Ignacy Jan Paderewski

Ignacy Jan Paderewski (Polish: [iɡˈnatsɨ ˈjan padɛˈrɛfskʲi]; 18 November [O.S. 6 November] 1860 – 29 June 1941) was a Polish pianist and composer, freemason,[1] politician, statesman and spokesman for Polish independence.[2] He was a favorite of concert audiences around the world. His musical fame opened access to diplomacy and the media.

Paderewski played an important role in meeting with President Woodrow Wilson and obtaining the explicit inclusion of independent Poland as point 13 in Wilson's peace terms in 1918, called the Fourteen Points.[3] He was the Prime Minister of Poland and also Poland's foreign minister in 1919, and represented Poland at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He served 10 months as prime minister, and soon thereafter left Poland, never to return.[4]

Ignacy Jan Paderewski
Ignacy Jan Paderewski
Paderewski circa 1935
3rd Prime Minister of Poland
2nd Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland
In office
18 January 1919 – 27 November 1919
Preceded byJędrzej Moraczewski
Succeeded byLeopold Skulski
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
16 January 1919 – 9 December 1919
Preceded byLeon Wasilewski
Succeeded byWładysław Wróblewski
Chief of the National Council of Poland
In office
9 December 1939 – 29 June 1941
Personal details
Born6 November 1860
Kuryłówka, Podolia
Died29 June 1941 (aged 80)
New York City, U.S.
Professionpianist, composer, politician
Signature
Ignacy Jan Paderewski's signature

Early life and education

Paderewski was born to Polish parents in the village of Kuryłówka (Kurilivka), Litin uyezd in the Podolia Governorate of the Russian Empire, which had been part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth for centuries. The village today is part of the Khmilnyk raion of Vinnytsia Oblast in Ukraine. His father, Jan Paderewski, was an administrator of large estates. His mother, Poliksena, née Nowicka, died several months after Paderewski was born, and he was brought up by distant relatives.

Lawrence Alma-Tadema, Portret Ignacego Jana Paderewskiego (1860-1941)
A portrait of Ignacy Jan Paderewski, by painter Lawrence Alma-Tadema, 1890
IJ Paderewski young man
Paderewski photographed early in his career

From his early childhood, Paderewski was interested in music while living at the private estate near Żytomir, where he moved with his father. However, soon after his father's arrest in connection with the January Uprising (1863), he was adopted by his aunt. After being released, Paderewski's father married again and moved to the town of Sudylkov, near Shepetovka.

Initially, he took piano lessons with a private tutor. At the age of 12, in 1872, he went to Warsaw and was admitted to the Warsaw Conservatory. After graduating in 1878, he was asked to become a tutor of piano classes at his alma mater, a position he accepted. In 1880, Paderewski married a fellow student at the conservatory Antonina Korsakówna. The following year, their son was born severely handicapped; Antonina never recovered from childbirth and died several weeks later. Paderewski decided to devote himself to music; he left his son in the care of friends, and in 1881 went to Berlin to study music composition with Friedrich Kiel[5] and Heinrich Urban. A chance meeting in 1884 with a famous Polish actress, Helena Modrzejewska, set him on a course of a career as a virtuoso pianist. Modrzejewska arranged for a public concert and appearance together in Kraków's Hotel Saski to raise funds for Paderewski's further piano study. The scheme was a tremendous success and he moved to Vienna, where he became a pupil of the pre-eminent pedagogue of Polish descent, Theodor Leschetizky[6] (Teodor Leszetycki).

Pianist, composer, and supporter of new composers

IgnacyJanPaderewski
Paderewski the pianist

After three years of diligent study and a teaching appointment in Strasbourg arranged for by Leschetizky, Paderewski made his concert debut in Vienna in 1887. He soon gained great popularity and his subsequent appearances (in Paris in 1889 and in London in 1890)[6] were major successes. His brilliant playing created a furor that reached to almost extravagant lengths of admiration; and his triumphs were repeated in America in 1891.[6] A large part of his great success stemmed from his stage presence and his striking looks. Paderewski had immense charisma, which would prove equally important in his political and charitable activities. In 1891 the pianist set for a tour of the United States, which brought him great acclaim and fortune as well as access to the halls of power. His name at once became synonymous with the highest level of piano virtuosity.[6] Not everyone was equally impressed, however. After hearing Paderewski for the first time, Moriz Rosenthal said: "Yes, he plays well, I suppose, but he's no Paderewski".[7] America became the place he toured most often (over 30 times in 50 years) and his second home.

