Ignatius of Loyola

Saint Ignatius of Loyola (Basque: Ignazio Loiolakoa; Spanish: Ignacio de Loyola; Latin: Ignatius de Loyola; c.  23 October 1491[1] – 31 July 1556) was a Spanish Basque Catholic priest and theologian, who co-founded the religious order called the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) and became its first Superior General at Paris in 1541.[2] The Jesuit order served the Pope as missionaries, and they were bound by a vow of special obedience to the sovereign pontiff in regard to the missions.[3] They therefore emerged as an important force during the time of the Counter-Reformation.[4]

Ignatius is remembered as a talented spiritual director. He recorded his method in a celebrated treatise called the Spiritual Exercises, a simple set of meditations, prayers, and other mental exercises, first published in 1548.

Ignatius was beatified in 1609, and then canonized, receiving the title of Saint on 12 March 1622. His feast day is celebrated on 31 July. He is the patron saint of the Basque provinces of Gipuzkoa and Biscay as well as the Society of Jesus, and was declared patron saint of all spiritual retreats by Pope Pius XI in 1922. Ignatius is also a foremost patron saint of soldiers.[5]

Saint Ignatius of Loyola
St Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556) Founder of the Jesuits
Portrait by Peter Paul Rubens
Bornc. 23 October 1491
Azpeitia
Died31 July 1556 (aged 64)
Rome, Papal States
Venerated inCatholic Church
Anglican Communion
Beatified27 July 1609 by Paul V
Canonized12 March 1622 by Gregory XV
Feast31 July
AttributesEucharist, chasuble, book, cross
PatronageDioceses of San Sebastián and Bilbao, Biscay and Gipuzkoa; Basque Country; Military Ordinariate of the Philippines; Society of Jesus; Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Junín, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Archdiocese of Baltimore and Antwerp, Belgium.

Early life

Santuario De Loyola, Basque Country, Spain
Sanctuary of Loyola, in Azpeitia, built over Ignatius' birthplace

Íñigo López de Loyola (sometimes erroneously called Íñigo López de Recalde)[6] was born in the municipality of Azpeitia at the castle of Loyola in today's Gipuzkoa, Basque Country, Spain. He was baptized Íñigo, after St. Enecus (Innicus) (Basque: Eneko; Spanish: Íñigo) Abbot of Oña,[6] a Basque medieval, affectionate name meaning "My little one".[7] It is not clear when he began using the Latin name "Ignatius" instead of his baptismal name "Íñigo".[8] It seems he did not intend to change his name, but rather adopted a name which he believed was a simple variant of his own, for use in France and Italy where it was better understood.[9]

Íñigo was the youngest of thirteen children. His mother died soon after his birth, and he was then brought up by María de Garín, the local blacksmith's wife.[10] Íñigo adopted the surname "de Loyola" in reference to the Basque village of Loyola where he was born.

Military career

Ignatius of Loyola (militant)
Ignatius in armor
Saint Ignatius of Loyola's Vision of Christ and God the Father at La Storta LACMA M.89.59
Saint Ignatius of Loyola's Vision of Christ and God the Father at La Storta by Domenichino[11]

As a boy Íñigo became a page in the service of a relative, Juan Velázquez de Cuéllar, treasurer (contador mayor) of the kingdom of Castile.

As a young man Íñigo had a great love for military exercises as well as a tremendous desire for fame. He framed his life around the stories of El Cid, the knights of Camelot, and the Song of Roland.[12] He joined the army at seventeen, and according to one biographer, he strutted about "with his cape slinging open to reveal his tight-fitting hose and boots; a sword and dagger at his waist".[13] According to another he was "a fancy dresser, an expert dancer, a womanizer, sensitive to insult, and a rough punkish swordsman who used his privileged status to escape prosecution for violent crimes committed with his priest brother at carnival time."[14] Upon encountering a Moor who denied the divinity of Jesus, he challenged him to a duel to the death, and ran him through with his sword.[13] He dueled many other men as well.[13]

In 1509, at the age of 18, Íñigo took up arms for Antonio Manrique de Lara, 2nd Duke of Nájera. His diplomacy and leadership qualities earned him the title "servant of the court", which made him very useful to the Duke.[15] Under the Duke's leadership, Íñigo participated in many battles without injury. But at the Battle of Pamplona in 1521 he was gravely injured when a French-Navarrese expedition force stormed the fortress of Pamplona on 20 May 1521. A cannonball hit him in the legs, wounding his right leg and fracturing the left in multiple places.[16] Íñigo was returned to his father's castle in Loyola, where, in an era that knew nothing of anesthetics, he underwent several surgical operations to repair his legs, having the bones set and then rebroken. In the end these operations left one leg shorter than the other: Íñigo would limp for the rest of his life, and his military career was over.[14]

