Iddhipada

Iddhipāda (Pali; Skt. ddhipāda) is a compound term composed of "power" or "potency" (iddhi; ddhi) and "base," "basis" or "constituent" (pāda).[1] In Buddhism, the "power" referred to by this compound term is a group of spiritual powers. Thus, this compound term is usually translated along the lines of "base of power" or "base of spiritual power."[2] In the Buddhist pursuit of Enlightenment, the associated spiritual powers are secondary to the four "base" mental qualities that achieve such powers. These four base mental qualities are: concentration on intention; concentration on effort; concentration on consciousness; and, concentration on investigation. These four base mental qualities are used to develop wholesome mental states and rid oneself of unwholesome mental states.[3]

In traditional Buddhist literature, this set of four mental qualities is one of the seven sets of qualities lauded by the Buddha as conducive to Enlightenment (bodhipakkhiyādhammā).

37
DHAMMĀ of
ENLIGHTENMENT
Buddha
  4
satipaṭṭhāna
 
  4
Efforts
4Bases  
5
Faculties
5
Powers
  7
Factors
  
  8
Path Factors
 
Buddha

Canonical analysis

In the Pali Canon, a major source of information on the iddhipāda is in the Samyutta Nikaya, ch. 51, entitled, "Connected Discourses on the Bases for Spiritual Power" (Iddhipāda-sayutta).

Four components

In the "Neglected" discourse (Viraddha Sutta, SN 51.2), it states:

"Bhikkhus, those who have neglected the four bases for spiritual power have neglected the noble path leading to the complete destruction of suffering. Those who have undertaken the four bases for spiritual power have undertaken the noble path leading to the destruction of suffering."[4]

The four bases of such power are concentration (samādhi) due to:

  • Intention or purpose or desire or zeal (chanda)
  • Effort or energy or will (viriya)
  • Consciousness or mind or thoughts (citta)
  • Investigation or discrimination (vīma)[5]

Corequisites: concentration and striving

In most canonical discourses these four bases of power are developed in tandem with "volitional formations of striving" (padhāna-sakhāra).[6] For instance, in the "Concentration due to Desire" discourse (Chandasamādhi Sutta, SN 51.13), it states:

"Bhikkhus, if a bhikhu gains concentration, gains one-pointedness of mind based upon desire, this is called concentration due to desire. He generates desire for the nonarising of unarisen evil unwholesome states; he makes an effort, arouses energy, applies his mind, and strives. He generates desire for the abandoning of arisen evil unwholesome states ... for the arising of unarisen wholesome states ... for the maintenance of arisen wholesome states ...; he makes an effort, arouses energy, applies his mind and strives. These are called volitional formations of striving. Thus this desire and this concentration due to desire and these volitional formations of striving: this is called the basis for spiritual power that possesses concentration due to desire and volitional formations of striving."[7]

This discourse similarly analyzes the latter three bases of powers as well.

Associated spiritual powers

In terms of the spiritual powers associated with the development of these bases, the "Before" Discourse (Pubba Sutta, SN 51.11) states:

"When the four bases of spiritual power have been developed and cultivated in this way, a bhikkhu wields the various kinds of spiritual power: having been one, he becomes many; having been many, he becomes one; he appears and vanishes; he goes unhindered through a wall, through a rampart, through a mountain as though through space; he dives in and out of the earth as though it were water; he walks on water without sinking as though it were earth; seated cross-legged, he travels in space like a bird; with his hands he touches and strokes the moon and sun so powerful and mighty; he exercises mastery with the body as far as the brahmā world."[8]

See also

  • Abhijna - six types of higher spiritual knowledge found in the Pali Canon.
  • Bodhipakkhiyādhammā - seven sets of 37 mental qualities conducive to Enlightenment
  • Four Right Exertions - four aspects of "volitional formations of striving"
  • Iddhi - spiritual powers discussed in canonical Buddhism