Paderewski kept up a furious pace of touring and composition, including many of his own pieces for piano in his concerts. He also wrote an opera, Manru, which to date has been the only opera by a Polish composer ever performed in the Metropolitan Opera's 135-year history. A “lyric drama,” Manru is an ambitious work formally inspired by Wagner's music dramas; it lacks an overture and closed-form arias, rather employing Wagner's device of leitmotifs to represent characters and ideas. The story centers on a doomed love triangle, social inequality and racial prejudice (Manru is a Gypsy) and is set in the Tatra Mountains. In addition to the Met, Manru was staged in Dresden[6] (in a private royal viewing), Lviv (its official premiere in 1901), Prague, Cologne, Zurich, Warsaw, Philadelphia, Boston, Chicago, Pittsburgh and Baltimore, Moscow, and Kiev. In 1904, Paderewski, accompanied by his second wife, entourage, parrot, and Erard piano, gave concerts in Australia and New Zealand, in collaboration with Polish-French composer, Henri Kowalski.[8] Paderewski toured tirelessly around the world, and was the first to give a solo performance at the new 3,000-seat Carnegie Hall. In 1909 came the premiere of his Symphony in B minor "Polonie", a massive work lasting 75 minutes. Paderewski's compositions were quite popular during his lifetime and for a time entered the orchestral repertoire, in particular his Fantaisie polonaise sur des thèmes originaux (Polish Fantasy on original themes) for piano and orchestra, piano Concerto in A minor, and Polonie symphony. His piano miniatures became especially popular; the Minuet in G major, Op. 14 No. 1 written in the style of Mozart became one of the most recognized piano tunes of all time. And even though his relentless touring schedule and his increasingly more valuable and urgent political and charitable engagements imposed on his composition, Paderewski left a legacy of over 70 orchestral, instrumental and vocal works.

Portrait photograph of Ignace Paderewski
Portrait photograph of Ignace Paderewski

In 1896, Paderewski donated US$10,000 to establish a trust fund to encourage American-born composers. The fund underwrote a triennial competition that began in 1901 called the Paderewski Prize. Paderewski also launched a similar contest in Leipzig in 1898. He was extremely popular internationally, to such an extent that the music hall duo "The Two Bobs" had a hit song in 1916, in music halls across Britain, with the song "When Paderewski Plays". He was a favorite of concert audiences around the globe; women especially admired his performances.[9]

Philanthropy

By the turn of the century, the artist was an extremely wealthy man generously donating to numerous causes and charities, he also sponsored the building of monuments, among them the Washington Arch in New York in 1892. He shared his fortune generously with fellow countrymen, as well as with citizens of many other countries around the world. He provided for many funds and foundations. Among them were: the foundation for young American musicians and for the students of Stanford University (1896), the fund in aid of the Treasury of the Professor of the Parisian Conservatory (1909), the scholarship fund for Ecole Normale (1924), for the students of Moscow Conservatory and Petersburg Conservatory (1899), the funds for the spas in the Alps (1928), for the British Legion. Paderewski generously supported the unemployed (e.g. in Switzerland in 1937) and unemployed musicians in the United States (1932). He also came out in support of the insurance fund for musicians in London (1933) and in aid of Jewish intellectuals (Paris, 1933). He financially supported orphanages and the Maternity Centre in New York. Many concert halls and monuments were built with the artist's financial participation. Among the Paderewski-sponsored monuments were: Debussy (1931) and Colonne (1923) monuments in Paris, Liszt Monument in Weimar, Beethoven Monument in Bonn, Chopin Monument in Zelazowa Wola, the composer's birthplace, Kosciuszko Monument in Chicago, Washington Arch in New York, and many, many others.

California

In 1899, he married his second wife, Baroness de Rosen[6] (1856–1934). In 1913, Paderewski settled in the United States. On the eve of World War I, and at the height of his fame, Paderewski bought a 2,000-acre (810-ha) property, Rancho San Ignacio, near Paso Robles, in San Luis Obispo County, in the Central Coast area of California. A decade later, he planted Zinfandel vines on the Californian property. When the vines matured, the wine was made for him at the nearby York Mountain Winery, then, as now, one of the best-known wineries between Los Angeles and San Francisco.[10]

Politician and diplomat

Ignacy Jan Paderewski - Project Gutenberg eText 15604
Paderewski

In 1910, he funded the erection of the Battle of Grunwald Monument in Kraków, in commemoration of the 500th anniversary of the event. Unveiling of the monument became the occasion of a great patriotic demonstration. Paderewski spoke to the gathered masses and proved to be as adept at capturing their hearts and minds with his oratory for a political cause as he was with his music. He was a great orator, with a passionate delivery and no recourse to notes. The fact that he was an artist and a philanthropist and not a member of any of the Polish political factions fighting for influence over the movement, was one of his greatest assets: he rose above the quarrels, he could legitimately appeal to higher ideals of unity, sacrifice, charity, and work for common goals.

During World War I, Paderewski became an active member of the Polish National Committee in Paris, which was soon accepted by the Entente as the representative of the forces trying to create the state of Poland. He became a spokesman of that organization, and soon also formed other social and political organisations, among them the Polish Relief Fund, in London. It was then that he met the English composer Edward Elgar, who used a theme from Paderewski's Fantasie Polonaise[11] in his work Polonia written for the Polish Relief Fund concert in London on 6 July 1916 (the title no doubt recognising Paderewski's Symphony in B minor).