Religious conversion and visions

Manresa, Cova de Sant Ignasi-PM 58510
Manresa, Chapel in the Cave of Saint Ignatius where Ignatius practiced ascetism and conceived his Spiritual Exercises

While recovering from surgery, Íñigo underwent a spiritual conversion which led to his experiencing a call to religious life. Hospitals in those days were run by religious orders, and the reading material available to bedridden patients tended to be selected from scripture or devotional literature. This is how Íñigo came to read a series of religious texts on the life of Jesus and on the lives of the saints, since the "romances of chivalry" he loved to read were not available to him in the castle.[6]

The religious work which most particularly struck him was the De Vita Christi of Ludolph of Saxony.[17] This book would influence his whole life, inspiring him to devote himself to God and follow the example of Francis of Assisi and other great monks. It also inspired his method of meditation, since Ludolph proposes that the reader place himself mentally at the scene of the Gospel story, visualising the crib at the Nativity, etc. This type of meditation, known as Simple Contemplation, was the basis for the method that St. Ignatius would promote in his Spiritual Exercises.[18][19][20]

Aside from dreaming about imitating the saints in his readings, Íñigo was still wandering off in his mind about what "he would do in service to his king and in honor of the royal lady he was in love with". Cautiously he came to realize the after-effect of both kinds of his dreams. He experienced a desolation and dissatisfaction when the romantic heroism dream was over, but, the saintly dream ended with much joy and peace. It was the first time he learned about discernment.[14]

After he had recovered sufficiently to walk again, Íñigo resolved to begin a pilgrimage to the Holy Land to "kiss the earth where our Lord had walked",[14] and to do stricter penances.[21] He thought that his plan was confirmed by a vision of the Virgin Mary and the infant Jesus he experienced one night, which resulted in much consolation to him.[21] In March 1522, he visited the Benedictine monastery of Santa Maria de Montserrat. There, he carefully examined his past sins, confessed, gave his fine clothes to the poor he met, wore a "garment of sack-cloth", then hung his sword and dagger at the Virgin's altar during an overnight vigil at the shrine.[6]

From Montserrat he walked on to the nearby town of Manresa (Catalonia), where he lived for about a year, begging for his keep, and then eventually doing chores at a local hospital in exchange for food and lodging. For several months he spent much of his time praying in a cave nearby[22] where he practiced rigorous asceticism, praying for seven hours a day, and formulating the fundamentals of his Spiritual Exercises.

Íñigo also experienced a series of visions in full daylight while at the hospital. These repetitive visions appeared as "a form in the air near him and this form gave him much consolation because it was exceedingly beautiful ... it somehow seemed to have the shape of a serpent and had many things that shone like eyes, but were not eyes. He received much delight and consolation from gazing upon this object ... but when the object vanished he became disconsolate".[23] He came to interpret this vision as diabolical in nature.[24]

Period of study

In September 1523, Íñigo made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land with the goal of settling there. He remained there from 3 to 23 September but he was sent back to Europe by the Franciscans.[25]

He returned to Barcelona and at the age of thirty-three began to attend a free public grammar school to prepare himself for entrance to a university. When his preparation was complete, he then went on to the University of Alcalá,[26] where he studied theology and Latin from 1524 to 1534.

There he encountered some women who had been called before the Inquisition. These women were considered alumbrados (Illuminated, Illuminati, or Enlightened Ones) – a group that was linked in their zeal and spirituality to Franciscan reforms, but had incurred mounting suspicion on the part of the administrators of the Inquisition. At one point, Íñigo was preaching on the street when three of these devout women began to experience ecstatic states. "One fell senseless, another sometimes rolled about on the ground, another had been seen in the grip of convulsions or shuddering and sweating in anguish." This suspicious activity had taken place while Íñigo was preaching without a degree in theology. Íñigo was then singled out for interrogation by the Inquisition; however, he was later released.[27]

After these adventurous activities, Íñigo (by now Ignatius) moved to Paris to study at the famous University. He studied at the ascetic Collège de Montaigu, where he remained for over seven years.

He arrived during a period of anti-Protestant turmoil which forced John Calvin to flee France. Very soon after his arrival Ignatius had gathered around him six key companions, all of whom he had met as fellow students at the University.[28]Francis Xavier, Alfonso Salmeron, Diego Laynez, and Nicholas Bobadilla, all Spanish; Peter Faber, a Savoyard; and Simão Rodrigues of Portugal. Peter Faber, a young man from Savoy in the south of France, and Francis Xavier, a nobleman from the eastern end of the Basque country, were his first roommates,[14] and would become his closest associates in founding the Jesuit order.

