Idaho

Idaho (/ˈaɪdəhoʊ/ (listen)) is a state in the northwestern region of the United States. It borders the state of Montana to the east and northeast, Wyoming to the east, Nevada and Utah to the south, and Washington and Oregon to the west. To the north, it shares a small portion of the Canadian border with the province of British Columbia. With a population of approximately 1.7 million and an area of 83,569 square miles (216,440 km2), Idaho is the 14th largest, the 12th least populous and the 7th least densely populated of the 50 U.S. states. The state's capital and largest city is Boise.

Idaho prior to European settlement was inhabited by Native American peoples, some of whom still live in the area. In the early 19th century, Idaho was considered part of the Oregon Country, an area disputed between the U.S. and the United Kingdom. It officially became U.S. territory with the signing of the Oregon Treaty of 1846, but a separate Idaho Territory was not organized until 1863, instead being included for periods in Oregon Territory and Washington Territory. Idaho was eventually admitted to the Union on July 3, 1890, becoming the 43rd state.

Forming part of the Pacific Northwest (and the associated Cascadia bioregion), Idaho is divided into several distinct geographic and climatic regions. In the state's north, the relatively isolated Idaho Panhandle is closely linked with Eastern Washington, with which it shares the Pacific Time Zone – the rest of the state uses the Mountain Time Zone. The state's south includes the Snake River Plain (which has most of the population and agricultural land), while the south-east incorporates part of the Great Basin. Idaho is quite mountainous, and contains several stretches of the Rocky Mountains. The United States Forest Service holds about 38% of Idaho's land, the most of any state.

Industries significant for the state economy include manufacturing, agriculture, mining, forestry, and tourism. A number of science and technology firms are either headquartered in Idaho or have factories there, and the state also contains the Idaho National Laboratory, which is the country's largest Department of Energy facility. Idaho's agricultural sector supplies many products, but the state is best known for its potato crop, which comprises around one-third of the nationwide yield. The official state nickname is the "Gem State", which references Idaho's natural beauty[8].

State of Idaho
Flag of Idaho State seal of Idaho
Flag Seal
Nickname(s):
Gem State
Motto(s): Esto perpetua (Latin for Let it be perpetual)
State song(s): "Here We Have Idaho"
Map of the United States with Idaho highlighted
Official languageEnglish[1]
DemonymIdahoan
Capital
(and largest city)
Boise
Largest metroBoise metropolitan area
AreaRanked 14th
 • Total83,797 sq mi
(216,900 km2)
 • Width305 miles (491 km)
 • Length479 miles (771 km)
 • % water0.98
 • Latitude42° N to 49° N
 • Longitude111°03′ W to 117°15′ W
PopulationRanked 39th
 • Total1,754,208 (2018)
 • Density20.9/sq mi  (8.09/km2)
Ranked 44th
 • Median household income$51,624[2] (36th)
Elevation
 • Highest pointBorah Peak[3][4][5]
12,662 ft (3,859 m)
 • Mean5,000 ft  (1,520 m)
 • Lowest pointConfluence of Snake and Clearwater River; Lewiston[4][5]
713 ft (217 m)
Before statehoodOregon Territory, Washington Territory, Idaho Territory
Admission to UnionJuly 3, 1890 (43rd)
GovernorBrad Little (R)
Lieutenant GovernorJanice McGeachin (R)
LegislatureLegislature
 • Upper houseSenate
 • Lower houseHouse of Representatives
U.S. SenatorsMike Crapo (R)
Jim Risch (R)
U.S. House delegation1. Russ Fulcher (R)
2. Mike Simpson (R) (list)
Time zones 
 • Idaho PanhandlePacific: UTC −8/−7
 • primaryMountain: UTC −7/−6
ISO 3166US-ID
AbbreviationsID
Websitewww.idaho.gov
Idaho ned
Digitally colored elevation map of Idaho
Shoshone falls
Shoshone Falls in south central Idaho
Public-Lands-Western-US
Sixty percent of Idaho's land is held by the National Forest Service or the Bureau of Land Management, and it leads the nation in forest service land as a percentage of total area.[6][7]
Owyhee Mountains
Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in the Owyhee Mountains, about 50 miles (80 km) southwest of Boise, Idaho

Etymology

The name's origin remains a mystery.[9] In the early 1860s, when the United States Congress was considering organizing a new territory in the Rocky Mountains, eccentric lobbyist George M. Willing suggested the name "Idaho", which he claimed was derived from a Shoshone language term meaning "the sun comes from the mountains" or "gem of the mountains". Willing later claimed he had invented the name.[10][11] Congress decided to name the area Colorado Territory when it was created in February 1861. Thinking they would get a jump on the name, locals named a community in Colorado "Idaho Springs".

However, the name "Idaho" did not fall into obscurity. The same year Congress created Colorado Territory, a county called Idaho County was created in eastern Washington Territory. The county was named after a steamship named Idaho, which was launched on the Columbia River in 1860. It is unclear whether the steamship was named before or after Willing's claim was revealed. Regardless, part of Washington Territory, including Idaho County, was used to create Idaho Territory in 1863.[12]

Despite this lack of evidence for the origin of the name, many textbooks well into the 20th century repeated as fact Willing's account the name "Idaho" derived from the Shoshone term "ee-da-how". A 1956 Idaho history textbook says:

"Idaho" is a Shoshoni Indian exclamation. The word consists of three parts. The first is "Ee", which in English conveys the idea of "coming down". The second is "dah" which is the Shoshoni stem or root for both "sun" and "mountain". The third syllable, "how", denotes the exclamation and stands for the same thing in Shoshoni that the exclamation mark (!) does in the English language. The Shoshoni word is "Ee-dah-how", and the Indian thought thus conveyed when translated into English means, "Behold! the sun coming down the mountain.[13]

An alternative etymology attributes the name to the Plains Apache word "ídaahę́" (enemy) that was used in reference to The Comanche.[14]

Geography

National-atlas-idaho
Map of Idaho

Idaho borders six U.S. states and one Canadian province. The states of Washington and Oregon are to the west, Nevada and Utah are to the south, and Montana and Wyoming are to the east. Idaho also shares a short border with the Canadian province of British Columbia to the north.

The landscape is rugged with some of the largest unspoiled natural areas in the United States. For example, at 2.3 million acres (930,000 ha), the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness Area is the largest contiguous area of protected wilderness in the continental United States. Idaho is a Rocky Mountain state with abundant natural resources and scenic areas. The state has snow-capped mountain ranges, rapids, vast lakes and steep canyons. The waters of the Snake River rush through Hells Canyon, the deepest gorge in the United States. Shoshone Falls plunges down rugged cliffs from a height greater than Niagara Falls.

The major rivers in Idaho are the Snake River, the Clark Fork/Pend Oreille River, the Clearwater River, and the Salmon River. Other significant rivers include the Coeur d'Alene River, the Spokane River, the Boise River, and the Payette River. The Salmon River empties into the Snake in Hells Canyon and forms the southern boundary of Nez Perce County on its north shore, of which Lewiston is the county seat. The Port of Lewiston, at the confluence of the Clearwater and the Snake Rivers is the farthest inland seaport on the West Coast at 465 river miles from the Pacific at Astoria, Oregon.[15]

Idaho's highest point is Borah Peak, 12,662 ft (3,859 m), in the Lost River Range north of Mackay. Idaho's lowest point, 710 ft (216 m), is in Lewiston, where the Clearwater River joins the Snake River and continues into Washington. The Sawtooth Range is often considered Idaho's most famous mountain range.[16] Other mountain ranges in Idaho include the Bitterroot Range, the White Cloud Mountains, the Lost River Range, the Clearwater Mountains, and the Salmon River Mountains.

Idaho has two time zones, with the dividing line approximately midway between Canada and Nevada. Southern Idaho, including the Boise metropolitan area, Idaho Falls, Pocatello, and Twin Falls, are in the Mountain Time Zone. A legislative error (15 U.S.C. ch. 6 §264) theoretically placed this region in the Central Time Zone, but this was corrected with a 2007 amendment.[17] Areas north of the Salmon River, including Coeur d'Alene, Moscow, Lewiston, and Sandpoint, are in the Pacific Time Zone, which contains less than a quarter of the state's population and land area.