He agitated among immigrants to join the Polish armed forces in France, and he pressed elbows with all the dignitaries and influential men whose salons he could enter. He spoke to Americans directly in public speeches and on the radio, appealing to them to remember the fate of his nation. He kept such a demanding schedule of public appearances, fundraisers and meetings, that he stopped touring altogether for a few years, dedicating himself to diplomatic activity exclusively. On the eve of the U.S. entry into the war, in January 1917, President Woodrow Wilson's advisor, Colonel House, turned to Paderewski to prepare a memorandum on the Polish issue. Two weeks later, Wilson spoke before Congress and issued a challenge to the status quo, “I take it for granted,” he said, “that statesmen everywhere are agreed that there should be a united, independent, autonomous Poland." The establishment of "New Poland" became one of Wilson's famous Fourteen Points.[3] – principles of peace negotiations to end World War I. In April 1918, he met in New York City with leaders of the American Jewish Committee in an unsuccessful attempt to broker a deal whereby organised Jewish groups would support Polish territorial ambitions in exchange for support for equal rights. However, it soon became clear that no plan would satisfy both Jewish leaders and Roman Dmowski, head of the Polish National Committee, who was strongly anti-Semitic.[12]

At the end of the war, with the fate of the city of Poznań and the whole region of Greater Poland (Wielkopolska) still undecided, Paderewski visited Poznań. With his public speech on 27 December 1918, the Polish inhabitants of Poznań began a military uprising against Germany, called the Greater Poland Uprising. He worked hard to get Dmowski and Józef Piłsudski to collaborate, but Piłsudski won out.

5 Warszawa 114
Monument to Paderewski in Warsaw's Ujazdów Park

In 1919, in the newly-independent Poland, Piłsudski, who was the Chief of State, appointed Paderewski as the Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs (January 1919 – December 1919). He and Dmowski represented Poland at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference, dealing with issues regarding territorial claims and minority rights.[13] Paderewski then brought hard evidence of Soviet atrocities to international attention, such as the targeting of Jews during the Polish–Soviet War, when the Soviet Union failed to conquer Poland.[14] He signed the Treaty of Versailles, which recognized Polish independence won after WWI and the subsequent Soviet invasion was halted.

Paderewski's government achieved remarkable milestones in just ten months: democratic elections to Parliament, ratification of the Versailles Treaty, passage of the treaty on protection of ethnic minorities in the new state, establishment of a public education system. It also tackled border disputes, unemployment, ethnic and social strife, the outbreak of epidemics and it averted looming famine after the devastation of war. After the elections, Paderewski resigned his Prime Minister's post, but, however, he continued to represent Poland abroad at International conferences and at the League of Nations. Thanks to his diplomatic skills – he was the only delegate who was not assigned a translator, as he was fluent in seven languages – and great personal esteem, Poland was able to negotiate thorny issues with her neighbours Ukraine and Germany and gain international respect in the process.

Return to music

In 1922, he retired from politics and returned to his musical life. His first concert after a long break, held at Carnegie Hall, was a significant success. He also filled Madison Square Garden (20,000 seats) and toured the United States in a private railway car.[15]

Manor House Ignacy Paderewski Kasna Dolna Ciezkowice Tarnow Poland1
His manor house (bought in 1897) in Kąśna Dolna near Tarnów in Poland

Soon he moved to Morges in Switzerland. After Piłsudski's coup d'état in 1926, Paderewski became an active member of the opposition to Sanacja rule. In 1936, a coalition of members of the opposition was signed in his mansion; it was nicknamed the Front Morges after the name of the village.

By 1936, two years after the death of his wife, Paderewski consented to appear in a film presenting his talent and art on the screen. This proposal had come at a time when Paderewski did not wish to appear in public. However, the film project did proceed, and the selected film script was an opportunity to feature Paderewski. The film was directed by the exiled German-born director, Lothar Mendes, released in Britain as Moonlight Sonata in 1937, re-titled The Charmer for United States distribution in 1943; it is notable, primarily, for its rare footage of his performance on the piano.

In November 1937, Paderewski agreed to take on one last pupil for the piano. This musician was Witold Małcużyński who had won third place at the International Chopin Piano Competition.

Return to politics

After the Polish Defensive War of 1939, Paderewski returned to public life. In 1940, he became the head of the National Council of Poland, a Polish parliament in exile in London. He turned to America for help as well. He spoke to the American people directly over the radio, the most popular media at the time; the broadcast carried by over a hundred radio stations in the United States and Canada. In late 1940, he crossed the Atlantic again to advocate in person for the cause of aiding Europe and defeating Nazism. In 1941, he witnessed a touching tribute to his artistry and humanitarianism as US cities celebrated the 50th anniversary of his first American tour by putting on a Paderewski Week with over 6000 concerts in his honour. The 80-year-old artist also restarted his Polish Relief Fund and gave several concerts to gather money for it. However, his mind was not what it had once been: scheduled again to play Madison Square Garden, he refused to appear, insisting that he had already played the concert, presumably remembering the concert he had played there in the 1920s.[15]

Fortepian Paderewskiego
Paderewski's Steinway & Sons grand piano[16]

Death

Paderewski was taken ill during one such tour, on June 27, 1941. Nothing was discussed with his personal secretary or entourage, but at the initiative of Sylwin Strakacz, physicians were called in for consultation and they diagnosed pneumonia. Despite signs of improving health and recovery, Paderewski died in New York at 11:00 p.m., June 29, aged 80. He was temporarily laid in repose in the crypt of the USS Maine Mast Memorial at Arlington National Cemetery, in Arlington, Virginia, near Washington, D.C. In 1992, his body was brought to Warsaw and placed in St. John's Archcathedral. His heart is encased in a bronze sculpture in the National Shrine of Our Lady of Czestochowa near Doylestown, Pennsylvania.[17]

Early in 1941, the music publisher Boosey & Hawkes had commissioned 17 prominent composers to contribute a solo piano piece each for an album to commemorate the 50th anniversary of Paderewski's American debut in 1891. His death in June caused the album to become a posthumous tribute to his entire life and work. Homage to Paderewski was published in 1942.

