ansaldo (an armaments firm) and other companies to create the newspaper Il Popolo d'Italia, first published in November 1914, to convince socialists and revolutionaries to support the war.

Fasci Italiani di Combattimento

The Italian Fasci of Combat (Italian: Fasci Italiani di Combattimento, FIC), until 1919 called Fasci of Revolutionary Action (Italian: Fasci d'Azione Rivoluzionaria, FAR), was an Italian fascio organization, created by Benito Mussolini in 1914.

Fascist Manifesto

The Manifesto of the Italian Fasci of Combat (Italian: Il manifesto dei fasci italiani di combattimento), commonly known as the Fascist Manifesto, was the initial declaration of the political stance of the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento ("Italian League of Combat") the movement founded in Milan by Benito Mussolini in 1919 and an early exponent of Fascism. The Manifesto was authored by national syndicalist Alceste De Ambris and the futurist poet Filippo Marinetti.

Giorgio Pini

Giorgio Pini (1 February 1899, in Bologna – 30 March 1987, in Rome) was an Italian politician and journalist.

Pini studied law at the University of Bologna and served in World War I before joining the Bologna fascio in 1920. Following the establishment of the fascist state he became an important figure in the journalists syndicate along with the likes of Lando Ferretti and Telesio Interlandi. As a journalist he made his name as an editor for il Resto del Carlino (1928-1930) and Il Gazzettino (1936) before graduating to the editorship of Il Popolo d'Italia in December 1936. He retained this post until 1943, although in the Italian Social Republic Pini, who was a noted moderate, returned to the local Resto. He did however serve as an undersecretary in the Ministry of the Interior in 1944.Pini was most noted in Fascist Italy for his biography of Benito Mussolini, a hagiography from which Il Duce profited financially. It was translated by Luigi Villari into English as The Official Life on Benito Mussolini in 1939. After the Second World War he released an updated version of this book with Duilio Susmel whilst in 1950 he published Itinerario Tragica 1943/44 which was also pro-fascist in nature. His continuing justifications for fascism led him to far right politics in the post-war era and he was a founding member of the Italian Social Movement (MSI). Within the MSI he was part of the 'left-wing' tendency that sought to add socialist economics to their rhetoric and when his position was not adopted he left in January 1952 to help launch the Raggruppamento Sociale Repubblicano with Concetto Pettinato. Pini continued his career on the socialist fringes of the far right and frequently attacked the MSI in later years for forging links to regimes in Greece, South Africa and Portugal that he dismissed as reactionary.

Giuseppe Ungaretti

Giuseppe Ungaretti (Italian: [dʒuˈzɛppe uŋɡaˈretti]; 8 February 1888 – 2 June 1970) was an Italian modernist poet, journalist, essayist, critic, academic, and recipient of the inaugural 1970 Neustadt International Prize for Literature. A leading representative of the experimental trend known as Ermetismo ("Hermeticism"), he was one of the most prominent contributors to 20th century Italian literature. Influenced by symbolism, he was briefly aligned with futurism. Like many futurists, he took an irredentist position during World War I. Ungaretti debuted as a poet while fighting in the trenches, publishing one of his best-known pieces, L'allegria ("The Joy").

During the interwar period, Ungaretti was a collaborator of Benito Mussolini (whom he met during his socialist accession), as well as a foreign-based correspondent for Il Popolo d'Italia and Gazzetta del Popolo. While briefly associated with the Dadaists, he developed Hermeticism as a personal take on poetry. After spending several years in Brazil, he returned home during World War II, and was assigned a teaching post at the University of Rome, where he spent the final decades of his life and career. His fascist past was the subject of controversy.

Guido Martina

Guido Martina (9 February 1906 – 6 May 1991) was an Italian comic writer, documentarist and author.

La Notte (newspaper)

La Notte was an Italian afternoon newspaper published in Milan between 1952 and 1995.

Luigi Freddi

Luigi Freddi (12 June 1895, Milan – 17 March 1977, Sabaudia) was an Italian journalist and politician, principally notable for being the first vice seсretary of the Fasci italiani all'estero, and later one of those most responsible for Italian political cinema in the second half of the 1930s and the start of the 1940s.

As a futurist and a legionario fiumiano, he edited Il Popolo d'Italia and in 1920 was one of the founders of the student avant-garde within the fighting Italian Fascist party and became director of the review Giovinezza.

He was then head press officer of the PNF (1923–24), vicesegretario (vice-secretary) of the Fasci italiani all'estero (FIE) (1927) and vice-director of the Exhibition of the Fascist Revolution.

In 1934 he was made head of the General Directorate of Cinematography, the Fascist organisation controlling cinema. Freddi aimed to create an entertainment cinema on the American type, imitating the commercial Hollywood model instead of the Soviet propaganda model. The Cinecittà studios (of which he became a director) and the Centro sperimentale di cinematografia film school were founded under his direction.


The muntaz was a military rank of the Italian colonial troops, equivalent to the rank of corporal in the Italian Royal Army Regio Esercito.

The muntaz is placed by rank under the Bulucbasci and above the common Ascaro. He served as a squad commander in the colonial units and was chosen amongst the askaris who could read and write Italian .

Piero Parini

Piero Parini (13 November 1894 – 1993) was an Italian journalist, politician and soldier. He fought in World War I and the Second Italo-Ethiopian War. He rose through the ranks of the Italian political establishment through his work as diplomat and director of the Fascist newspaper Il Popolo d'Italia. During World War II, he became the de facto ruler of the annexed Ionian Islands in Greece, and later supported the Italian Social Republic, becoming the mayor of Milan.

Sammarinese Fascist Party

The Sammarinese Fascist Party (Italian: Partito Fascista Sammarinese) or PFS was a fascist political party that ruled San Marino from 1923 to 1943.It was founded and led by Giuliano Gozi, a Sammarinese World War I veteran who volunteered in the Royal Italian Army, on 10 August 1922, and was modelled directly on the National Fascist Party of surrounding Italy. Gozi came from a distinguished family and held the posts of foreign minister (in San Marino, the foreign minister leads the cabinet) and interior minister; these two offices gave him control of the military and police. From the beginning, the party used violence and intimidation against opponents such as the Socialists. Its party newspaper was the Il Popolo Sammarinese, modelled after the Il Popolo d'Italia. In terms of policy and ideology, the party was not innovative and stuck closely to Italian Fascism. They pursued industrialization which turned a country of mostly farmers into one of factory workers. They did not adopt Anti-Jewish laws as Italy did in 1938 as the tiny country did not have any visible Jewish community.

In April 1923, Gozi was elected as the first Fascist Captain Regent. After the October elections, both Captains-Regent were Fascists and remained so in subsequent elections for the next two decades as all other political parties were banned in 1926 effectively making San Marino a one-party state. However, independent politicians continued to form a majority in the Grand and General Council until 1932. In addition, the party was split between Gozi's faction and Ezio Balducci's faction, forcing them to look to the Italian party for guidance and mediation.

In 1932, Balducci's faction started a rival newspaper, La Voce del Titano. The next year he was accused of plotting a coup and arrested by Italian authorities after fleeing to Rome. Balducci and other alleged conspirators were purged from the party and tried and sentenced to hard labour in 1934 by a special court but the punishment was never carried out.


Sansepolcrismo is a term used to refer to the movement led by Benito Mussolini that preceded Fascism. The Sansepolcrismo takes its name from the rally organized by Mussolini at Piazza San Sepolcro in Milan on March 23, 1919, where he proclaimed the principles of Fasci Italiani di Combattimento, and then published them in the newspaper he co-founded, Il Popolo d'Italia, on June 6, 1919.

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