Climate

Autumn in Boise
Autumn in Boise

Idaho's climate varies widely. Although the state's western border is about 350 miles (560 km) from the Pacific Ocean, the maritime influence is still felt in Idaho, especially in the winter when cloud cover, humidity, and precipitation are at their maximum extent. This influence has a moderating effect in the winter where temperatures are not as low as would otherwise be expected for a northern state with predominantly high elevations.[18] The maritime influence is least prominent in the state's eastern part where the precipitation patterns are often reversed, with wetter summers and drier winters, and seasonal temperature differences are more extreme, showing a more semi-arid continental climate.[19]

Idaho can be hot, although extended periods over 98 °F (37 °C) for the maximum temperature are rare, except for the lowest point in elevation, Lewiston, which correspondingly sees little snow. Hot summer days are tempered by the low relative humidity and cooler evenings during summer months since, for most of the state, the highest diurnal difference in temperature is often in the summer.[20] Winters can be cold, although extended periods of bitter cold weather below zero are unusual. Idaho's all-time highest temperature of 118 °F (48 °C) was recorded at Orofino on July 28, 1934; the all-time lowest temperature of −60 °F (−51 °C) was recorded at Island Park Dam on January 18, 1943.

Monthly normal high and low temperatures for various Idaho cities. (°F)
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Boise 38/24 45/27 55/33 62/38 72/46 81/53 91/59 90/59 79/50 65/40 48/31 38/23
Lewiston 42/30 47/31 55/36 62/41 71/47 79/54 89/60 89/60 78/51 63/41 48/34 40/28
Pocatello 33/16 38/19 49/27 59/33 68/40 78/46 88/52 88/51 76/42 62/33 45/24 33/16
Orofino 38/25 46/28 55/32 64/38 72/44 80/50 89/54 90/53 79/45 63/36 46/31 37/26
[21]

Lakes/rivers

Lakecoeurdalenebig
Lake Coeur d'Alene in North Idaho
Redfish lake
Redfish Lake in central Idaho
Checkerboard forest in Idaho
Priest River winding through Whitetail Butte

History

Humans may have been present in the Idaho area as long as 14,500 years ago. Excavations at Wilson Butte Cave near Twin Falls in 1959 revealed evidence of human activity, including arrowheads, that rank among the oldest dated artifacts in North America. American Indian peoples predominant in the area included the Nez Percé in the north and the Northern and Western Shoshone in the south.

An early presence of French-Canadian trappers is visible in names and toponyms: Nez Percé, Cœur d'Alène, Boisé, Payette, some preexisting the Lewis and Clark and Astorian expeditions which themselves included significant numbers of French and Métis guides recruited for their familiarity with the terrain.

Idaho, as part of the Oregon Country, was claimed by both the United States and Great Britain until the United States gained undisputed jurisdiction in 1846. From 1843 to 1849, present-day Idaho was under the de facto jurisdiction of the Provisional Government of Oregon. When Oregon became a state, what is now Idaho was in what remained of the original Oregon Territory not part of the new state, and designated as the Washington Territory.

Between then and the creation of the Idaho Territory on March 4, 1863, at Lewiston, parts of the present-day state were included in the Oregon, Washington, and Dakota Territories. The new territory included present-day Idaho, Montana, and most of Wyoming. The Lewis and Clark expedition crossed Idaho in 1805 on the way to the Pacific and in 1806 on the return, largely following the Clearwater River both directions. The first non-indigenous settlement was Kullyspell House, established on the shore of Lake Pend Oreille for fur trading in 1809 by David Thompson of the North West Company.[22][23] In 1812 Donald Mackenzie, working for the Pacific Fur Company at the time, established a post on the lower Clearwater River near present-day Lewiston. This post, known as "MacKenzie's Post" or "Clearwater", operated until the Pacific Fur Company was bought out by the North West Company in 1813, after which it was abandoned.[24][25] The first attempts at organized communities, within the present borders of Idaho, were established in 1860.[26][27] The first permanent, substantial incorporated community was Lewiston in 1861.

After some tribulation as a territory, including the chaotic transfer of the territorial capital from Lewiston to Boise,[28] disenfranchisement of Mormon polygamists upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1877,[29] and a federal attempt to split the territory between Washington Territory which gained statehood in 1889, a year before Idaho, and the state of Nevada which had been a state since 1864, Idaho achieved statehood in 1890[30].

Idaho was one of the hardest hit of the Pacific Northwest states during the Great Depression.[31] Prices plummeted for Idaho's major crops: in 1932 a bushel of potatoes brought only $.10 compared to $1.51 in 1919, while Idaho farmers saw their annual income of $686 in 1929 drop to $250 by 1932.[32]

In recent years, Idaho has expanded its commercial base as a tourism and agricultural state to include science and technology industries. Science and technology have become the largest single economic center (over 25% of the state's total revenue) within the state and are greater than agriculture, forestry and mining combined.[33]

Demographics

Population

Idaho population map
Idaho population density map
Historical population
Census Pop.
187014,999
188032,610117.4%
189088,548171.5%
1900161,77282.7%
1910325,594101.3%
1920431,86632.6%
1930445,0323.0%
1940524,87317.9%
1950588,63712.1%
1960667,19113.3%
1970712,5676.8%
1980943,93532.5%
19901,006,7496.7%
20001,293,95328.5%
20101,567,58221.1%
Est. 20181,754,20811.9%
Source: 1910–2010[34]
2018 estimate[35]

The United States Census Bureau estimates Idaho's population was 1,754,208 on July 1, 2018, a 11.91% increase since 2010.[35]

Idaho had an estimated population of 1,754,208 in 2018, which was an increase of 37,265, from the prior year and an increase of 186,626, or 11.91%, since 2010. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 58,884 people (that is, 111,131 births minus 52,247 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 75,795 people into the state. There are large numbers of Americans of English and German ancestry in Idaho. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 14,522 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 61,273 people.

This made Idaho the tenth fastest-growing state after District of Columbia (+16.74%), Utah (+14.37%), Texas (+14.14%), Florida (+13.29%), Colorado (+13.25%), North Dakota (+13.01%), Nevada (+12.36%), Arizona (+12.20%) and Washington. From 2017 to 2018, Idaho grew the second-fastest, surpassed only by Nevada.

Nampa, about 20 miles (30 km) west of downtown Boise, became the state's second largest city in the late 1990s, passing Pocatello and Idaho Falls. Nampa's population was under 29,000 in 1990 and grew to over 81,000 by 2010. Located between Nampa and Boise, Meridian also experienced high growth, from under 10,000 residents in 1990 to over 75,000 in 2010 and is now Idaho's third largest city. Growth of 5% or more over the same period has also been observed in Caldwell, Coeur d'Alene, Post Falls, and Twin Falls.[36]

From 1990 to 2010, Idaho's population increased by over 560,000 (55%). The Boise Metropolitan Area (officially known as the Boise City-Nampa, ID Metropolitan Statistical Area) is Idaho's largest metropolitan area. Other metropolitan areas in order of size are Coeur d'Alene, Idaho Falls, Pocatello and Lewiston.

The table below shows the racial composition of Idaho's population as of 2016.

Idaho ancestry
There are large numbers of Americans of German and English ancestry in Idaho.