"On the morning of the 15th of August, 1534, in the chapel of church of Saint Peter, at Montmartre, Loyola and his six companions, of whom only one was a priest, met and took upon themselves the solemn vows of their lifelong work."[29]

Later, they were joined by Saint Francis Borgia, a member of the House of Borgia, who was the main aide of Emperor Charles V, and other nobles.

Ignatius obtained a master's degree from the University of Paris at the age of forty-three. In later life he was often called "Master Ignatius" because of this.[29]

Foundation of the Jesuit order

In 1539, with Saint Peter Faber and Saint Francis Xavier, Ignatius formed the Society of Jesus, which was approved in 1540 by Pope Paul III. Ignatius was chosen as the first Superior General of the order and invested with the title of Father General by the Jesuits.[30]

Ignatius sent his companions as missionaries around Europe to create schools, colleges, and seminaries. Juan de Vega, the ambassador of Charles V at Rome, met Ignatius there. Esteeming Ignatius and the Jesuits, when Vega was appointed Viceroy of Sicily, he brought Jesuits with him. A Jesuit college was opened at Messina, which proved a success, and its rules and methods were afterwards copied in other colleges.[31]

In 1548 Ignatius was briefly brought before the Roman Inquisition for examination of his book of Spiritual Exercises. But he was released and the book was finally given papal permission to be printed. It was published in a format such that the exercises were designed to be carried out over a period of 28–30 days.

Ignatius, along with the help of his personal secretary Juan Alfonso de Polanco wrote the Jesuit Constitutions, adopted in 1553. It created a centralized organization for the order,[32][33] and stressed absolute self-denial and obedience to the Pope and to superiors in the Church hierarchy, using the motto perinde ac cadaver – "as if a dead body",[34] i.e. that the good Jesuit should be as well-disciplined as a corpse.[35] But his main principle became the Jesuit motto: Ad maiorem Dei gloriam ("for the greater glory of God").

During the years 1553–1555, Ignatius dictated his autobiography to his secretary, Father Gonçalves da Câmara. This autobiography ("Autobiografía de San Ignacio de Loyola" in Wikisource in Spanish) is a valuable key for understanding his Spiritual Exercises. It was kept in the archives of the Jesuit order for about 150 years, until the Bollandists published the text in Acta Sanctorum.

Ignatius Loyola by Francisco Zurbaran

Ignatius as Superior General

Ignatius of Loyola, Church of Gesù, Rome, Jan 2013

Statue of Saint Ignatius of Loyola at Gesù Church, Rome

Death and canonization

Ignatius died in Rome on 31 July 1556, as a result of the Roman Fever, a severe case of malaria that recurred in Rome, Italy, at different points in history. An autopsy revealed that he also had several kidney and bladder stones, a probable cause of the abdominal pains he suffered from later in life.[36] At this time he was placed in a wooden shrine, his body was then covered with his priestly garments. On 1 August the shrine was then buried in the small Maria della Strada Church. In 1568 that church was pulled down and replaced with the Church of the Gesù. Saint Ignatius was put into a new coffin and reinterred in the new church.[37]

Ignatius was beatified by Pope Paul V on 27 July 1609, and canonized by Pope Gregory XV on 12 March 1622.[38] His feast day is celebrated annually on 31 July, the day he died. Saint Ignatius is venerated as the patron saint of Catholic soldiers, the Military Ordinariate of the Philippines, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Baltimore,[39] the Basque Country, Antwerp, Belo Horizonte, Junín and various towns and cities in his native region.

Legacy

Ignatius has to this day a powerful and respectable legacy. Of the institutions dedicated to Saint Ignatius, one of the most famous is the Basilica of St Ignatius Loyola, built next to the house where he was born in Azpeitia, the Basque Country, Spain. The house itself, now a museum, is incorporated into the basilica complex. In addition, he has had a global impact, having been the influence behind numerous Jesuit schools and educational institutions worldwide.

In 1671, the mission at St. Ignace, Michigan was named in his honor, by Father Jacques Marquette. The present day St. Ignace still bears his name.

In 1949 he was the subject of a Spanish biographical film The Captain from Loyola in which he was played by Rafael Durán.

In 2016, he was the subject of a Filipino film Ignacio de Loyola in which he was played by Andreas Muñoz.[40]

Genealogy

Blason d'Ignace de Loyola
Original shield of Oñaz-Loyola.