Museum display

The Polish Museum of America[18] in Chicago received a donation of the personal possessions of Ignacy Jan Paderewski following his death in June 1941. Both Ignacy Paderewski and his sister, Antonina Paderewska Wilkonska were enthusiastic supporters and generous sponsors of the Museum. Antonina, executor of Ignacy's will, decided to donate these personal possessions to the Museum, as well as artifacts from his apartment in New York. This space was officially opened on 3 November 1941.

Memorials and tributes

Paderewski hollywood
Paderewski's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame

In 1948, the Ignacy Paderewski Foundation was established in New York City, on the initiative of the Polish community in New York with the goal of promoting Polish culture in the United States.[19] Two other Polish-American organizations are also named in his honor and dedicated to promoting the legacy of the maestro: the Paderewski Association in Chicago as well as the Paderewski Music Society in Southern California.

In the Irving Berlin song, "I Love a Piano", recorded in 1916 by Billy Murray,[20] the narrator says:

"And with the pedal, I love to meddle/When Paderewski comes this way./I'm so delighted, when I'm invited/To hear that long-haired genius play." [21]

Due to the unusual combination of the notable achievements of being a world-class pianist and a successful politician, Saul Kripke used Paderewski in a famous philosophical example in his article "A Puzzle about Belief".[22] Paderewski was so famous that in the 1953 motion picture The 5,000 Fingers of Dr. T, written by Theodor Seuss Geisel, better known as Dr. Seuss, piano teacher Terwilliker tells his pupils that he will "make a Paderewski" out of them.

Two music festivals honouring Paderewski are celebrated in the United States, both in November. The first Paderewski Festival has been held each year since 1993, in Paso Robles, California. The second Paderewski Festival - Raleigh has been held since 2014 in Raleigh, North Carolina.

The facade of White Eagle Hall in Jersey City, New Jersey is adorned with busts of Polish heroes Ignacy Jan Paderewski, Casimir Pulaski, Tadeusz Kosciuszko and Henryk Sienkiewicz.[23]

Honours and awards

Paderewski 1960 issue
United States commemorative stamp honoring Paderewski, 1960 issue
4-cent version

There are streets and schools named after Paderewski in many major cities in Poland. There are also streets named after him in Perth Amboy, New Jersey, and Buffalo, New York. In addition, the Academy of Music in Poznań is named after him. Paderewski has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in Los Angeles, awarded in 1960.[24]

On 8 October 1960, the United States Post Office Department released two stamps commemorating Ignacy Jan Paderewski.[25] Poland also honored him with postage stamps on at least three occasions.

Romanian Crown Order,1899.

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.loza-galileusz.pl/en/1.polscy.wolnomularze.php
  2. ^ Carol R. Ember; Melvin Ember; Ian Skoggard (2005). Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World. Springer. p. 260. ISBN 0306483211.
  3. ^ a b Hanna Marczewska-Zagdanska, and Janina Dorosz, "Wilson - Paderewski - Masaryk: Their Visions of Independence and Conceptions of how to Organize Europe," Acta Poloniae Historica (1996), Issue 73, pp 55-69. ISSN 0001-6829
  4. ^ Hartman, Carl. "Paderewski Remains Begin Journey Home", Associated Press via The Daily News (26 June 1992).
  5. ^ Paderewski, Ignacy Jan. Małgorzata Perkowska-Waszek (ed.). "Letters of Ignacy Jan Paderewski (A Selection)" (PDF). Translated by Cara Thornton. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Paderewski, Ignace Jan" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 20 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 443.
  7. ^ Harold C. Schonberg, The Great Pianists, p. 284.
  8. ^ fr:Henri Kowalski
  9. ^ Maja Trochimczyk, "An Archangel at the Piano: Paderewski's Image and His Female Audience," Polish American Studies (2010) 67#1 pp 5-44
  10. ^ "Wine Talk" The New York Times, 5 July 1995
  11. ^ Correspondence between Elgar and Paderewski
  12. ^ Riff, 1992, 89–90
  13. ^ Prazmowska, Anita (2010). Makers of the Modern World: Ignacy Paderewski, Poland. Haus Publishing Ltd. pp. 76–97. ISBN 978-1-905791-70-5.
  14. ^ LEMBERG POGROMS WERE NOT BY POLES - Caused, Paderewski Says, by Ukrainians Who Opened Jails and Armed Criminals, The New York Times, 2 June 1919
  15. ^ a b Oscar Levant, The Unimportance of Being Oscar, Pocket Books 1969 (reprint of G.P. Putnam 1968), p. 125–126, ISBN 0-671-77104-3
  16. ^ "Paderewski's Piano", Smithsonian magazine. Accessed 11 March 2010
  17. ^ "Background of Ignacy Jan Paderewski" Archived 24 November 2005 at the Wayback Machine. Arlington National Cemetery.
  18. ^ Polish Museum of America Archived 5 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine home page
  19. ^ "Ignacy Paderewski (1860–1941)". Government of Poland.
  20. ^ The Online Discographical Project http://78discography.com. Accessed 2018 December 30.
  21. ^ Irving Berlin 'I Love a Piano' Lyrics," http://lyricsfreak.com . Accessed 2018 December 30.
  22. ^ Kripke, Saul. "A Puzzle About Belief" (PDF). p. 449. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
  23. ^ "Mystery Solved: The Four Men on White Eagle Hall". timothyherrick.blogspot.nl. Retrieved 3 May 2017.
  24. ^ "Ignacy Paderewski". WalkOfFame.com. Hollywood Chamber of Commerce.
  25. ^ "8-cent Paderewski". Smithsonian National Postal Museum. Retrieved 7 September 2013.