According to the 2016 American Community Survey, 12.0% of Idaho's population were of Hispanic or Latino origin (of any race): Mexican (10.4%), Puerto Rican (0.2%), Cuban (approx. 0.0%), and other Hispanic or Latino origin (1.3%).[37] The five largest ancestry groups were: German (17.5%), English (16.4%), Irish (9.3%), American (8.1%), and Scottish (3.2%).[41]

Birth data

Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

Live Births by Single Race/Ethnicity of Mother
Race 2013[42] 2014[43] 2015[44] 2016[45] 2017[46]
White: 21,246 (94.9%) 21,696 (94.8%) 21,618 (94.7%) ... ...
> Non-Hispanic White 17,951 (80.2%) 18,188 (79.5%) 18,087 (79.2%) 17,543 (78.0%) 17,151 (77.3%)
Asian 491 (2.2%) 501 (2.2%) 516 (2.3%) 363 (1.6%) 366 (1.7%)
American Indian 421 (1.9%) 429 (1.9%) 406 (1.8%) 261 (1.2%) 337 (1.5%)
Black 225 (1.0%) 250 (1.1%) 287 (1.2%) 217 (1.0%) 243 (1.1%)
Hispanic (of any race) 3,422 (15.3%) 3,651 (16.0%) 3,645 (16.0%) 3,614 (16.1%) 3,598 (16.2%)
Total Idaho 22,383 (100%) 22,876 (100%) 22,827 (100%) 22,482 (100%) 22,181 (100%)
  • Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Religion

According to the Pew Research Center on Religion & Public Life, the self-identified religious affiliations of Idahoans over the age of 18 in 2008 and 2014 were:

Denomination 2008[48] 2014[49][50]
Christian, including: 81% 67%
* Evangelical Protestant 22% 21%
* The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 23% 19%
* Mainline Protestant 16% 16%
* Catholic 18% 10%
* Eastern Orthodox < 0.5% 1%
* Historically Black Protestant < 0.5% < 1%
* Jehovah's Witnesses 1% < 1%
* Other Christian < 0.5% < 1%
Unaffiliated, including: 18% 27%
* Nothing in particular n/d 22%
* Agnostic n/d 3%
* Atheist n/d 2%
Non-Christian faiths, including: n/d 4%
* Muslim < 0.5% 1%
* Jewish < 0.5% < 1%
* Buddhist < 0.5% < 1%
* Hindu < 0.5% < 1%
* Other World religions < 0.5% < 1%
* Other faiths (New Age, Native American, etc.) n/d 2%
Don't know/refused < 0.5% 1%

According to the Association of Religion Data Archives, the largest denominations by number of members in 2010 were The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 409,265; the Catholic Church with 123,400; the non-denominational Evangelical Protestant with 62,637; and the Assemblies of God with 22,183.[51]

Language

English is the state's predominant language. Minority languages include Spanish [1] and various Native American languages.

Economy

Gross state product for 2015 was $64.9 billion,[52] and the per capita income based on 2015 GDP and 2015 population estimates was $39,100.[52][53]

Idaho is an important agricultural state, producing nearly one-third of the potatoes grown in the United States. All three varieties of wheat, dark northern spring, hard red, and soft white are grown in the state. Nez Perce County is considered a premier soft white growing locale.

Important industries in Idaho are food processing, lumber and wood products, machinery, chemical products, paper products, electronics manufacturing, silver and other mining, and tourism. The world's largest factory for barrel cheese, the raw product for processed cheese is in Gooding, Idaho. It has a capacity of 120,000 metric tons per year of barrel cheese and belongs to the Glanbia group.[54] The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is the largest Department of Energy facility in the country by area. INL is an important part of the eastern Idaho economy. Idaho also is home to three facilities of Anheuser-Busch which provide a large part of the malt for breweries across the nation.

A variety of industries are important. Outdoor recreation is a common example ranging from numerous snowmobile and downhill and cross-country ski areas in winter to the evolution of Lewiston as a retirement community based on mild winters, dry, year-round climate and one of the lowest median wind velocities anywhere, combined with the rivers for a wide variety of activities. Other examples would be ATK Corporation, which operates three ammunition and ammunition components plants in Lewiston. Two are sporting and one is defense contract. The Lewis-Clark valley has an additional independent ammunition components manufacturer and the Chipmunk rifle factory until it was purchased in 2007 by Keystone Sporting Arms and production was moved to Milton, Pennsylvania. Four of the world's six welded aluminum jet boat (for running river rapids) manufacturers are in the Lewiston-Clarkston, WAvalley. Wine grapes were grown between Kendrick and Juliaetta in the Idaho Panhandle by the French Rothschilds until Prohibition. In keeping with this, while there are no large wineries or breweries in Idaho, there are numerous and growing numbers of award-winning boutique wineries and microbreweries in the northern part of the state.

Today, Idaho's largest industry is the science and technology sector. It accounts for over 25% of the state's revenue and over 70% of the state's exports. Idaho's industrial economy is growing, with high-tech products leading the way. Since the late 1970s, Boise has emerged as a center for semiconductor manufacturing. Boise is the home of Micron Technology, the only U.S. manufacturer of dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) chips. Micron at one time manufactured desktop computers, but with very limited success. Hewlett-Packard has operated a large plant in Boise since the 1970s, which is devoted primarily to LaserJet printers production.[55] Boise-based Clearwater Analytics is another rapidly growing investment accounting and reporting software firm, reporting on over $1 trillion in assets.[56] ON Semiconductor, whose worldwide headquarters in Pocatello, is a widely recognized innovator in modern integrated mixed-signal semiconductor products, mixed-signal foundry services, and structured digital products. Coldwater Creek, a women's clothing retailer, is headquartered in Sandpoint. Sun Microsystems (now a part of Oracle Corporation) has two offices in Boise and a parts depot in Pocatello. Sun brings $4 million in annual salaries and over $300 million of revenue to the state each year.

Wheat harvest
Wheat harvest on the Palouse

A number of Fortune 500 companies started in or trace their roots to Idaho, including Safeway in American Falls, Albertsons in Boise, JR Simplot across southern Idaho, and Potlatch Corp. in Lewiston. Zimmerly Air Transport in Lewiston-Clarkston was one of the five companies in the merger centered around Varney Air Lines of Pasco, Washington, which became United Airlines and subsequently Varney Air Group that became Continental Airlines.

The state personal income tax ranges from 1.6% to 7.8% in eight income brackets. Idahoans may apply for state tax credits for taxes paid to other states, as well as for donations to Idaho state educational entities and some nonprofit youth and rehabilitation facilities.

The state sales tax is 6% with a very limited, selective local option up to 6.5%. Sales tax applies to the sale, rental or lease of tangible personal property and some services. Food is taxed, but prescription drugs are not. Hotel, motel, and campground accommodations are taxed at a higher rate (7% to 11%). Some jurisdictions impose local option sales tax.

The sales tax was introduced at 3% in 1965, easily approved by voters,[57] where it remained until 1983.[58]

In 2014, Idaho emerged as the second most small business friendly state, ranking behind Utah, based on a study drawing upon data from over 12,000 small business owners.[59]

Idaho has a state gambling lottery which contributed $333.5 million in payments to all Idaho public schools and Idaho higher education from 1990 to 2006.[60]

Energy

Average Fuel Mix in Idaho
Average Fuel Mix (2011–2015)

Idaho's energy landscape is favorable to the development of renewable energy systems. The state is rich in renewable energy resources but has limited fossil fuel resources. The Snake River Plain and smaller river basins provide Idaho with some of the nation's best hydroelectric power resources and its geologically active mountain areas have significant geothermal power and wind power potential. These realities have shaped much of the state's energy landscape.

Idaho imports most of the energy it consumes. Imports account for more than 80% of energy consumption, including all of Idaho's natural gas and petroleum supplies and more than half of its electricity. Of the electricity consumed in Idaho in 2005, 48% came from hydroelectricity, 42% was generated by burning coal and 9% was generated by burning natural gas. The remainder came from other renewable sources such as wind.[61]

The state's numerous river basins allow hydroelectric power plants to provide 556,000 MWh, which amounts to about three-fourths of Idaho's electricity generated in the state. Washington State provides most of the natural gas used in Idaho through one of the two major pipeline systems supplying the state. Although the state relies on out-of-state sources for its entire natural gas supply, it uses natural gas-fired plants to generate 127,000 MWh, or about ten percent of its output. Coal-fired generation and the state's small array of wind turbines supplies the remainder of the state's electricity output. The state produces 739,000 MWh but still needs to import half of its electricity from out-of-state to meet demand.[62]

While Idaho's 515 trillion BTU total energy consumption is low compared with other states and represents just 0.5% of United States consumption, the state also has the nation's 11th smallest population, 1.5 million, so its per capita energy consumption of 352 million Btu is just above the national average of 333 million Btu.[62] As the 13th‑largest state in terms of land area (83,570 sq. mi=53,485,000ac), distance creates the additional problem of "line loss". When the length of an electrical transmission line is doubled, the resistance to an electric current passing through it is also doubled.