Shield of Oñaz-Loyola

The Shield of Oñaz-Loyola is a symbol of Saint Ignatius family's Oñaz lineage, and is used by many Jesuit institutions around the world. As the official colors of the Loyola family are maroon and gold,[41] the Oñaz shield consists of seven maroon bars going diagonally from the upper left to the lower right on a gold field. The bands were granted by the King of Spain to each of the Oñaz brothers, in recognition of their bravery in battle. The Loyola shield features a pair of rampant gray wolves flanking each side of a cooking pot. The wolf was a symbol of nobility, while the entire design represented the family's generosity towards their military followers. According to legend, wolves had enough to feast on after the soldiers had eaten. Both shields were combined as a result of the intermarriage of the two families in 1261.[42][43]

Lineage

Villoslada established the following detailed genealogy of Saint Ignatius:[1]

Gallery

Tomb of St. Ignatius

Tomb of Saint Ignatius, c. 1675

Apoteosis de San Ignacio 1675 20131224

Apotheosis of Saint Ignatius

Peter Paul Rubens33

Visions of Ignatius, 1617-18, Peter Paul Rubens

Podroze Loyoli

The journeys of Ignatius of Loyola at different times

St Ignatius Spiritual Exercises c 1600

A page from Spiritual Exercises

Bibliography

  • The Spiritual Exercises of St Ignatius, TAN Books, 2010. ISBN 978-0-89555-153-5
  • Ignatius of Loyola, Spiritual Exercises, London, 2012. limovia.net ISBN 978-1-78336-012-3
  • Loyola, (St.) Ignatius (1964). The Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius. Anthony Mottola. Garden City: Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-02436-5.
  • Loyola, (St.) Ignatius (1900). Joseph O'Conner (ed.). The Autobiography of St. Ignatius. New York: Benziger Brothers. OCLC 1360267. For information on the O'Conner and other translations, see notes in A Pilgrim's Journey: The Autobiography of Ignatius of Loyola Page 11-12.
  • Loyola, (St.) Ignatius (1992). John Olin (ed.). The Autobiography of St. Ignatius Loyola, with Related Documents. New York: Fordham University Press. ISBN 0-8232-1480-X.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b García Villoslada, Ricardo (1986). San Ignacio de Loyola: Nueva biografía (in Spanish). La Editorial Católica. ISBN 84-220-1267-7. We deduct that, (...), Iñigo de Loyola should have been born before 23 October 1491.
  2. ^ Idígoras Tellechea, José Ignacio (1994). "When was he born? His nurse's account". Ignatius of Loyola: The Pilgrim Saint. Chicago: Loyola University Press. p. 45. ISBN 0-8294-0779-0.
  3. ^ Ignatius of Loyola (1970). The constitutions of the society of Jesus. Translated by Ganss, George E. Institute of Jesuit Sources. p. 249 [No. 529]. The entire meaning of this fourth vow of obedience to the pope was and is in regard to the missions ... this obedience is treated: in everything which the sovereign pontiff commands.
  4. ^ Nugent, Donald (1974). Ecumenism in the Age of the Reformation: The Colloquy of Poissy. Harvard University Press. p. 189. ISBN 0-674-23725-0.
  5. ^ "Summer Fiestas" (PDF). euskadi.net. Retrieved 24 July 2008.
  6. ^ a b c d Wikisource-logo.svg John Hungerford Pollen (1913). "St.IgnatiusLoyola" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  7. ^ "Nombres: Eneko". Euskaltzaindia (The Royal Academy of the Basque Language). Retrieved 23 April 2009. Article in Spanish
  8. ^ Verd, Gabriel María (1976). "El "Íñigo" de San Ignacio de Loyola". Archivum Historicum Societatis Iesu (in Spanish). Roma: Institutum Historicum Societatis Iesu. 45: 95–128. ISSN 0037-8887.
  9. ^ Verd, Gabriel María (1991). "De Iñigo a Ignacio. El cambio de nombre en San Ignacio de Loyola". Archivum Historicum Societatis Iesu (in Spanish). Roma: Institutum Historicum Societatis Iesu. 60: 113–160. ISSN 0037-8887. That St. Ignatius of Loyola's name was changed is a known fact, but it cannot be said that it is widely known in the historiography of the saint—neither the characteristics of the names Iñigo and Ignacio nor the reasons for the change. It is first necessary to make clear the meaning of the names; they are distinct, despite the persistently held opinion in onomastic (dictionaries) and popular thought. In Spain Ignacio and Iñigo are at times used interchangeably just as if they were Jacobo and Jaime. With reference to the name Iñigo, it is fitting to give some essential notions to eliminate ambiguities and help understand what follows. This name first appears on the Ascoli brome (dated November 18, 90 BC), in a list of Spanish knights belonging to a Turma salluitana or Saragossan. It speaks of Elandus Enneces f[ilius], and according to Menéndez Pidal the final «s» is the «z» of Spanish patronymics, and could be nothing other than Elando Iñiguez. It is an ancestral Hispanic name. Ignacio, on the other hand, is a Latin name. In classical Latin there is Egnatius with an initial E. It appears only twice with an initial I (Ignatius) in the sixty volumes of the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. This late Latin and Greek form prevailed. In the classical period Egnatius was used as a nomen (gentilitial name) and not as a praenomen (first name) or cognomen (surname), except in very rare cases. (...) The most important conclusion, perhaps unexpected, but not unknown, is that St. Ignatius did not change his name. That is to say, he did not intend to change it. What he did was to adopt for France and Italy a name which he believed was a simple variant of his own, and which was more acceptable among foreigners.... If he had remained in Spain, he would have, without doubt, remained Iñigo.