Notes

  1. ^ See, e.g., Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), pp. 120-1, entry for "Iddhi" at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.0:1:3204.pali (retrieved 2008-02-07).
  2. ^ E.g., see Bodhi (2000), pp. 1718-49; and, Thanissaro (1997). Bodhi (2000), p. 1939, n. 246 notes that the post-canonical Pali commentaries state that this compound term could be translated as either "base for spiritual power" or "base which is spiritual power."
  3. ^ For a discussion of Buddhist means for developing wholesome qualities and removing unwholesome qualities, see, for instance, the Four Right Exertions.
  4. ^ Bodhi (2000), p. 1718.
  5. ^ The English translations here are based on: Bodhi (2000), ch. 51, pp. 1718-49; Brahm (2007), p. 394; and, Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), pp. 120-1, entry for "Iddhi".
  6. ^ "Volitional formations of striving" is Bodhi (2000)'s translation of padhāna-sakhāra. Alternatives include Thanissaro (1997) translation of "fabrications of exertion." The Pali term padhāna is the same as that found in the Four Right Exertions (Pali: sammappadhāna; Skt.: samyak-pradhāna or samyak-prahāa), which is another of the bodhipakkhiyādhammā sets.
  7. ^ Bodhi (2000), pp. 1729-30.
  8. ^ Bodhi (2000), p. 1727.

References

  • Bodhi, Bhikkhu (trans.) (2000). The Connected Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-331-1.
  • Brahm, Ajahn (2007). Simply this Moment!. Perth: Bodhinyana Monastery.
  • Rhys Davids, T.W. & William Stede (eds.) (1921-5). The Pali Text Society’s Pali–English Dictionary. Chipstead: Pali Text Society. A general on-line search engine for the PED is available at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/pali/.
  • Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1997). Iddhipada-vibhanga Sutta: Analysis of the Bases of Power (SN 51.20). Retrieved 2008-02-07 from "Access to Insight" at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn51/sn51.020.than.html.
Abhidharmadīpa

The Abhidharmadīpa or Lamp of Abhidharma is an Abhidharma text thought to have been authored by Vasumitra as a response to Vasubandhu's Abhidharmakośakārikā.

The text consists of verse and prose commentary. It currently survives as an incomplete collection of Sanskrit fragments. However, the text is valuable insofar as it confirms the identity of Vasubandhu as author of the Abhidharmakośakārikā.

Ajahn

Ajahn (Thai: อาจารย์, RTGS: achan, IPA: [ʔāː.tɕāːn], also romanized ajaan, aajaan, ajarn, ajahn, acharn and achaan) is a Thai language term which translates as "professor" or "teacher." It is derived from the Pali word ācariya, and is a term of respect, similar in meaning to the Japanese sensei, and is used as a title of address for high-school and university teachers, and for Buddhist monks who have passed ten vassa. The term "ajahn" is customarily used to address forest tradition monks and the term Luang Por, "Venerable father" is customarily used to address city tradition monks in Thai Buddhism.

Anāgāmi

In Buddhism, an anāgāmi (Sanskrit and Pāli for "non-returning") is a partially enlightened person who has cut off the first five chains that bind the ordinary mind. Anāgāmis are the third of the four aspirants.

Anagamis are not reborn into the human world after death, but into the heaven of the Pure Abodes, where only anāgāmis live. There they attain full enlightenment (arahantship).

The Pali terms for the specific chains or fetters (Pali: saṃyojana) of which an anāgāmi is free are:

Sakkāya-diṭṭhi: Belief in atmān or self

Sīlabbata-parāmāsa: Attachment to rites and rituals

Vicikicchā: Skeptical doubt

Kāma-rāga: Sensuous craving

Byāpāda: ill willThe fetters from which an anāgāmi is not yet free are:

Rūparāga: Craving for fine-material existence (the first 4 jhanas)

Arūparāga: Craving for immaterial existence (the last 4 jhanas)

Māna: Conceit

Uddhacca: Restlessness

Avijjā: IgnoranceKāmarāga and Byāpāda, which they are free from, can also be interpreted as craving for becoming and non-becoming, respectively.

Anāgāmis are at an intermediate stage between sakadagamis and arahants. Arahants enjoy complete freedom from the ten fetters. An anāgāmi's mind is very pure.

Asita

Asita or Kaladevala or Kanhasiri was a hermit ascetic of ancient India in the 6th century BCE. He is best known for having predicted that prince Siddhartha of Kapilavastu would either become a great chakravartin or become a supreme religious leader; Siddhartha was later known as Gautama Buddha.He lived in the forest in the Shakya country. The name Asita literally means 'not clinging' while Kanhasiri means 'dark splendour'. Asita is described as wearing matted hair.

Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna

The Basic Points Unifying the Theravāda and the Mahāyāna is an important Buddhist ecumenical statement created in 1967 during the First Congress of the World Buddhist Sangha Council (WBSC), where its founder Secretary-General, the late Venerable Pandita Pimbure Sorata Thera, requested the Ven. Walpola Rahula to present a concise formula for the unification of all the different Buddhist traditions. This text was then unanimously approved by the Council.

