Iguanomorpha

Iguania is an infraorder of squamate reptiles that includes iguanas, chameleons, agamids, and New World lizards like anoles and phrynosomatids. Using morphological features as a guide to evolutionary relationships, the Iguania are believed to form the sister group to the remainder of the Squamata. However, molecular information has placed Iguania well within the Squamata as sister taxa to the Anguimorpha and closely related to snakes.[1] Iguanians are largely arboreal and usually have primitive fleshy, non-prehensile tongues, although the tongue is highly modified in chameleons. The group has a fossil record that extends back to the Early Jurassic (the oldest known member is Bharatagama, which lived about 190 million years ago in what is now India).[2]

Iguanomorpha
Temporal range: Early Jurassic - present, 190–0 Ma
Leiocephalus-personatus-maskenleguan
Leiocephalus personatus, a species of iguanian
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Clade: Toxicofera
Clade: Iguanomorpha
Suborder: Iguania
Families

Agamidae
Chamaeleonidae
Corytophanidae
Crotaphytidae
Dactyloidae
Hoplocercidae
Iguanidae
Leiocephalidae
Leiosauridae
Liolaemidae
Opluridae
Phrynosomatidae
Polychrotidae
Tropiduridae

Classification

The Iguania currently include these extant families:[3][4]

Phylogeny

Below is a cladogram from the phylogenetic analysis of Daza et al. (2012) (a morphological analysis), showing the interrelationships of extinct and living iguanians:[5]

Iguanomorpha

Hoyalacerta sanzi

Huehuecuetzpalli mixtecus

Pristiguana brasiliensis

Iguania
Chamaeleontiformes
Priscagamidae

Mimeosaurus crassus

Priscagama gobiensis

Phrynosomimus asper

Acrodonta

Physignathus

Agama

Uromastyx

Leiolepis

Rhampholeon

Brookesia

Iguanoidea (=Pleurodonta)
Gobiguania

Polrussia mongoliensis

Igua minuta

Isodontosaurus gracilis

Anchaurosaurus gilmorei

Zapsosaurus sceliphros

Saichangurvel davidsoni

Temujinia ellisoni

Ctenomastax parva

Silvaiguana
Hoplocercidae

Enyaloides

Morunasaurus

Hoplocercus

Polychrotidae

Polychrus gutturosus

Polychrus marmoratus

Polychrus femoralis

Afairiguana avius

Leiosaurus

Anisolepis

Enyalius

Pristidactylus

Anolis electrum

Anolis occultus

Anolis heterodermus

Anolis vermiculatus

Euiguana
Corytophanidae

Laemanctus

Basiliscus

Corytophanes

Terraiguana

Iguanidae

Crotaphytidae

Crotaphytus

Gambelia

Phrynosomatidae

Phrynosoma

Uta

Petrosaurus

sand lizards

Sceloporus

Urosaurus

Opluridae

Chalarodon madagascariensis

Oplurus quadrimaculatus B

Oplurus quadrimaculatus A

Oplurus cyclurus

Uquiasaurus

Liolaemidae

Phymaturus

Ctenoblepharis

Liolaemus

Leiocephalus

Tropiduridae

Stenocercus

Tropidurus

Uranoscodon

References

  1. ^ Vidal, N.; Hedges, S. B. (2005). "The phylogeny of squamate reptiles (lizards, snakes, and amphisbaenians) inferred from nine nuclear protein-coding genes" (PDF). Comptes Rendus Biologies. 328 (10–11): 1000–1008. doi:10.1016/j.crvi.2005.10.001. PMID 16286089. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-26.
  2. ^ Evans, Susan E.; Prasad, G. V. R.; Manhas, B. K. (2002). "Fossil lizards from the Jurassic Kota Formation of India". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22 (2): 299. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2002)022[0299:FLFTJK]2.0.CO;2.
  3. ^ Wiens, J.J., C. R. Hutter, D. G. Mulcahy, B. P. Noonan, T. M. Townsend, J. W. Sites Jr., T. W. Reeder. (2012) Resolving the phylogeny of lizards and snakes (Squamata) with extensive sampling of genes and species. Biology Letters
  4. ^ Schulte II, J. A., J. P. Valladares, and A. Larson. (2003) [Phylogenetic relationships within Iguanidae inferred using molecular and morphological data and a phylogenetic taxonomy of iguanian lizards.] Herpetologica 59: 399-419
  5. ^ Daza, J. D.; Abdala, V.; Arias, J. S.; García-López, D.; Ortiz, P. (2012). "Cladistic Analysis of Iguania and a Fossil Lizard from the Late Pliocene of Northwestern Argentina". Journal of Herpetology. 46: 104–119. doi:10.1670/10-112.
2012 in paleontology

Paleontology or palaeontology is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 2012.

Note: In 2012 International Code of Zoological Nomenclature was amended, with new regulations allowing the publication of new names and nomenclatural acts in zoology after 2011 in works "produced in an edition containing simultaneously obtainable copies by a method that assures (...) widely accessible electronic copies with fixed content and layout", provided that the work is registered in ZooBank before it is published, the work itself states the date of publication with evidence that registration has occurred, and the ZooBank registration states both the name of an electronic archive intended to preserve the work and the ISSN or ISBN associated with the work. New scientific names appearing in electronic works are not required to be registered in ZooBank, only the works themselves are. Works containing descriptions of some of the taxa listed below weren't printed on paper in 2012; however, the taxa that were described in works which were registered in ZooBank in 2012 are listed as valid.