  10. ^ Page 9, Ignatius of Loyola, the Psychology of a Saint; W.W Meissner SJ MD, Yale University Press, 1992
  11. ^ "Saint Ignatius of Loyola's Vision of Christ and God the Father at La Storta". lacma.org. Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA). 30 November 2016.
  12. ^ Ironically, the Song of Roland has Roland being slain by Moors, when historically his death was at the hands of Basques like Íñigo himself.
  13. ^ a b c Richard Cohen (5 August 2003). By the Sword: A History of Gladiators, Musketeers, Samurai, Swashbucklers, and Olympic Champions. Modern Library Paperbacks.
  14. ^ a b c d e Traub, S.J.,George and Mooney, Ph.D., Debra. A Biography of St. Ignatius Loyola, Xavier University
  15. ^ In Spanish the title was "Gentilhombre", but this should not be understood as synonymous with the English term gentleman, which denotes a man of good family. See Thomas Rochford, Ignatius Loyola: the pilgrim and man of prayer who founded the Society of Jesus "St. Ignatius Loyola: the pilgrim and man of prayer who founded the Society of Jesus", accessed 15 November 2007.]
  16. ^ Rochford, Thomas. "St. Ignatius Loyola: the pilgrim and man of prayer who founded the Society of Jesus". Society of Jesus. Retrieved 15 November 2007.
  17. ^ De Vita Christi is a commentary on the Gospels, using extracts from the works of over sixty Church Fathers, and particularly quoting from St Gregory the Great, St Basil, St Augustine and the Venerable Bede. This work took Ludolph forty years to complete.
  18. ^ Sr Mary Immaculate Bodenstedt, "The Vita Christi of Ludolphus the Carthusian", a Dissertation, Washington: Catholic University of America Press 1944 British Library Catalogue No. Ac2692.y/29.(16).
  19. ^ "The Vita Christi" by Charles Abbot Conway Analecta Cartusiana 34
  20. ^ "Ludolph's Life of Christ" by Father Henry James Coleridge in The Month Vol. 17 (New Series VI) July–December 1872, pp. 337–370
  21. ^ a b Margo J. Heydt; Sarah J. Melcher (May 2008). "Mary, the Hidden Catalyst: Reflections from an Ignatian Pilgrimage to Spain and Rome". Xavier University.
  22. ^ "The Cave an artistic heritage". The Cave. Place of pilgrimage and worship. Retrieved 4 August 2014.
  23. ^ Jean Lacouture, Jesuits, A Multibiography, Washington, D.C.: Counterpoint, 1995, p. 18.
  24. ^ Demski, Eric (2014). Living by the Sword. Bloomington, Indiana: Trafford Publishing. p. 289. ISBN 978-1-490-73607-5. ISBN 1-49073607-7.
  25. ^ Twelve years later, standing before the Pope with his companions, Ignatius would again propose sending his companions as emissaries to Jerusalem. Jean Lacouture, Jesuits, A Multibiography, Washington, D.C.: Counterpoint, 1995, p. 24.
  26. ^ That is, the present-day Complutense University of Madrid, not the newer University of Alcalá established in 1977.
  27. ^ Jesuits, A Multibiography by Jean Lacouture, pp. 27–29, Washington, D.C.: Counterpoint, 1995
  28. ^ Michael Servetus Research Website that includes graphical documents in the University of Paris of: Ignations of Loyola, Francis Xavier, Alfonso Salmerón, Nicholas Bobadilla, Peter Faber and Simao Rodrigues, as well as Michael de Villanueva ("Servetus")
  29. ^ a b History of The World by John Clarke Ridpath, Vol. V, pp. 238, New York: Merrill & Baker, 1899
  30. ^ "Saint Ignatius of Loyola | Biography & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  31. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg J.H. Pollen (1913). "History of the Jesuits Before the 1773 Suppression" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  32. ^ Ignatius of Loyola (1970). The constitutions of the society of Jesus. Translated by Ganss, George E. Institute of Jesuit Sources. p. 249. Carried and directed by Divine Providence through the agency of the superior as if he were a lifeless body which allows itself to be carried to any place and to be treated in any manner desired.
  33. ^ Painter, F. V. N. (1903). A History of Education. International Education Series. 2. New York: D. Appleton and Company. p. 167.
  34. ^ Jesuitas (1583). "SEXTA PARS – CAP. 1". Constitutiones Societatis Iesu: cum earum declarationibus (in Latin).
  35. ^ Ignatius of Loyola (1970). The constitutions of the society of Jesus. Translated by George E. Ganss. Institute of Jesuit Sources. p. 249. Carried and directed by Divine Providence through the agency of the superior as if he were a lifeless body which allows itself to be carried to any place and to be treated in any manner desired.
  36. ^ Siraisi, Nancy G. (2001). Medicine and the Italian Universities: 1250-1600. BRILL. ISBN 9004119426.
  37. ^ Martin, Malachi (28 May 2013). Jesuits. Simon and Schuster. pp. 169–170. ISBN 9781476751887. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
  38. ^ de Pablo, José (28 February 2017). "Canonization of St Ignatius of Loyola and St Francis Xavier". Jesuit Conference of European Provincials. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  39. ^ "Welcome to the Archdiocese of Baltimore". Archdiocese of Baltimore.
  40. ^ Tantiangco, Aya (20 July 2016). "PHL film 'Ignacio de Loyola' not just for the religious, say director and star". GMA Network (company). Retrieved 28 July 2016.
  41. ^ "Manresa Iconography – Manresa House of Retreats, Convent, LA".
  42. ^ "Loyola Crests – Loyola High School, Montreal, Quebec, Canada".
  43. ^ "Saint Ignatius' College Riverview". www.riverview.nsw.edu.au.