In addition, Idaho also has the 6th fastest growing population in the United States with the population expected to increase by 31% from 2008 to 2030.[63] This projected increase in population will contribute to a 42% increase in demand by 2030, further straining Idaho's finite hydroelectric resources.[64]

Idaho has an upper-boundary estimate of development potential to generate 44,320 GWh/year from 18,076 MW of wind power, and 7,467,000 GWh/year from solar power using 2,061,000 MW of photovoltaics (PV), including 3,224 MW of rooftop photovoltaics, and 1,267,000 MW of concentrated solar power.[65]

Idaho Wind Generation (GWh, Million kWh)
Year Capacity
(MW)
Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec
2009 147 313 21 18 25 24 22 17 14 19 21 33 34 38
2010 353 441 29 24 35 43 36 28 24 26 26 57 69 78
2011 618 1,308 90 120 132 140 120 112 83 78 71 118 145 105
2012 191 133 197 155 148

Source:[66][67][68]

Idaho Grid-Connected PV Capacity (MW)[69][70]
Year Capacity Installed % Growth
2010 0.4 0.2 100%
2011 0.4 0 0%

Transportation

The Idaho Transportation Department is the government agency responsible for Idaho's transportation infrastructure, including operations and maintenance as well as planning for future needs. The agency is also responsible for overseeing the disbursement of federal, state, and grant funding for the transportation programs of the state.[71]

Highways

I-15 shield

Idaho is among the few states in the nation without a major freeway linking its two largest metropolitan areas, Boise in the south and Coeur d'Alene in the north. US-95 links the two ends of the state, but like many other highways in Idaho, it is badly in need of repair and upgrade. In 2007, the Idaho Transportation Department stated the state's highway infrastructure faces a $200 million per year shortfall in maintenance and upgrades. I-84 is the main highway linking the southeast and southwest portions of the state, along with I-86 and I-15. Major federal aid highways in Idaho:

North/South
West/East
Interstates

Airports

Major airports include the Boise International Airport that serves the southwest region of Idaho and the Spokane International Airport (in Spokane, Washington) that serves northern Idaho. Other airports with scheduled service are the Pullman-Moscow Regional Airport serving the Palouse; the Lewiston-Nez Perce County Airport, serving the Lewis-Clark Valley and north central and west central Idaho; The Magic Valley Regional Airport in Twin Falls; the Idaho Falls Regional Airport; and the Pocatello Regional Airport.[72]

Railroads

Idaho is served by three transcontinental railroads. The Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) connects the Idaho Panhandle with Seattle, Portland, and Spokane to the west, and Minneapolis and Chicago to the east. The BNSF travels through Kootenai, Bonner, and Boundary counties. The Union Pacific Railroad crosses North Idaho entering from Canada through Boundary and Bonner, and proceeding to Spokane. Canadian Pacific Railway uses Union Pacific Railroad tracks in North Idaho carrying products from Alberta to Spokane and Portland, Oregon. Amtrak's Empire Builder crosses northern Idaho, with its only stop being in Sandpoint. Montana Rail Link also operates between Billings, Montana and Sandpoint, Idaho

The Union Pacific Railroad also crosses southern Idaho traveling between Portland, Oregon, Green River, Wyoming, and Ogden, Utah and serves Boise, Nampa, Twin Falls, and Pocatello.

Ports

The Port of Lewiston is the farthest inland Pacific port on the west coast. A series of dams and locks on the Snake River and Columbia River facilitate barge travel from Lewiston to Portland, where goods are loaded on ocean-going vessels.

Law and government

State constitution

The constitution of Idaho is roughly modeled on the national constitution with several additions. The constitution defines the form and functions of the state government, and may be amended through plebiscite. Notably, the state constitution presently requires the state government to maintain a balanced budget. As result, Idaho has limited debt (construction bonds, etc.).[73]

Idaho Code and Statutes

All of Idaho's state laws are contained in the Idaho Code and Statutes. The code is amended through the legislature with the approval of the governor. Idaho still operates under its original (1889) state constitution.[73]

State government

The constitution of Idaho provides for three branches of government: the executive, legislative and judicial branches. Idaho has a bicameral legislature, elected from 35 legislative districts, each represented by one senator and two representatives.

Since 1946, statewide elected constitutional officers have been elected to four-year terms. They include: Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Secretary of State, Idaho state controller (Auditor before 1994), Treasurer, Attorney General, and Superintendent of Public Instruction.

Last contested in 1966, Inspector of Mines was an originally elected constitutional office. Afterward it was an appointed position and ultimately done away with entirely in 1974.

Idaho's government has an alcohol monopoly.

Executive branch

The governor of Idaho serves a four-year term, and is elected during what is nationally referred to as midterm elections. As such, the governor is not elected in the same election year as the president of the United States. The current governor is Republican Brad Little, who was elected in 2018.

Legislative branch

House of Representatives Chamber, Idaho State Capitol
Chamber of the House of Representatives in 2018

Idaho's legislature is part-time. However, the session may be extended if necessary, and often is. Because of this, Idaho's legislators are considered "citizen legislators", meaning their position as a legislator is not their main occupation.

Terms for both the Senate and House of Representatives are two years. Legislative elections occur every even numbered year.

The Idaho Legislature has been continuously controlled by the Republican Party since the late 1950s, although Democratic legislators are routinely elected from Boise, Pocatello, Blaine County and the northern Panhandle.

See also List of Idaho senators and representatives

Judicial branch

The highest court in Idaho is the Idaho Supreme Court. There is also an intermediate appellate court, the Idaho Court of Appeals, which hears cases assigned to it from the Supreme Court. The state's District Courts serve seven judicial districts.[74]

Counties

Map of Idaho's counties

Idaho is divided into political jurisdictions designated as counties. Since 1919 there are 44 counties in the state, ranging in size from 410 to 8,502 square miles (1,060 to 22,020 km2).

County County seat License
Plate
Code
Year
founded
Population
(2017 est.)
Population
Percentage
Area
(sq. mi.)
Area %
Ada Boise 1A 1864 456,849 25.00% 1,060 1.21%
Adams Council 2A 1911 4,147 0.23% 1,370 1.57%
Bannock Pocatello 1B 1893 85,269 05.30% 1,147 1.31%
Bear Lake Paris 2B 1893 6,028 00.38% 1,049 1.20%
Benewah St. Maries 3B 1915 9,184 00.61% 784 0.90%
Bingham Blackfoot 4B 1885 45,927 02.88% 2,120 2.42%
Blaine Hailey 5B 1895 22,024 01.43 % 2,661 3.04%
Boise Idaho City 6B 1864 7,290 00.49% 1,907 2.18%
Bonner Sandpoint 7B 1907 43,560 02.70% 1,920 2.19%
Bonneville Idaho Falls 8B 1911 114,595 06.51% 1,901 2.17%
Boundary Bonners Ferry 9B 1915 11,922 00.72 % 1,278 1.46%
Butte Arco 10B 1917 2,602 00.18% 2,234 2.55%
Camas Fairfield 1C 1917 1,102 00.07% 1,079 1.23%
Canyon Caldwell 2C 1891 216,699 12.07% 604 0.69%
Caribou Soda Springs 3C 1919 7,034 00.45% 1,799 2.06%
Cassia Burley 4C 1879 23,664 01.40% 2,580 2.95%
Clark Dubois 5C 1919 873 00.06% 1,765 2.02%
Clearwater Orofino 6C 1911 8,546 00.54% 2,488 2.84%
Custer Challis 7C 1881 4,172 00.28% 4,937 5.64%
Elmore Mountain Home E 1889 26,823 01.90% 3,101 3.54%
Franklin Preston 1F 1913 13,564 00.82% 668 0.76%
Fremont St. Anthony 2F 1893 13,094 00.82% 1,896 2.17%
Gem Emmett 1G 1915 17,379 01.08% 566 0.65%
Gooding Gooding 2G 1913 15,124 00.94% 734 0.84%
Idaho Grangeville I 1861/1864 16,369 01.01% 8,502 9.71%
Jefferson Rigby 1J 1913 28,446 01.57% 1,106 1.26%
Jerome Jerome 2J 1919 23,627 01.34% 602 0.69%
Kootenai Coeur d'Alene K 1864 157,637 09.02% 1,316 1.50%
Latah Moscow 1L 1888 39,333 02.36% 1,077 1.23%
Lemhi Salmon 2L 1869 7,875 00.51% 4,570 5.22%
Lewis Nezperce 3L 1911 3,887 00.24% 480 0.55%
Lincoln Shoshone 4L 1895 5,318 00.30% 1,206 1.38%
Madison Rexburg 1M 1914 39,141 02.46% 473 0.54%
Minidoka Rupert 2M 1913 20,729 01.22% 763 0.87%
Nez Perce Lewiston N 1861/1864 40,385 02.56% 856 0.98%
Oneida Malad City 1O 1864 4,427 00.27% 1,202 1.37%
Owyhee Murphy 2O 1863 11,628 00.71% 7,697 8.79%
Payette Payette 1P 1917 23,215 01.51% 410 0.47%
Power American Falls 2P 1913 7,600 00.50% 1,443 1.65%
Shoshone Wallace S 1861/64 12,542 0.85% 2,636 3.01%
Teton Driggs 1T 1915 11,381 0.58% 451 0.52%
Twin Falls Twin Falls 2T 1907 85,124 4.87% 1,928 2.20%
Valley Cascade V 1917 10,687 0.58% 3,734 4.27%
Washington Weiser W 1879 10,121 0.67% 1,474 1.68%