Bodhipakkhiyādhammā

In Buddhism, bodhipakkhiyā dhammā (Pali; variant spellings include bodhipakkhikā dhammā and bodhapakkhiyā dhammā; Skt.: bodhipakṣa dharma) are qualities (dhammā) conducive or related to (pakkhiya) awakening (bodhi).

In the Pali commentaries, the term bodhipakkhiyā dhammā is used to refer to seven sets of such qualities regularly mentioned by the Buddha throughout the Pali Canon. Within these seven sets of Enlightenment qualities, there is a total of thirty-seven individual qualities (sattatiṃsa bodhipakkhiyā dhammā).These seven sets of qualities are recognized by both Theravadan and Mahayanan Buddhists as complementary facets of the Buddhist Path to Enlightenment.A sutta found in The Senior Collection of Gandhāran Buddhist texts ascribes forty one instead of thirty seven beneficial dharmas. The Gandharan text includes rūpajhānas which the Pali tradition does not. Salomon notes this forty one numbered list appears in both a Chinese translation of the Dirghagama which current scholarship believes to be of the Dharmaguptaka school of Buddhism and a Chinese translation of the Dharmaguptaka vinaya.

Buddhism in Venezuela

Buddhism in Venezuela is practiced by over 52,000 people (roughly 0.2% of the population). The Buddhist community is made up mainly of Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans.

Most identify with the Mahayana tradition, reflecting the religious heritage of their emigrant countries.

However, in the mid-1990s Keun-Tshen Goba (né Ezequiel Hernandez Urdaneta), together with Jigme Rinzen, founded a meditation center using the Shambhala Training method.

There are Buddhist centers in Caracas, Maracay, Mérida, Puerto Ordáz, San Felipe, and Valencia.

Four Right Exertions

The Four Right Exertions (also known as, Four Proper Exertions, Four Right Efforts, Four Great Efforts, Four Right Endeavors or Four Right Strivings) (Pali: sammappadhāna; Skt.: samyak-pradhāna or samyakprahāṇa) are an integral part of the Buddhist path to Enlightenment. Built on the insightful recognition of the arising and non-arising of various mental qualities over time and of our ability to mindfully intervene in these ephemeral qualities, the Four Right Exertions encourage the relinquishment of harmful mental qualities and the nurturing of beneficial mental qualities.

The Four Right Exertions are associated with the Noble Eightfold Path's factor of "right effort" (sammā-vāyāma) and the Five Spiritual Faculties' faculty of "energy" (viriya); and, are one of the seven sets of Qualities Conducive to Enlightenment.

Koliya

The Koliyas were Kshatriya of the Adicca (Iksvaku) clan of the Solar Dynasty from the Indian subcontinent, during the time of Gautama Buddha.The family members of the two royal families, that is the Koliyas and Sakyas married only among themselves. Both clans were very proud of the purity of their royal blood and had practised this tradition of inter-marriage since ancient times. For example, Suddhodana's paternal aunt was married to the Koliyan ruler Añjana. Their daughters, Mahamaya and Mahapajapati Gotami, were married to Śuddhodana, the chief of the Sakyans. Similarly, Yashodhara, daughter of Suppabuddha, who was Añjana’s son, was married to the Sakyan prince, Gautama Buddha. Thus, the two royal families were related by marriage bonds between maternal and paternal cousins since ancient times. In spite of such close blood-ties, there would be occasional rifts between the two royal families, which sometimes turned into open hostility.

List of Buddhas

This is a list of historical, contemporary, and legendary figures which at least one school of Buddhism considers to be a Buddha and which have an article on Wikipedia:

Acala

Adi-Buddha

Akshobhya

Amitābha, principal Buddha of Pure Land Buddhism

Amoghasiddhi

Bhaisajyaguru

Budai

Dīpankara Buddha

Five Tathagatas

Gautama Buddha

Kakusandha

Kassapa Buddha

Koṇāgamana Buddha

Lokesvararaja

Nairatmya

Nichiren Daishonin, Buddha of the Latter Day of the Law (Nikko Lineage)

Padumuttara Buddha

Padmasambhava

Ratnasambhava

Satyanama

Sumedha Buddha

Tara

Tonpa Shenrab

Vairocana, embodiment of the Dharmakaya

Vajradhara

Vajrayogini

Yeshe Tsogyal

List of suttas

Suttas from the Sutta Pitaka of the Pali Canon.