Further reading

  • Bartoli, Daniello (1855). History of the Life and Institute of St. Ignatius de Loyola: Founder of the Society of Jesus. New York: Edward Dunigan and Brother.
  • Caraman, Philip (1990). Ignatius Loyola: A Biography of the Founder of the Jesuits'. San Francisco: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-250130-5.
  • August Derleth, St. Ignatius and the Company of Jesus, Vision Books, 1956. LCCN 56-7278
  • Foss, Michael (1969). The Founding of the Jesuits, 1540. Turning Points in History Series. London: Hamilton. ISBN 0-241-01513-8.
  • García Villoslada, Ricardo (1986). San Ignacio de Loyola: Nueva biografía (in Spanish). La Editorial Católica. ISBN 84-220-1267-7.
  • Meissner, William (1992). Ignatius of Loyola: The Psychology of a Saint. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-06079-3.
  • O'Malley, John W. (1993). The First Jesuits. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-30312-1.
  • Life of St. Ignatius of Loyola, TAN Books, 1997. ISBN 978-0-89555-345-4.
  • St. Ignatius of Loyola, TAN Books, 2008. ISBN 978-0-89555-624-0.

External links

Catholic Church titles
New office Superior General of the Society of Jesus
1540–1556
Succeeded by
Diego Laynez
Azpeitia

Azpeitia (meaning 'down the rock' in Basque) is a town and municipality within the province of Gipuzkoa, in the Basque Country of Spain, located on the Urola river a few kilometres east of Azkoitia. Its population is 14,580 (2014). It is located 41 kilometres southwest of Donostia/San Sebastián.

Azpeitia is the birthplace of Ignatius of Loyola. The house of his birth is now preserved as a part of large Jesuit compound, the Sanctuary of Loyola, a major attraction of tourists and pilgrims alike. It is also the birthplace of Renaissance composer Juan de Anchieta.

Azpeitia lies at the foot of the massive Izarraitz towering over the town and much visited by the townspeople. Azpeitia Railway Museum is located in the town.