References

  • Biskupski, M. B. "Paderewski, Polish Politics, and the Battle of Warsaw, 1920," Slavic Review (1987) 46#3 pp. 503–512 in JSTOR
  • Chavez, Melissa, "Paderewski – From Poland to Paso Robles (California): Paderewski's dream returns". Paso Robles Magazine, September 2007
  • Lawton, Mary. Editor. The Paderewski Memoirs. London, Collins, 1939
  • Marczewska-Zagdanska, Hanna; Dorosz, Janina. "Wilson - Paderewski - Masaryk: Their Visions of Independence and Conceptions of how to Organize Europe," Acta Poloniae Historica (1996), Issue 73, pp 55–69.
  • Paderewska, Helena. Paderewski: The Struggle for Polish Independence (1910-1920). Edited by Ilias Chrissochoidis. Stanford, Brave World, 2015, 0692535411
  • Riff, Michael, The Face of Survival: Jewish Life in Eastern Europe Past and Present. Valentine Mitchell, London, 1992, ISBN 0-85303-220-3.
  • Sachs, Harvey. Virtuoso: The Life and Art of Niccolò Paganini, Franz Liszt, Anton Rubinstein, Ignace Jan Paderewski, Fritz Kreisler (1982)
  • Strakacz, Aniela. Paderewski as I Knew Him. (transl. by Halina Chybowska). New Brunswick, Rutgers University Press, 1949
  • Wapiński, Roman (1999). Ignacy Paderewski. Wrocław: Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich. ISBN 83-04-04467-6.
  • Zamoyski, Adam. Paderewski (1982)

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Jędrzej Moraczewski
Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland
1919
Succeeded by
Leopold Skulski
Preceded by
Leon Wasilewski
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1919
Succeeded by
Władysław Wróblewski
Bydgoszcz Ignacy Jan Paderewski Airport

Bydgoszcz Ignacy Jan Paderewski Airport (IATA: BZG, ICAO: EPBY) (Polish: Port lotniczy im. Ignacego Jana Paderewskiego Bydgoszcz-Szwederowo) is a Polish regional airport in the city of Bydgoszcz, Poland. It lies only 3.5 km (2.2 mi) from the city centre. It is the eleventh largest airport in Poland in terms of passenger traffic. The airport served 413,245 passengers in 2018. It features one passenger terminal and four runways, the main being 08/26 which is 2,500 m × 60 m (8,202 ft × 197 ft).

Dominique Ducharme (musician)

Dominique Ducharme (14 May 1840 - 28 December 1899) was a Canadian pianist, organist, and music educator. He studied with Paul Letondal and Charles Wugk Sabatier in Canada before studying for 5 years at the Conservatoire de Paris in France with Antoine Marmontel and François Bazin. In Europe he became acquainted with several notable musicians who influenced his piano and organ technique, including Franz Liszt and Camille Saint-Saëns. He later befriended Ignacy Jan Paderewski in 1889; a relationship which added to his piano teaching the methodology of the Viennese school. He was the organist at the Église du Gesù in Montreal from 1869-1898. In 1896-1897 he was the President of the Académie de musique du Québec. A celebrated piano teacher, his students included Édouard Clarke, Achille Fortier, Alfred La Liberté, William Reed, Émiliano Renaud, and Joseph Saucier.

Homage to Paderewski

Homage to Paderewski is an album of piano pieces by 17 composers, published in 1942 in honour of the Polish pianist, composer and statesman Ignacy Jan Paderewski.

Ignacy Jan Paderewski Polish Institute of Diplomacy

The Ignacy Jan Paderewski Polish Institute of Diplomacy (PID) is a Polish government funded institution reporting to the Minister of Foreign Affairs. The primary goal of the institute is to educate and develop the professional skills of Polish Foreign Service officers. The institute offers a range of courses primarily for MFA employees.