List of Digha Nikaya suttas

List of Majjhima Nikaya suttas

List of Samyutta Nikaya suttas

List of Anguttara Nikaya suttas

List of Khuddaka Nikaya suttas

Punna

Pūrṇa Maitrāyanīputra (Sanskrit; Pali: Puṇṇa Mantānīputta, Chinese: 富楼那弥多罗尼子; pinyin: fùlóunàmíduōluónízǐ), also simply known as Pūrṇa (Sanskrit; Pali: Puṇṇa), was an arhat and one of the ten principal disciples of Gautama Buddha, foremost in preaching the dharma.

Rinpoche

Rinpoche, also spelled Rimboche and Rinboku (Tibetan: རིན་པོ་ཆེ་, Wylie: rin po che, THL: Rinpoché, ZYPY: Rinboqê), is an honorific term used in the Tibetan language. It literally means "precious one", and may be used to refer to a person, place, or thing--like the words "gem" or "jewel" (Sanskrit Ratna).

The word consists of rin(value) and po(nominative suffix) and chen(big).

The word is used in the context of Tibetan Buddhism as a way of showing respect when addressing those recognized as reincarnated, older, respected, notable, learned and/or an accomplished Lamas or teachers of the Dharma. It is also used as an honorific for abbots of monasteries.

Sakadagami

In Buddhism, the Sakadāgāmin (Pali; Sanskrit: Sakṛdāgāmin), "returning once" or "once-returner," is a partially enlightened person, who has cut off the first three chains with which the ordinary mind is bound, and significantly weakened the fourth and fifth. Sakadagaminship is the second stage of the four stages of enlightenment.

The Sakadagamin will be reborn into the realm of the senses at most once more. If, however, he attains the next stage of enlightenment (Anagamiship) in this life, he will not come back to this world.

The three specific chains or fetters (Pali: saṃyojana) of which the Sakadagamin is free are:

1. Sakkāya-diṭṭhi (Pali) - Belief in self

2. Sīlabbata-parāmāsa (Pali) - Attachment to rites and rituals

3. Vicikicchā (Pali) - Skeptical doubtThe Sakadagami also significantly weakened the chains of:

4. Kāma-rāga (Pali) - Sensuous craving

5. Byāpāda (Pali) - Ill-will

Thus, the Sakadagamin is an intermediate stage between the Sotapanna, who still has comparatively strong sensuous desire and ill-will, and the Anagami, who is completely free from sensuous desire and ill-will. A Sakadagami's mind is very pure. Thoughts connected with greed, hatred and delusion do not arise often, and when they do, do not become obsessive.

Threefold Training

The Buddha identified the threefold training (sikkhā) as training in:

higher virtue (adhisīla-sikkhā)

higher mind (adhicitta-sikkhā)

higher wisdom (adhipaññā-sikkhā)

Uppalavanna

Uppalavannā (Chinese: 蓮華色比丘尼 or 優缽華色比丘尼) was considered to be one of the two chief female disciples of the Buddha, the other being Khema.

She was the daughter of a wealthy merchant and was known for her great beauty. Her name means "one with the hue of the blue lotus".

Vibhanga

The Vibhanga (vibhaṅga) is a Buddhist scripture, part of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism, where it is included in the Abhidhamma Pitaka. One known English translation is contained in The Book of Analysis, first published in 1969.The book has eighteen chapters, and each deals with a particular topic:

aggregate (khandha)

sense bases (āyatana)

elements (dhātu)

truth (sacca)

faculties (indriya)

dependent origination (paticcasamuppāda)

mindfulness foundation (satipaṭṭhāna)

right exertion (sammappadhāna)

base of power (iddhipāda)

enlightenment factor (bojjhanga)

path (magga)

absorption (jhāna)

immeasurables (appammaññā)

training rules (sikkhāpada)

analysis (paṭisambhidā)

knowledge (ñāṇa)

smaller subjects (khuddhaka vatthu)

heart of the Dhamma (dhammahadaya)A typical chapter is divided into three parts:

Sutta method: often consisting of quotations from the Sutta Pitaka

Abhidhamma method: various lists of synonyms, numerical classifications

Question method: applies the matika (matrix) of the Dhammasangani

Ṛddhi

In Buddhism, rddhi powers (Sanskrit; Pali: iddhi) are "psychic powers", one of the five or six supernormal powers (abhijñā) of the mundane plane attained by performing the four dhyānas. The normal Sanskrit meaning of ṛddhi is "increase, growth, prosperity, success, good fortune, wealth, abundance".

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