Bruno Lanteri

Venerable Father Pio Bruno Pancrazio Lanteri, O.M.V., or simply Bruno Lanteri (12 May 1759 – 5 August 1830), was a Catholic priest and founder of the religious congregation of the Oblates of the Virgin Mary in the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia in northwestern Italy in the early 19th century. His spiritual life and work centered on the Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius of Loyola. He was also renowned for challenging Jansenism by distributing books and other publications that promoted the moral theology of St. Alphonsus Liguori, as well as establishing societies to continue this work.Lanteri's cause for canonization was begun in 1920 and he was declared Venerable by Pope Paul VI in 1965.

Capul Church

The San Ignacio de Loyola Parish Church (Spanish: Iglesia Parroquial de San Ignacio de Loyola), commonly known as Capul Church or Fuerza de Capul, is a Roman Catholic fortress church in the municipality of Capul, Northern Samar, Philippines within the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Catarman. It was first established as a mission station by the Jesuits in 1596 under the advocacy of Saint Ignatius of Loyola.

The church was declared a National Cultural Treasure by the National Museum of the Philippines.

Cathedral of St. Ignatius Loyola (Palm Beach, Florida)

The Cathedral of St. Ignatius Loyola is a Roman Catholic Cathedral situated in Palm Beach Gardens, Florida. It is the seat of the Diocese of Palm Beach, which administers to the counties of Palm Beach, Martin, Okeechobee, St. Lucie, and Indian River. The diocese oversees 49 individual parishes. The current bishop is Gerald Barbarito.

Cathedral of St. Ignatius of Loyola

Cathedral of St. Ignatius of Loyola may refer to:

Cathedral of St. Ignatius of Loyola, Palm Beach, United States

Cathedral of St. Ignatius of Loyola, Pinheiro, Brazil

St. Ignatius Cathedral, Shanghai, China

Cathedral of St. Ignatius of Loyola, Vilnius, Lithuania

Ignacio de Loyola

Ignacio de Loyola (lit. Ignatius of Loyola) is a 2016 Philippine historical biographical religious drama film directed by Paolo Dy in his directorial debut. It is based on the memoirs of Ignatius of Loyola, founder of the Jesuit order who was canonized as a saint in the Catholic Church. The film stars Andreas Muñoz, a Spanish actor who portrays the titular character in the film.

Ignatian Pedagogical Paradigm

The Ignatian pedagogical paradigm is a way of learning and a method of teaching taken from the Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius of Loyola. It is based in St. Ignatius Loyola's Spiritual Exercises, and takes a holistic view of the world.The three main elements are Experience, Reflection, and Action. A pre-learning element, Context, and a post-learning element, Evaluation, are also necessary for the method's success, bringing the total to five elements. Ignatian pedagogy uses this dynamic five-step method along with an Ignatian vision of the human and the world to "accompany the learner in their growth and development."The Ignatian pedagogical paradigm is also used in spiritual retreats and learning experiences as an active means of developing and questioning one's own conscience, as well as in making sound and conscientious decisions.

List of saints of the Society of Jesus

The list of saints of the Society of Jesus here is alphabetical. It includes Jesuit saints from Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas. Since the founder of the Jesuits, St Ignatius of Loyola, was canonised in 1622, there have been 52 other Jesuits canonised.

List of schools in the Toronto Catholic District School Board

The Toronto Catholic District School Board governs 196 schools in the Toronto area that makes up 163 elementary schools, 28 secondary schools, 3 schools that combine both elementary and secondary grades, and 2 alternative schools.

Loyola High School (Los Angeles)

Loyola High School of Los Angeles is a Jesuit preparatory school for young men. It is the oldest high school and continuously run educational institution in Southern California. Loyola is located in the Pico-Union neighborhood, 2 miles (3 km) west of downtown Los Angeles, and just north of Interstate 10 (the Santa Monica Freeway). It admits students from 220 ZIP codes in the greater Los Angeles area, as they prioritize diversity in their study body and in the teaching staff. Service of others is a major part of the school program. The school teaches the young men to be a "man for others" Tuition & fees for a freshman in the 2018-2019 school year are $21,080.

Madonna Della Strada

Madonna Della Strada or Santa Maria Della Strada — the Italian for Our Lady of the Wayside, or Our Lady of the Good Road — is the name of an image of the Blessed Virgin Mary, enshrined at the Church of the Gesù in Rome, mother church of the Society of Jesus religious order of the Roman Catholic Church and is a variation on the Eastern basilissa (imperial) type of icon.The Madonna Della Strada is the patroness of the Society of Jesus. Its founder, Ignatius of Loyola, was said to have been protected by the intercession of the Blessed Virgin Mary during battle in his service as a soldier.

San Ignacio, Chalatenango

San Ignacio is a municipality of El Salvador.