Juliusz Janotha

Juliusz Janotha (b. 1819 – d. 26 June 1883 in Warsaw), was a Polish pianist, composer and teacher of German origin. He was married to Anthony Oleschinsky's daughter Anne Oleschinska, with whom he had a daughter, the pianist and composer Natalia Janotha.Supported by Apollinary Katski, he collected funds for the construction of the Music Institute in Warsaw. After the inauguration in 1861, he took over his piano teaching. He retired in 1879, being so succeeded by Paul de Schlözer. His students include Ignacy Jan Paderewski and Józef Śliwiński. In his last years of life, as reported in the obituary newspaper Echo Muzyczne i Teatralne, at the urging of her daughter, he took over composition and published a number of piano pieces. He was buried in the Powązki Cemetery.

Karol Radziwonowicz

Karol Radziwonowicz (born 1958) is a Polish pianist.

In 1982, Karol Radziwonowicz graduated from the Fryderyk Chopin Academy of Music in Warsaw and won a Fulbright scholarship to study under George Sebok in the School of Music of Indiana University in Bloomington (1987–1988).

Since then, he has become a distinguished pianist concerting in Poland and abroad. Radziwonowicz has been the first in the history of world recordings to record all of piano works of Ignacy Jan Paderewski, he is also famous for his interpretation of Frédéric Chopin and Karol Mikuli.

Manru

Manru is an opera (lyrical drama) in three acts, music by Ignacy Jan Paderewski composed to the libretto by Alfred Nossig (English translation by Henry Edward Krehbiel), based on the novel A Hut Behind the Village (1843) by Józef Ignacy Kraszewski.

Michał Białk

Michał Białk ( born March 4, 1982 Kraków, Poland) is a Polish classical pianist.

Białk began piano lessons at the age of five, and enrolled in the National Ignacy Jan Paderewski Music School in Kraków two years later. He studied in Freiburg im Breisgau, Paris, Amsterdam, Rostock and Vienna. His major teachers include Elza Kolodin, Matthias Kirschnereit and Oleg Maisenberg. Since its debut at the Krakow Philharmonic, he won prizes at international piano competitions in France, Italy, Spain, Poland and Turkey. Michał Białk gives concerts throughout the world, including Musikverein in Vienna, Stadtcasino in Basel, Festspielhaus Baden-Baden, Vienna State Opera, Hamburg Opera, Konserthuset Stockholm, Salle Cortot in Paris.

Minuet in G (Paderewski)

The Minuet in G, Op. 14/1, is a short piano composition by Ignacy Jan Paderewski, which became world-famous, overshadowing his more major works such as the Symphony in B minor "Polonia", the Piano Concerto in A minor, and the opera Manru. The John Philip Sousa band performed a transcription of the piece in Rochester, NY on November 12, 1894. (Warfield 2011, p. 310).

The minuet was written in 1887, the first of six pieces making up his Humoresques de concert, Op. 14. The full set is in two books:

Book I (à l'Antique)

No. 1: Menuet

No. 2: Sarabande

No. 3: Caprice (genre Scarlatti)Book II (moderne)

No. 4: Burlesque

No. 5: Intermezzo polacco

No. 6: Cracovienne fantastique.

Moonlight Sonata (film)

Moonlight Sonata is a 1937 British drama film directed by Lothar Mendes and written by E. M. Delafield and Edward Knoblock. The film stars Ignacy Jan Paderewski, Charles Farrell, Marie Tempest, Barbara Greene and Eric Portman. The film was released on 11 February 1937, by United Artists

and re-released in 1943 as The Charmer (shortened).

National Shrine of Our Lady of Czestochowa

The National Shrine of Our Lady of Czestochowa (or simply Czestochowa), known also as the American Czestochowa is a Polish-American Roman Catholic shrine near Doylestown, Pennsylvania, founded in 1953. It houses a reproduction of the Black Madonna icon of Częstochowa, Poland. The heart of Poland's second prime minister, Ignacy Jan Paderewski, is also preserved there.

Polish Music Publishing House

The Polish Music Publishing House (Polish: 'Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne', abbreviated as PWM) is a music publishing house based in Kraków, Poland. It was founded in 1945 and was the only music publisher in Poland for several years. In 2012 it released the twelfth volume of Encyclopedia of Music, edited by Elżbieta Dziębowska.The Polish Music Publishing House publishes the complete works of Frédéric Chopin, Mieczysław Karłowicz, Stanisław Moniuszko and Karol Szymanowski. The publisher also sells works by Grażyna Bacewicz, Tadeusz Baird, Ignacy Feliks Dobrzyński, Józef Elsner, Wojciech Kilar, Ignacy Jan Paderewski and Kazimierz Serocki in addition to traditional Polish music. It also publishes books, audiobooks, music guides and lexicons.The publisher's hire library in Warsaw lends items for performances and recordings to choirs, ensembles, orchestras and theatres.