2013 in paleontology

Paleontology or palaeontology is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 2013.

2017 in paleontology

Paleontology or palaeontology is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 2017.

2018 in reptile paleontology

Paleontology or palaeontology is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 2018.

Acrodonta (lizard)

Acrodonts are a subclade of iguanian squamates consisting entirely of Old World taxa. Extant representation include the families Chamaeleonidae (chameleons) and Agamidae (dragon lizards), with at least over 500 species described. A fossil genus though Gueragama was found in Brazil making it the only known American representative of the group.The group is eponymously named from the formation of the teeth whereby the teeth are consolidated with the summit of the alveolar ridge of the jaw without sockets. There are, however, other animals that have acrodont dentition such as tuataras..

Brasiliguana

Brasiliguana is a genus of iguanian lizard which lived during the late Cretaceous period (Turonian to Santonian stage) in what is now Brazil. It is known from the holotype MN 7230-V, an isolated left maxilla with partially preserved teeth, which was found in the Upper Cretaceous Adamantina Formation, part of the Bauru Group of São Paulo State, southeast Brazil. Brasiliguana was named by William R. Nava and Agustín G. Martinelli in 2011 and the type species is Brasiliguana prudentis. The generic name refers to its provenance from the Late Cretaceous of Brazil and iguana, from the South American and Caribbean aboriginal language meaning "lizard". The specific name, prudentis, refers to Presidente Prudente Municipality, where the holotype was found.

Brasiliguana prudentis constitutes the second lizard species from the Late Cretaceous of Brazil based on cranial material, the third lizard record from the Bauru Group and the sixth from the Cretaceous of Brazil as a whole.

Desertiguana

Desertiguana is an extinct genus of lizard in the family Phrynosomatidae. It is a monotypic genus represented by the type species Desertiguana gobiensis from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia. Desertiguana gobiensis is known from a single left lower jaw.

Magnuviator

Magnuviator is a genus of extinct iguanomorph lizard from the Late Cretaceous of Montana, US. It contains one species, M. ovimonsensis, described in 2017 by DeMar et al. from two specimens that were discovered in the Egg Mountain nesting site. Magnuviator is closest related to the Asian Saichangurvel and Temujinia, which form the group Temujiniidae. Unlike other members of the Iguanomorpha, however, Magnuviator bears a distinct articulating notch on its tibia for the ankle bones (astragalus and calcaneum), which has traditionally been considered a characteristic of non-iguanomorph lizards. The morphology of its teeth suggests that its diet would have mainly consisted of wasps, like the modern phyrnosomatid iguanians Callisaurus and Urosaurus, although it also shows some adaptations to herbivory.

Pleurodonta

Pleurodonta (from Greek lateral teeth, in reference to the position of the teeth on the jaw) is one of the two subdivisions of Iguania, the other being Acrodonta (teeth on the top [of the jaw]). Pleurodonta includes all families previously split from Iguanidae sensu lato (Corytophanidae, Crotaphytidae, Hoplocercidae, Opluridae, Polychrotidae, etc.), whereas Acrodonta includes Agamidae and Chamaeleonidae. The name Pleurodonta was first used by paleontologist and herpetologist Edward Drinker Cope in 1864, although he used it in a different sense than it is used today. Because of this difference, the name Iguanoidea has been proposed as a replacement for Pleurodonta in phylogenetic nomenclature.Pleurodonta is also a synonym of gastropod genus Pleurodonte.

Priscagamidae

Priscagamidae is an extinct family of iguanian lizards known from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia and China and the Eocene of India, spanning a range from 75 to 54 million years ago. It includes the genera Heterodontagama, Mimeosaurus, Phrynosomimus, Priscagama, and possibly Pleurodontagama. The first fossils of priscagamids were found in the Djadochta and Khermeen Tsav formations of Mongolia. More recently they have been found in the Cambay Formation in India, leading to the naming of Heterodontagama in 2013. Priscagamidae was originally described as a subfamily of Agamidae called Priscagaminae in 1984, but it was reclassified as a distinct family in 1989. Most phylogenetic analyses (analyses of evolutionary relationships) still find a close relationship between Priscagamidae and Agamidae (both have been grouped under a clade called Chamaeleontiformes), although a 2015 study found it to be basal to all other iguanian clades, warranting its removal from Iguania and placement in a larger clade called Iguanomorpha.

Xihaina

Xihaina is an extinct genus of iguanian lizard from the Late Cretaceous of Inner Mongolia, China. The type species Xihaina aquilonia was named in 1995 from the Djadochta Formation and is known from a partial skeleton that preserves parts of the skull, most of the vertebral column, the pelvis, and the right hind limb. The incomplete nature of this specimen makes the classification of Xihaina difficult; it has never been incorporated into a phylogenetic analysis, but it shares similarities with a group of Late Cretaceous Mongolian lizards called Gobiguania, particularly the gobiguanian genera Anchaurosaurus and Polrussia. The fact that many skeletal elements are missing yet the rest of the skeleton is articulated suggests the individual may have been partially eaten by a predator or scavenger and then rapidly buried soon after.

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