It is located in the department of Chalatenango, to a distance of 87 km. from San Salvador, and to 8 km. of the international border with Honduras.

This municipality takes his name in honor to Ignatius of Loyola. Their celebrations are from July 23 to July 31.

Sant'Ignazio, Rome

The Church of St. Ignatius of Loyola at Campus Martius (Italian: Chiesa di Sant'Ignazio di Loyola in Campo Marzio, Latin: Ecclesia Santi Ignatii a Loyola in Campo Martio) is a Roman Catholic titular church, of deaconry rank, dedicated to Ignatius of Loyola, the founder of the Society of Jesus, located in Rome, Italy. Built in Baroque style between 1626 and 1650, the church functioned originally as the chapel of the adjacent Roman College, that moved in 1584 to a new larger building and was renamed the Pontifical Gregorian University.

Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius of Loyola

The Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius of Loyola (Latin original: Exercitia spiritualia), composed 1522–1524, are a set of Christian meditations, contemplations, and prayers written by Saint Ignatius of Loyola, a 16th-century Spanish priest, theologian, and founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). Divided into four thematic "weeks" of variable length, they are designed to be carried out over a period of 28 to 30 days. They were composed with the intention of helping participants in religious retreats to discern the will of God in their lives, leading to a personal commitment to follow Jesus whatever the cost. Their underlying theology has been found agreeable to other Christian denominations who make use of them and also for addressing problems facing society in the 21st century.

St. Ignatius of Loyola Catholic Secondary School

St. Ignatius of Loyola Catholic Secondary School is a separate school in Oakville, Ontario. The school teaches curriculum based on the Catholic faith, and has close ties with the Diocese of Hamilton and the local church, St. Matthew's Parish.

St. Ignatius of Loyola Church, Montreal

St. Ignatius Church is a Roman Catholic Parish church in Notre-Dame-de-Grâce, Montreal West, Quebec. It was founded by the Society of Jesus in 1917 as an English-speaking parish. It is next to Loyola High School and the Loyola Campus of Concordia University.

Universidad San Ignacio de Loyola

St. Ignatius of Loyola University (Spanish: Universidad San Ignacio de Loyola) (USIL) is a private university located in Lima, Peru, part of a group of educational institutions founded in 1995 by former Peruvian Vice President Raúl Diez Canseco, along with an institute and two schools. Its Undergraduate Programme consists of 8 schools and 33 careers, though it does have a Graduate Programme. USIL has a strong focus on entrepreneurship and hospitality management, consistent with its mission statement, which is "to shape competent entrepreneurial professionals who are socially responsible and capable of performing successfully, both domestically and internationally".

University of Messina

The University of Messina (Italian: Università degli Studi di Messina, UNIME) is a public university located in Messina, Italy. Founded in 1548 by Ignatius of Loyola, it became the model for hundreds of Jesuit colleges. The university is organized in 11 Faculties.

Wellington Catholic District School Board

The Wellington Catholic District School Board is a school board in Ontario, Canada, serving the students of the City of Guelph and Wellington County. There are 4 high schools and 18 elementary schools serving roughly 8000 students.

Lineage
García López de Oñaz
Lope de Oñaz
López García de OñazInés, dame of
Loyola (~1261)
Inés de Oñaz y Loyola
(~end of the 13th century)
Juan Pérez
Juan Pérez
Gil López de Oñaz5 other brothers
(see – battle of Beotibar)
Beltrán Yáñez
(el Ibáñez) de Loyola
Ochanda Martínez de
Leete from Azpeitia
Lope García
de Lazcano
Sancha Ibáñez
de Loyola
Sancha Pérez de Iraeta
(+1473)
Juan Pérez de LoyolaMaria BeltrancheElviraEmiliaJuanecha
Don Beltrán Yáñez
(vel Ibáñez)
de Oñaz y Loyola
(~ 1507)
Doña Marina Sáenz
(vel Sánchez) de Licona
Sancha Ibáñez
de Loyola
Magdalena de AraozOchoa Pérez
de Loyola
Pero López
de Oñaz
y Loyola
Juaniza
(vel Joaneiza)
de Loyola
Maria Beltrán de LoyolaJuan Pérez de Loyola
Juan Beltrán
de Loyola
Beltrán de LoyolaHernando de LoyolaMagdalena de LoyolaPetronila de LoyolaIñigo López de Loyola
Notes:
History
Saints
Popes
Theology
General
Related
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Early Church
Late antiquity
Early Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
19th century
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General
Early Church
Early Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
Mysticism and reforms
19th century
20th century
21st century

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