Polish National Committee (1917–19)

Polish National Committee (Polish: Komitet Narodowy Polski) was formed in Lausanne on 15 August 1917 by Polish National Democracy politician Roman Dmowski. Its goal was to support the Entente by creating a Polish Army (the Blue Army under Józef Haller), to fight alongside it in exchange of support for an independent Poland. In addition to Dmowski its chief activists included Ignacy Jan Paderewski, August Zaleski, Erazm Piltz, Marian Seyda and Maurycy Zamoyski. In September 1917, the Polish National Committee was recognized by the French as the legitimate representative of Poland. The British and the Americans were less enthusiastic about Dmowski's National Committee, but likewise recognized it as representing Polish interests in 1918. In January 1919 the Committee recognized the government of Ignacy Jan Paderewski and dissolved itself.

Polish National Department

Polish National Department (PND, Polish: Wydział Narodowy Polski, WNP) was a major organization of Polish-American Polonia in United States around and after World War I. It organized relief for war-torn and newly independent Second Polish Republic. Prominent activists included world-famous pianist and future prime minister of Poland, Ignacy Jan Paderewski.

PND was aligned to Polish endecja faction of Roman Dmowski, and opposed to Committee of National Defense (CND, Komitet Obrony Narodowej, KON), aligned to Józef Piłsudski's faction.

Pomeranian Philharmonic

The Ignacy Jan Paderewski Pomeranian Philharmonic (Polish: Państwowa Filharmonia Pomorska imienia Ignacego Jana Paderewskiego) has been at its present site in Bydgoszcz, Poland, since 16 November 1953. The Pomeranian Philharmonic is the musical center of Kujawy-Pomerania Province and also features an outdoor art gallery. It is registered on the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship Heritage List.

Salle Érard

The salle Érard is a music venue located in Paris, 13 rue du Mail in the 2nd arrondissement of Paris.

It is part of the hôtel particulier which belonged, from the 18th century, to the Érard family of piano, harp and harpsichord manufacturers.

Small in size, but well isolated from the noises of the city, enjoying good acoustics, it is more particularly adapted to chamber music.During the 19th and the beginning of the 20th, it was the place of premières and debuts noted for both compositions and for interpreters, among which:

Érik Satie (orchestrations of his Gymnopédies by Claude Debussy),

Jacques Ibert, les histoires (ten pieces for piano) (1923),

Nellie Melba,

Ricardo Viñes,

Maurice Ravel, Miroirs (1906) , Menuet antique (1892), Histoires naturelles with Jane Bathori (1907), Sonate pour violon et piano (1927), Trois poèmes de Mallarmé (1914),

Camille Saint-Saens (1860).,

Ignacy Jan Paderewski (1888),

Claude Debussy, Triptyque Estampes (1904), Le Promenoir des deux amants (1911),

Alexander Scriabin (1896),

Joseph Jongen,

André Caplet , Conte fantastique with Micheline Kahn as the harpist, (1923)

Vladimir de Pachmann (1882),

Charles Valentin Alkan (1837) and (1880),

Francis Poulenc,

Reynaldo Hahn, pianist Édouard Risler (1908),

Ernest Chausson, Viviane (1883),

César Franck, Le Chasseur maudit (1883),

Arthur Honegger, Le Cahier romand (1924),

Olivier Messiaen, Huit préludes (1930),

Maurice Delage, Sept haï-kaïs (1925),

Quatre poèmes hindous (1914),

Francis Planté,Stéphan Elmas ou Youra Guller.

Before the construction of the Maison de la Radio (1963), the hall served as a recording studio for the Radiodiffusion française.

Nowadays, only the salon sees the organization of concerts, the volumes of the proper room having been reconverted (the volume of spaces is suggested by the organization of the roofs as well as the old entrance facade at No. 11 rue Paul Lelong - Paris 02). Nevertheless, it remains prized for its acoustics and its past charged with both musical and artistic history.

Stanislas Niedzielski

Stanislas Niedzielski (1905–1975) was a Polish pianist, noted for his playing of Chopin. His given name is also seen as Stanislaw or Stanislaus. Also related to the niedzielski’s in Canada.

He was born in Warsaw, Poland in 1905 and studied with Józef Śliwiński and Henryk Opieński in Poland, and with Ignacy Jan Paderewski in Switzerland. He gave his first concert in London in 1925. He played Cyril Scott's Piano Concerto No. 1 in March 1928, with the Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra under Sir Dan Godfrey (the source refers to him as a "teenager", but he appears to have been about 23).

On 18 January 1930, in Madrid, he gave the first performance of Joaquín Turina's Contes d'Espagne, Set II, Op. 47.He toured to many countries, including frequent performances in South Africa, Australia and New Zealand.For a performance at Birmingham Town Hall around 1950 he brought his own piano in a box trailer towed behind his car.

He settled in Paris, dying there in 1975 of a tropical disease contracted during an African tour.Niedzielski is not well known today, but he had a commanding technique as shown in his own paraphrase on Johann Strauss II's A Thousand and One Nights Waltz, Op. 346, recorded in London in 1930.His recordings are now rare (some have been reissued on CD in recent years):

Chopin: Ballade, Scherzo, Polonaise, Impromptu, Mazurkas

Chopin: Sonata No. 2 in B flat minor; nine études

Chopin: Mazurkas (selection; 1931)

Liszt: Liebestraum No. 2

Mozart: Piano Sonata No. 11 in A

Ludomir Różycki: Légende

Schumann: Symphonic Studies, Op. 13

Johann Strauss II arr. Niedzielski: A Thousand and One Nights, Op. 346

pieces by Claude Debussy, Federico Mompou and others.