Total Counties: 44. Total 2018 Population Est.: 1,754,208. Total Area: 87,530 square miles (226,700 km2).

Three counties were first designated as such by the Washington Territorial Legislature in 1861;[75] they were subsequently redesignated as Idaho counties in 1864. The 1861 Nez Percé county has since been broken up into Nez Percé, Lewis, Boundary, Benewah, Latah, Kootenai, and Clearwater counties.

Idaho license plates begin with a county designation based on the first letter of the county's name. Where a letter is at the beginning of more than one name, a number accompanies precedingly in alphabetical order. This reflects an anomalous coincidental situation wherein 10 counties begin with B, seven with C and four with L, which is 21 of the 44 counties.

Politics

Presidential elections results
Year Republican Democratic
2016 59.27% 410,269 27.50% 190,383
2012 64.53% 420,390 32.62% 212,699
2008 61.52% 403,012 36.09% 236,440
2004 68.38% 409,235 30.26% 181,098
2000 67.17% 336,937 27.64% 138,637
1996 52.18% 256,595 33.65% 165,443
1992 42.03% 202,645 28.42% 137,013
1988 62.08% 253,881 36.01% 147,272
1984 72.36% 297,523 26.39% 108,510
1980 66.46% 290,699 25.19% 110,192
1976 59.88% 204,151 37.12% 126,549
1972 64.24% 199,384 26.04% 80,826
1968 56.79% 165,369 30.66% 89,273
1964 49.08% 143,557 50.92% 148,920
1960 53.78% 161,597 46.22% 138,853
United States presidential election in Idaho, 2016
Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election
Idaho party registration by county
Party registration by county (December 2018):
  Republican >= 40%
  Republican >= 50%
  Republican >= 60%
  Republican >= 70%
  Republican >= 80%
  Unaffiliated>= 40%
  Unaffiliated>= 50%
Voter Registration and Party Enrollment as of May 3, 2018[76]
Party Number of Voters Percentage
Republican 403,771 49.86%
Unaffiliated 305,980 37.78%
Democratic 90,230 11.14%
Libertarian 6,733 0.83%
Constitution 3,006 0.37%
Total 809,720 100%

After the Civil War, many Midwestern and Southern Democrats moved to the Idaho Territory. As a result, the early territorial legislatures were solidly Democrat-controlled. In contrast, most of the territorial governors were appointed by Republican presidents and were Republicans. This led to sometimes-bitter clashes between the two parties, including a range war with the Democrats backing the sheepherders and the Republicans the cattlemen. That ended with the "Diamondfield" Jack Davis murder trial. In the 1880s, Republicans became more prominent in local politics.

In 1864, Clinton DeWitt Smith removed the territorial seal and the state constitution from a locked safe, and took them to Boise. This effectively moved the capital from where they were stored (Lewiston, Idaho) to the current capital Boise.[77]

Since statehood, the Republican Party has usually been the dominant party in Idaho. At one time, Idaho had two Democratic parties, one being the mainstream and the other called the Anti-Mormon Democrats, lasting into the early 20th century. In the 1890s and early 1900s, the Populist Party enjoyed prominence while the Democratic Party maintained a brief dominance in the 1930s during the Great Depression. Since World War II, most statewide elected officials have been Republicans. The last time the Democratic Party held a majority in either house of the state legislature was the House of Representatives in 1958 by one seat. However, Democrats did hold the governorship from 1971 to 1995, despite the state's Republican tilt.

Idaho Congressional delegations have also been generally Republican since statehood. Several Idaho Democrats have had electoral success in the House over the years, but the Senate delegation has been a Republican stronghold for decades. Several Idaho Republicans, including current Senator Mike Crapo, have won reelection to the Senate, but only Frank Church has won reelection as a Democrat. Church was the last Idaho Democrat to win a U.S. Senate race, in 1974. Walt Minnick's 2008 win in the First Congressional District was the state's first Democratic Congressional victory in 16 years.

In modern times, Idaho has been a reliably Republican state in presidential politics. It has not supported a Democrat for president since 1964. Even in that election, Lyndon Johnson defeated Barry Goldwater in the state by fewer than two percentage points, compared to a landslide nationally. In 2004, Republican George W. Bush carried Idaho by a margin of 38 percentage points and with 68.4% of the vote, winning in 43 of 44 counties. Only Blaine County, which contains the Sun Valley ski resort, supported John Kerry, who owns a home in the area. In 2008 Barack Obama's 36.1 percent[78] showing was the best for a Democratic presidential candidate in Idaho since 1976. However, Republican margins were narrower in 1992 and 1976.

In the 2006 elections, Republicans, led by gubernatorial candidate CL "Butch" Otter, won all the state's constitutional offices and retained both of the state's seats in the United States House of Representatives. However, Democrats picked up several seats in the Idaho Legislature, notably in the Boise area.[79]

Republicans lost one of the House seats in 2008 to Minnick, but Republican Jim Risch retained Larry Craig's Senate seat for the GOP by a comfortable margin.[80] Minnick lost his seat in the 2010 election to Republican State Rep. Raul Labrador.

Cities and towns

Coeur d'Alene
Sunset in Coeur d'Alene
Population > 100,000 (urbanized area)
  • 226,570 - Boise – state capital
  • 99,926 - Meridian – suburb of Boise, fastest growing city in Idaho
Population > 50,000 (urbanized area)
Population > 30,000 (urbanized area)
Population > 10,000 (urbanized area)
Smaller towns and cities

Protected areas

National parks, reserves, monuments and historic sites

City of Rocks National Reserve
Craters of the Moon National Monument

City of Rocks National Reserve
Craters of the Moon National Monument

National recreation areas

National wildlife refuges and Wilderness Areas

National conservation areas

State parks

Education

Colleges and universities

Spori Building
The Jacob Spori Building at Brigham Young University-Idaho in Rexburg

The Idaho State Board of Education oversees three comprehensive universities. The University of Idaho in Moscow was the first university in the state (founded in 1889). It opened its doors in 1892 and is the land-grant institution and primary research university of the state. Idaho State University in Pocatello opened in 1901 as the Academy of Idaho, attained four-year status in 1947 and university status in 1963. Boise State University is the most recent school to attain university status in Idaho. The school opened in 1932 as Boise Junior College and became Boise State University in 1974. Lewis-Clark State College in Lewiston is the only public, non-university 4-year college in Idaho. It opened as a normal school in 1893.

Idaho has four regional community colleges: North Idaho College in Coeur d'Alene; College of Southern Idaho in Twin Falls; College of Western Idaho in Nampa, which opened in 2009, College of Eastern Idaho in Idaho Falls, which transitioned from a technical college in 2017.

Private institutions in Idaho are Boise Bible College, affiliated with congregations of the Christian churches and churches of Christ; Brigham Young University-Idaho in Rexburg, which is affiliated with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and a sister college to Brigham Young University; The College of Idaho in Caldwell, which still maintains a loose affiliation with the Presbyterian Church; Northwest Nazarene University in Nampa; and New Saint Andrews College in Moscow, of reformed Christian theological background. McCall College is a non-affiliated 2-year private college in McCall, which was founded in 2011 and later opened in 2013.

Sports

Central Idaho is home to one of North America's oldest ski resorts, Sun Valley, where the world's first chairlift was installed in 1936.[82] Other noted outdoor sites include Hells Canyon, the Salmon River, and its embarkation point of Riggins.

Club Sport League
Boise Hawks Baseball Northwest(Class A)
Boise State Broncos NCAA Div I FBSMWC
Idaho Vandals NCAA Div I FCSBig Sky
Idaho State Bengals NCAA Div I FCSBig Sky
Idaho Falls Chukars Baseball Pioneer(Rookie)
Idaho Steelheads Ice hockey ECHL

The Boise Open professional golf tournament is played at Hillcrest Country Club since 1990 as part of the Web.com Tour.

High school sports are overseen by the Idaho High School Activities Association (IHSAA).

In 2016, Meridian's Michael Slagowski ran 800 meters in 1:48.70. That is one of the 35 fastest 800 meter times ever run by a high school boy in the United States.[83] Weeks later, he would become only the ninth high school boy to complete a mile in under 4 minutes, running 3:59.53.

Official state emblems

In popular culture

Judy Garland performed the elaborate song-and-dance routine "Born in a Trunk in the Princess Theater in Pocatello, Idaho" in the 1954 version of the film A Star is Born.[86]

The 1985 film Pale Rider was primarily filmed in the Boulder Mountains and the Sawtooth National Recreation Area in central Idaho, just north of Sun Valley.[87]

The 1988 film Moving, starring Richard Pryor, has the main character take a promotion in Idaho.[88]

River Phoenix and Keanu Reeves starred in the 1991 movie My Own Private Idaho, portions of which take place in Idaho.[89][90]

The 2004 cult film Napoleon Dynamite takes place in Preston, Idaho. The director, Jared Hess, attended Preston High School.[91]

The 2015 TV series The Grinder is set in Boise, Idaho, although it was not filmed there.[92]

See also

References

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External links

Preceded by
Washington
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on July 3, 1890 (43rd)
Succeeded by
Wyoming

Coordinates: 45°N 114°W / 45°N 114°W

Aaron Paul

Aaron Paul Sturtevant (born August 27, 1979) is an American actor. He is best known for portraying Jesse Pinkman in the AMC series Breaking Bad, for which he won several awards, including the Critics' Choice Television Award for Best Supporting Actor in a Drama Series (2014), the Satellite Award for Best Supporting Actor – Series, Miniseries, or Television Film (2013), and the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Drama Series. This made him one of only two actors to win the latter category three times (2010, 2012, 2014), since its separation into drama and comedy. He has also won the Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actor on Television three times (2009, 2011, 2013), more than any other actor in that category.Paul began his career with roles in several music videos and guest roles in television, before taking minor roles in films such as Mission: Impossible III (2006) and The Last House on the Left (2009). In 2007, he had a recurring role as Scott Quittman on the HBO series Big Love. Following his breakthrough, he began starring in films such as Need for Speed (2014), A Long Way Down (2014), and Exodus: Gods and Kings (2014). Since 2014, he has been the voice of Todd Chavez on the Netflix animated series BoJack Horseman, on which he is also an executive producer, and he portrayed Eddie Lane in the Hulu drama series The Path from 2016 to 2018.

Big Sky Conference

The Big Sky Conference is a collegiate athletic conference affiliated with the NCAA's Division I, with football competing in the Football Championship Subdivision. Member institutions are located in the western United States in the nine states of Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Utah, and Washington. Four affiliate members each participate in one sport. Two schools from California are football-only participants, and two schools from the Northeast participate only in men's golf.

Boise, Idaho

Boise ( (listen)) is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Idaho, and is the county seat of Ada County. Located on the Boise River in southwestern Idaho, the population of Boise at the 2010 Census was 205,671, the 99th largest in the United States. Its estimated population in 2016 was 223,154.

The Boise-Nampa metropolitan area, also known as the Treasure Valley, includes five counties with a combined population of 709,845, the most populous metropolitan area in Idaho. It contains the state's three largest cities; Boise, Nampa, and Meridian. Boise is the 80th most populous metropolitan statistical area in the United States.

Boise State University

Boise State University (BSU) is a public research university in Boise, Idaho. Founded in 1932 by the Episcopal Church, it became an independent junior college in 1934, and has been awarding baccalaureate and master's degrees since 1965.

Boise State offers more than 100 graduate programs, including the MBA and MAcc programs in the College of Business and Economics; Masters and PhD programs in the Colleges of Engineering, Arts & Sciences, and Education; and the MPA program in the School of Public Service. Boise State has invested in the future over the past decade, including spending over $300 million since 2003 on academic, residential, and athletics facilities across campus.The university's intercollegiate athletic teams, the Broncos, have participated in NCAA Division I since 1978; the football program moved up to FBS in 1996.

Christina Hendricks

Christina Rene Hendricks (born May 3, 1975) is an American actress and model. She is best known for her starring role as Joan Holloway on the AMC period drama series Mad Men (2007–2015) and as Beth Boland in the NBC crime drama series Good Girls (2018–present).

Hendricks has also appeared as Saffron in the Fox space western series Firefly (2002–03), Celine/"Chair" in the Comedy Central period sitcom Another Period (2015–16), and as Trudy in the SundanceTV drama series Hap and Leonard (2016). Her notable film credits include Drive (2011), God's Pocket (2014), Lost River (2014), The Neon Demon (2016), Fist Fight (2017), and The Strangers: Prey at Night (2018).

A poll of female readers taken by Esquire magazine named Hendricks "the sexiest woman in the world". In 2010, she was voted Best Looking Woman in America by Esquire magazine.

Coeur d'Alene, Idaho

Coeur d'Alene ( (listen) KOR də-LAYN, French: Cœur d'Alêne, lit. 'Heart of an awl') is the largest city and county seat of Kootenai County, Idaho, United States. It is the principal city of the Coeur d'Alene Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2010 census, the population of Coeur d'Alene was 44,137. The city is a satellite city of Spokane, which is located about 30 miles (48 km) to the west, in the state of Washington. The two cities are the key components of the Spokane–Coeur d'Alene combined statistical area, of which Coeur d'Alene is the third-largest city (after Spokane and its largest suburb, Spokane Valley). Coeur d'Alene is the largest city in North Idaho. The city is situated on the north shore of Lake Coeur d'Alene, 25 miles (40 km) in length. Locally, Coeur d'Alene is known as the "Lake City", or simply called by its initials: "CDA".

The city of Coeur d'Alene has grown significantly in recent years, in part because of a substantial increase in tourism, encouraged by several resorts in the area. Broadcaster and media figure Barbara Walters called the city "a little slice of Heaven" and included it in her list of most fascinating places to visit. On November 28, 2007, Good Morning America broadcast the city's Christmas lighting ceremony because its display is among the largest in the United States. The Coeur d'Alene Resort and a 165-acre natural area called Tubbs Hill, Coeur d'Alene, Idaho take up a prominent portion of the city's downtown. There are several ski areas nearby: Silver Mountain Resort to the east in Kellogg, Lookout Pass Ski and Recreation Area alsoto the east on Lookout Passat the Montana border, and Schweitzer Mountain Ski Resort to the north in Sandpoint. The largest theme and water park in the Northwest, Silverwood Theme Park, is located approximately 20 miles to the north.

The city is named after the Coeur d'Alene People, a federally recognized tribe of Native Americans who lived along the rivers and lakes of the region, in a territory of 5,500 square miles (14,000 km2) extending into Washington and Montana. They were first encountered by French fur traders in the late 18th and early 19th century, who referred to them as Cœur d'Alêne, meaning "heart of an awl", reflecting their experience of the tribal traders as tough businessmen, "sharp-hearted" or "shrewd".