Symphony in B minor (Paderewski)

The Symphony in B minor "Polonia", Op. 24, was written by Ignacy Jan Paderewski between 1903 and 1908, and first publicly performed in 1909. Although he lived for another 32 years, the symphony was virtually Paderewski's last composition; he wrote only one more work before his death in 1941 - a hymn for male chorus in 1917. Around 1910, he commenced what would become a political career, culminating in becoming the first Prime Minister of independent Poland and signing the Treaty of Versailles on behalf of his nation in 1919. He later returned to the concert platform as a virtuoso pianist.Paderewski started sketching the Symphony in B minor in his home near Morges in Switzerland in 1903. The work was completed in 1908 and was given a private performance in Lausanne on 26 December 1908. Its public premiere was with the Boston Symphony Orchestra under the German conductor Max Fiedler, on 12 February 1909. It was soon performed in Paris under André Messager, and in London under Hans Richter. The symphony had its Polish premiere in January 1911, where it was presented to celebrate the centenary of the birth of Frédéric Chopin, conducted by Paderewski's devoted friend Henryk Opieński. It also had performances in Philadelphia, New York and Baltimore. It has had little concert exposure since that time. To mark the 70th anniversary of the composer's death, it was performed in June 2011 at the Polish Presidential Palace under the patronage of President Bronisław Komorowski, by Sinfonia Varsovia under Jerzy Maksymiuk. (Maksymiuk made the first Western un-cut recording of the work in 1998.)

"Polonia" is in three movements, although Paderewski originally planned a four-movement work, which would have included a scherzo. As it is, the three movements he did write take about 75 minutes to perform, which extraordinary length has often caused it (particularly the finale) to be cut in performance and recording.

The three movements are:

Adagio maestoso - Allegro vivace (30')

Andante con moto (17')

Vivace (27').It is often described as a programme symphony, the three movements depicting:

the glorious days of Poland of the past

Poland of the present day (1907), at the nadir of political subjugation

the approach of a happier future for Poland.The inspiration for the title "Polonia" seems to be a series of eight ‘cartoons’ published under that title in 1863 by Artur Grottger, depicting the grim realities of everyday life and struggle under Russian occupation. Grottger's "Polonia" was a response to the failed insurrection of 1863-65 known as the January Uprising. Paderewski initially intended to dedicate the work to the 40th anniversary of that event, in which his own father was caught up and even arrested, but no such dedication appears in the score.

The music is expansive and discursive, not sticking closely to any pre-determined form. This quality has attracted comment that Paderewski seems to often lose his way, and also overdevelops his themes.

It is lush and romantic in texture, leading to comparisons with the music of Liszt, Tchaikovsky, Sibelius, Rachmaninoff, Mahler, Scriabin, Glazunov, Balakirev, Myaskovsky, Korngold, Glière, Elgar, Rimsky-Korsakov, Richard Strauss, and even a precursor of Shostakovich.The score very unusually calls for three sarrusophones, a tambour de Basque, a thunder sheet and an organ. The full instrumentation is: piccolo, 3 flutes, 2 oboes, English horn, 2 clarinets in A, bass clarinet in A, 2 bassoons, contrabassoon, 4 horns in F, 4 trumpets in F, 3 trombones, tuba, 3 contrabass sarrusophones in E♭, timpani, percussion (triangle, cymbals, tambourine, bass drum, tambour de Basque, tam-tam, glockenspiel, bells, thunder sheet), harp, organ and strings.The finale contains a disguised quotation of the Polish national anthem, Jeszcze Polska nie zginęła (Poland Is Not Yet Lost), in duple meter rather than the original's triple-time mazurka rhythm.In 1915, Edward Elgar wrote an orchestral piece titled Polonia, Op. 76, which he dedicated to Paderewski.

Walter Morse Rummel

Walter Morse Rummel (July 19, 1887 – May 2, 1953) was a prominent pianist, especially associated with Claude Debussy's works, as well as a composer and music editor. He was of German-English descent and active mainly in France.

Rummel was born in Berlin to Franz Rummel and Cornelia "Leila" Morse Rummel. His father was from a prominent family of German musicians, and his mother was a daughter of telegraph inventor Samuel Morse. He studied piano with Leopold Godowsky and composition with Hugo Kaun, before moving to Paris in 1908. On his way to Paris he met Ignacy Jan Paderewski in Switzerland, who called some of his piano compositions "not far from masterpieces" and invited him to stay for a year as a pupil; Rummel however turned down the invitation and continued to Paris. While in Paris he met Claude Debussy and became a leading interpreter and proponent of Debussy's piano compositions. He died in Bordeaux in 1953.

In addition to his own performances and compositions, Rummel had an interest in preserving and arranging earlier music. He edited several volumes of early music, and published piano arrangements of organ works by Bach and Vivaldi, as well as four books of piano arrangements of cantata movements of Bach.

Duchy of Warsaw (1807–1813)
Kingdom of Poland (1917–1918)
Second Polish Republic
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