Demi Moore

Demi Gene Guynes (born November 11, 1962), professionally known as Demi Moore ( də-MEE), is an American actress, former songwriter, and model. Moore dropped out of high school at age 16 to pursue an acting career and appeared in the men's pornographic magazine Oui in 1981. After making her film debut later that year, she appeared on the soap opera General Hospital and subsequently gained recognition as a member of the Brat Pack with roles in Blame It on Rio (1984), St. Elmo's Fire (1985), and About Last Night... (1986).Her starring role in Ghost (1990), the highest-grossing film of that year, earned her a Golden Globe nomination. She continued to find box-office success in the early 1990s, with the films A Few Good Men (1992), Indecent Proposal (1993), and Disclosure (1994). In 1996, Moore became the highest-paid actress in film history when she received a then-unprecedented US$12.5 million to star in Striptease, a commercial success but a major critical disappointment. Her next major role, G.I. Jane (1997), for which she famously shaved her head, was followed by a lengthy break and downturn in Moore's career. Her later film roles include Charlie's Angels: Full Throttle (2003), Bobby (2006), Mr. Brooks (2007), and Margin Call (2011).

Besides acting, her personal life has been the subject of significant media coverage, particularly her marriages to actors Bruce Willis and Ashton Kutcher.

Ernest Hemingway

Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American journalist, novelist, short-story writer, and noted sportsman. His economical and understated style—which he termed the iceberg theory—had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction, while his adventurous lifestyle and his public image brought him admiration from later generations. Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s, and he won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954. He published seven novels, six short-story collections, and two non-fiction works. Three of his novels, four short story collections, and three non-fiction works were published posthumously. Many of his works are considered classics of American literature.

Hemingway was raised in Oak Park, Illinois. After high school, he reported for a few months for The Kansas City Star before leaving for the Italian Front to enlist as an ambulance driver in World War I. In 1918, he was seriously wounded and returned home. His wartime experiences formed the basis for his novel A Farewell to Arms (1929).

In 1921, he married Hadley Richardson, the first of what would be four wives. The couple moved to Paris, where he worked as a foreign correspondent and fell under the influence of the modernist writers and artists of the 1920s "Lost Generation" expatriate community. His debut novel, The Sun Also Rises, was published in 1926. After his 1927 divorce from Richardson, Hemingway married Pauline Pfeiffer; they divorced after he returned from the Spanish Civil War, where he had been a journalist. He based For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940) on his experience there. Martha Gellhorn became his third wife in 1940; they separated after he met Mary Welsh in London during World War II. He was present at the Normandy landings and the liberation of Paris.

Shortly after the publication of The Old Man and the Sea (1952), Hemingway went on safari to Africa, where he was almost killed in two successive plane crashes that left him in pain or ill-health for much of the rest of his life. Hemingway maintained permanent residences in Key West, Florida (in the 1930s) and Cuba (in the 1940s and 1950s). In 1959, he bought a house in Ketchum, Idaho, where, in mid-1961, he ended his own life.

Idaho Falls, Idaho

Idaho Falls is the county seat of Bonneville County, Idaho, United States, and the state's largest city outside the Boise metropolitan area. As of the 2010 census, the population of Idaho Falls was 56,813 (2016 estimate: 60,211), with a metro population of 133,265.Idaho Falls serves as the commercial, cultural, and healthcare hub for eastern Idaho, as well as parts of western Wyoming and southern Montana. It is served by the Idaho Falls Regional Airport and is home to the College of Eastern Idaho, Museum of Idaho, and the Idaho Falls Chukars minor league baseball team. It is the principal city of the Idaho Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area and the Idaho Falls-Blackfoot, Idaho Combined Statistical Area.

Moscow, Idaho

Moscow ( MOS-koh) is a city in northern Idaho along the state border with Washington, with a population of 23,800 at the 2010 census. The county seat and largest city of Latah County, Moscow is the home of the University of Idaho, the state's land grant institution and primary research university, as well as the home of New Saint Andrews College, a Christian liberal arts college.

It is the principal city in the Moscow, Idaho Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Latah County. The city contains over 60% of the county's population, and while the university is Moscow's dominant employer, the city also serves as an agricultural and commercial hub for the Palouse region.

Along with the rest of northern Idaho, Moscow is in the Pacific Time Zone. The elevation of its city center is 2,579 feet (786 m) above sea level. Major highways serving the city are US-95 (north-south) and ID-8 (east-west), both of which are routed through central Moscow. Limited commercial air service is four miles west (6 km) at the Pullman-Moscow Regional Airport.

Napoleon Dynamite

Napoleon Dynamite is a 2004 American comedy film produced by Jeremy Coon, Chris Wyatt, Sean Covel and Jory Weitz, written by Jared and Jerusha Hess and directed by Jared Hess. The film stars Jon Heder in the role of the title character, for which he was paid $1,000. After the film's runaway success, Heder re-negotiated his compensation and received a cut of the profits. The film was Jared Hess' first full-length feature and is partially adapted from his earlier short film, Peluca. Napoleon Dynamite was acquired at the Sundance Film Festival by Fox Searchlight Pictures and Paramount Pictures, in association with MTV Films. It was filmed in and near Franklin County, Idaho in the summer of 2003. It debuted at the Sundance Film Festival in January 2004. The film's total worldwide gross revenue was $46,118,097. The film has since developed a cult following.

National Register of Historic Places listings in Idaho

This is a directory of properties and districts included among the National Register of Historic Places listings in Idaho. There are approximately 1,000 sites in Idaho listed on the National Register. Each of the state's 44 counties has at least one listing on the National Register.

This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted March 7, 2019.

Nez Perce people

The Nez Perce (; autonym: Niimíipuu, meaning "the walking people" or "we, the people") are an Indigenous people of the Plateau who have lived on the Columbia River Plateau in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States for a long time.Members of the Sahaptin language group, the Niimíipuu were the dominant people of the Columbia Plateau for much of that time, especially after acquiring the horses that led them to breed the appaloosa horse in the 18th century.

Prior to "first contact" with Western civilization the Nimiipuu were economically and culturally influential in trade and war, interacting with other indigenous nations in a vast network from the western shores of Oregon and Washington, the high plains of Montana, and the northern Great Basin in southern Idaho and northern Nevada.After first contact, the name "Nez Perce" was given to the Niimíipuu and the nearby Chinook people by French explorers and trappers. The name means "pierced nose", but only the Chinook used that form of decoration.Today they are a federally recognized tribe, the Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho, and govern their Indian reservation in Idaho through a central government headquartered in Lapwai, Idaho known as the Nez Perce Tribal Executive Committee (NPTEC). They are one of five federally recognized tribes in the state of Idaho. Some still speak their traditional language, and the Tribe owns and operates two casinos along the Clearwater River in Idaho in Kamiah, Idaho and outside of Lewiston, Idaho, health clinics, a police force and court, community centers, salmon fisheries, radio station, and other things that promote economic and cultural self-determination.Cut off from most of their horticultural sites throughout the Camas Prairie by an 1863 treaty, confinement to reservations in Idaho, Washington and Oklahoma Indian Territory after the Nez Perce War of 1877, and Dawes Act of 1887 land allotments (today some Nez Perce lease land to farmers or loggers, but the Nez Perce only own 12% of their own reservation), the Nez Perce remain as a distinct culture and political economic influence within and outside their reservation. Today, hatching, harvesting and eating salmon is an important cultural and economic strength of the Nez Perce through full ownership or co-management of various salmon fish hatcheries, such as the Kooskia National Fish Hatchery in Kooskia, Idaho or the Dworshak National Fish Hatchery in Orofino, Idaho.

Pocatello, Idaho

Pocatello ( (listen)) is the county seat and largest city of Bannock County, with a small portion on the Fort Hall Indian Reservation in neighboring Power County, in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of Idaho. It is the principle city of the Pocatello metropolitan area, which encompasses all of Bannock county. As of the 2010 census the population of Pocatello was 54,255.Pocatello is the fifth-largest city in the state, just behind Idaho Falls (population of 56,813). In 2007, Pocatello was ranked twentieth on Forbes list of Best Small Places for Business and Careers. Pocatello is the home of Idaho State University and the manufacturing facility of ON Semiconductor. The city is at an elevation of 4,462 feet (1,360 m) above sea level and is served by the Pocatello Regional Airport.

Snake River

The Snake River is a major river of the greater Pacific Northwest region in the United States. At 1,078 miles (1,735 km) long, it is the largest tributary of the Columbia River, in turn the largest North American river that empties into the Pacific Ocean. The Snake River rises in western Wyoming, then flows through the Snake River Plain of southern Idaho, the rugged Hells Canyon on the Oregon–Idaho border and the rolling Palouse Hills of Washington, emptying into the Columbia River at the Tri-Cities, Washington.

The Snake River drainage basin encompasses parts of six U.S. states and is known for its varied geologic history. The Snake River Plain was created by a volcanic hotspot which now lies underneath the Snake River headwaters in Yellowstone National Park. Gigantic glacial-retreat flooding episodes that occurred during the previous Ice Age carved out canyons, cliffs and waterfalls along the middle and lower Snake River. Two of these catastrophic flooding events, the Missoula Floods and Bonneville Flood, significantly affected the river and its surroundings.

Prehistoric Native Americans lived along the Snake starting more than 11,000 years ago. Salmon from the Pacific Ocean spawned by the millions in the river, and were a vital resource for people living on the Snake downstream of Shoshone Falls. By the time Lewis and Clark explored the area, the Nez Perce and Shoshone were the dominant Native American groups in the region. Later explorers and fur trappers further changed and used the resources of the Snake River basin. At one point, sign language used by the Shoshones representing weaving baskets was misinterpreted to represent a snake, giving the Snake River its name.By the middle 19th century, the Oregon Trail had become well established, bringing numerous settlers to the Snake River region. Steamboats and railroads moved agricultural products and minerals along the river throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries. Starting in the 1890s, fifteen major dams have been built on the Snake River to generate hydroelectricity, enhance navigation, and provide irrigation water. However, these dams blocked salmon migration above Hells Canyon and have led to water quality and environmental issues in certain parts of the river. The removal of several dams on the lower Snake River has been proposed, in order to restore some of the river's once-tremendous salmon runs.

Torrie Wilson

Torrie Anne Wilson (born July 24, 1975) is an American model, fitness competitor, actress, and professional wrestler. She is best known for her time in World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE).

As a fitness competitor, Wilson won the Miss Galaxy competition in 1999. Shortly after, she was signed by World Championship Wrestling (WCW), where she stayed from 1999 until 2000. In 2001, she began appearing on World Wrestling Federation (WWF) television as part of The Invasion (by WCW, of the [then-] WWF) storyline. Her most high-profile storyline took place in 2003 when she feuded with Dawn Marie. Wilson has also been a part of the all-female stable (i.e., a group of storyline-associated characters), known as Vince's Devils, which ended its run in 2006.

Aside from pro wrestling, Wilson has been on the cover of several magazines, including FHM and Playboy (which Wilson posed for twice, one featuring both Wilson and Sable).

United States congressional delegations from Idaho

These are tables of congressional delegations from Idaho to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives.

University of Idaho

The University of Idaho (officially abbreviated U of I, or UIdaho) is the U.S. state of Idaho's flagship public university and is based in Moscow. It is the state's land-grant and primary research university. The University of Idaho was the state's sole university for 71 years, until 1963, and its College of Law, established in 1909, was first accredited by the American Bar Association in 1925.

Formed by the territorial legislature on January 30, 1889, the university opened its doors in 1892 on October 3, with an initial class of 40 students. The first graduating class in 1896 contained two men and two women. It has an enrollment exceeding 12,000, with over 11,000 on the Moscow campus. The university offers 142 degree programs, from accountancy to wildlife resources, including bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and specialists' degrees. Certificates of completion are offered in 30 areas of study. At 25% and 53%, its 4 and 6 year graduation rates are the highest of any public university in Idaho, and it generates 74 percent of all research money in the state, with research expenditures of $100 million in 2010 alone.

As a land-grant university and the primary research university in the state, UI has the largest campus in the state at 1,585 acres (6.4 km2), in the rolling hills of the Palouse region at an elevation of 2,600 feet (790 m) above sea level. The school is home to the Idaho Vandals, who compete in NCAA Division I athletics. In addition to the main campus in Moscow, the UI has branch campuses in Coeur d'Alene, Boise, Twin Falls, and Idaho Falls. It also operates a research park in Post Falls and dozens of extension offices statewide.

Yellowstone National Park

Yellowstone National Park is an American national park located in Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho. It was established by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant on March 1, 1872. Yellowstone was the first national park in the U.S. and is also widely held to be the first national park in the world. The park is known for its wildlife and its many geothermal features, especially Old Faithful geyser, one of its most popular features. It has many types of ecosystems, but the subalpine forest is the most abundant. It is part of the South Central Rockies forests ecoregion.

Native Americans have lived in the Yellowstone region for at least 11,000 years. Aside from visits by mountain men during the early-to-mid-19th century, organized exploration did not begin until the late 1860s. Management and control of the park originally fell under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Interior, the first being Columbus Delano. However, the U.S. Army was subsequently commissioned to oversee management of Yellowstone for a 30-year period between 1886 and 1916. In 1917, administration of the park was transferred to the National Park Service, which had been created the previous year. Hundreds of structures have been built and are protected for their architectural and historical significance, and researchers have examined more than a thousand archaeological sites.

Yellowstone National Park spans an area of 3,468.4 square miles (8,983 km2), comprising lakes, canyons, rivers and mountain ranges. Yellowstone Lake is one of the largest high-elevation lakes in North America and is centered over the Yellowstone Caldera, the largest supervolcano on the continent. The caldera is considered an active volcano. It has erupted with tremendous force several times in the last two million years. Half of the world's geysers and hydrothermal features are in Yellowstone, fueled by this ongoing volcanism. Lava flows and rocks from volcanic eruptions cover most of the land area of Yellowstone. The park is the centerpiece of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, the largest remaining nearly-intact ecosystem in the Earth's northern temperate zone. In 1978, Yellowstone was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Hundreds of species of mammals, birds, fish, and reptiles have been documented, including several that are either endangered or threatened. The vast forests and grasslands also include unique species of plants. Yellowstone Park is the largest and most famous megafauna location in the contiguous United States. Grizzly bears, wolves, and free-ranging herds of bison and elk live in this park. The Yellowstone Park bison herd is the oldest and largest public bison herd in the United States. Forest fires occur in the park each year; in the large forest fires of 1988, nearly one third of the park was burnt. Yellowstone has numerous recreational opportunities, including hiking, camping, boating, fishing and sightseeing. Paved roads provide close access to the major geothermal areas as well as some of the lakes and waterfalls. During the winter, visitors often access the park by way of guided tours that use either snow coaches or snowmobiles.

Idaho state symbols
Flag of Idaho
Seal of Idaho
Living insignia
AmphibianTiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum)
Bird
FishCutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii)
FlowerSyringa (Philadelphus lewisii)
Horse breedAppaloosa
InsectMonarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus)
TreeWestern white pine (Pinus monticola)
Inanimate insignia
DanceSquare dance
Food
FossilHagerman horse (Equus simplicidens)
GemstoneStar garnet
SloganGreat Potatoes. Tasty Destinations.
SoilThreebear
State route marker
Idaho state route marker
State quarter
Idaho quarter dollar coin
Released in 2007
Lists of United States state symbols
Idaho racial composition of population[37]
Race Population (2016 est.) Percentage
Total population 1,635,483 100%
White 1,493,155 91.3%
Black or African American 10,433 0.6%
American Indian and Alaska Native 21,454 1.3%
Asian 21,630 1.3%
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander 2,003 0.1%
Some other race 44,758 2.7%
Two or more races 42,050 2.6%
Idaho historical racial composition
Racial composition 1970[38] 1990[38] 2000[39] 2010[40]
White 98.1% 94.4% 90.1% 89.1%
Native 0.9% 1.4% 1.4% 1.4%
Asian 0.5% 0.9% 0.9% 1.2%
Black 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.6%
Native Hawaiian and
other Pacific Islander
0.1% 0.1%
Other race 0.2% 3.0% 4.2% 5.1%
Two or more races 2.0% 2.5%
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