Icterine warbler

The icterine warbler (Hippolais icterina) is an Old World warbler in the tree warbler genus Hippolais. It breeds in mainland Europe except the southwest, where it is replaced by its western counterpart, melodious warbler. It is migratory, wintering in sub-Saharan Africa.

Icterine warbler
Hippolais icterina2
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Acrocephalidae
Genus: Hippolais
Species:
H. icterina
Binomial name
Hippolais icterina
(Vieillot, 1817)

Description

A fairly big warbler with a large head, broad based bill and long wings with a quite short square ended tail. The upperparts are greyish-green and the underparts are unifrmly light yellow. It has pale lores and a rather vague yellowish supercilium with a pale eye ring. Other distinguishing features include a panel on the folded wings formed by pale edges to the secondary feathers and tertiary feathers and the grey, sometimes bluish legs.[2]

Habitat

The icterine warbler is a bird of woodland rather than forest, preferring woodland edge or glades, favouring the crowns of well spaced trees with tall undergrowth. Prefers broad leafed trees, but may be found in conifers mixed with broad leafed trees. Will use copses, orchards, parks, gardens, shelterbelts and tall hedges interspersed with trees.[3]

Voice

The song is a fast nasal babbling incorporating mimicry of other species. The call is described as teck or tec, tec, tec.[2]

Distribution and movements

The icterine warbler has the most northerly and widespread distribution of the four Hippolais species, its breeding range extends from northern France and Norway through most of northern and eastern Europe, south as far as the northern Balkans mountains and Crimea mountains eastwards in a narrowing band to the River Ob.[3] It has bred in Scotland recently but it is normally a passage migrant in Great Britain and Ireland[4]

It is a migratory species and the entire population winters in sub-Saharan Africa, mainly south of the equator. It begins its southward migration from late July, peaking in early August and returns to the breeding range in late May.[3]

Biology

The icterine warbler is mainly insectivorous but will feed on fruit in late summer. It forages amomng the foliage taking insects either on the leaves or fluttering, will flycatch. In general it is clumsier than the smaller but superficially similar Phylloscopus warblers. Rather solitary and it is territorial on both the breeding and wintering grounds. Four to six eggs are laid in a nest in a tree or a bush.[3]

Etymology

The genus name Hippolais is from Ancient Greek hupolais, as misspelt by Linnaeus. It referred to a small bird mentioned by Aristotle and others and may be onomatopoeic or derived from hupo,"under", and laas, "stone". The specific icterina is Greek for "jaundice-yellow". Icterus was an old word for jaundice, and also referred to a yellowish-green bird, perhaps the golden oriole, the sight of which was believed to cure the disease.[5][6] It is colloquially referred to by birders as icky.[7]

Hippolais icterina MHNT ZOO 2010 11 201 Spire (ville)
Eggs of Icterine warbler MHNT
Hippolais icterina. 90sek.

The scientific name was also spelt as Hypolais icterina.[8]

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Hippolais icterina". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ a b Svensson, Lars; Mullarney, Killian; Zetterstrom, Dab (2009). Collins Bird Guide (2nd ed.). HarperCollins. pp. 324–325.
  3. ^ a b c d Snow, D.W.; Perrins, C.M. (1998). The Birds of the Western Palearctic Concise Edition Volume 2 Passerines. Oxford University Press. pp. 12842–1284. ISBN 0 19 850188 9.
  4. ^ "BTO Atlas work produces Icky results". Birdguides. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  5. ^ Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 192, 201. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  6. ^ "Icterus". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  7. ^ Moss, Stephen (2012). The Hedgerows Heaped with May. Aurum Press. ISBN 1 7813 1101 3.
  8. ^ See e.g. Keulemans, John Gerrard (1876). Onze vogels in huis en tuin (Our Birds in Home and Garden)  (in Dutch). 3 – via Wikisource.

External links

Acrocephalidae

The Acrocephalidae (the reed warblers, marsh- and tree-warblers, or acrocephalid warblers) are a family of oscine passerine birds, in the superfamily Sylvioidea.

The species in this family are usually rather large "warblers". Most are rather plain olivaceous brown above with much yellow to beige below. They are usually found in open woodland, reedbeds, or tall grass. The family occurs mostly in southern to western Eurasia and surroundings, but also ranges far into the Pacific, with some species in Africa.

Enz

The Enz is a river flowing north from the Black Forest to the Neckar in Baden-Württemberg.

It is 106 km long.

Its headstreams – the Little Enz (German: Kleine Enz) and the Great Enz or Big Enz (Große Enz) – rise in the Northern Black Forest, the latter at Enzklösterle. In Calmbach, the Little Enz and the Big Enz join to form the Enz. The river passes through Neuenbürg and Pforzheim, where it leaves the Black Forest. It then flows through the cities of Vaihingen and Bietigheim-Bissingen. Along the lower course, wine is grown.

Major tributaries to the Enz are Glems and Nagold (with its tributary Würm). Near Besigheim the Enz feeds into the Neckar.

In earlier times the Enz was important for the timber rafting industry.

Faerie Glen Nature Reserve

Faerie Glen Nature Reserve is a nature reserve at the western limit of the Bronberg in the east of Pretoria, South Africa. It formerly formed a part of the farm Hartbeespoort 304 which belonged to H. W. Struben. On old aerial photographs it is apparent that the flood plain was utilized for crop fields, while the remainder was used for cattle grazing. The reserve constitutes the western part of the Bronberg conservation area, which was declared in 1980. Its highest point is Renosterkop (1,468 m) in the northern part of the reserve.

Hippolais

Hippolais is a genus of tree warbler in the Acrocephalidae family. It is sometimes lumped together with the genus Iduna.It contains the following species:

Upcher's warbler (Hippolais languida)

Olive-tree warbler (Hippolais olivetorum)

Melodious warbler (Hippolais polyglotta)

Icterine warbler (Hippolais icterina)The genus name Hippolais is from Ancient Greek hupolais, as misspelt by Linnaeus. It referred to a small bird mentioned by Aristotle and others and may be onomatopoeic or derived from hupo,"under", and laas, "stone".

Icterine

Icterine is a colour, described as yellowish, jaundice-yellow or marked with yellow. It is derived from Ancient Greek ikteros (jaundice), via the Latin ictericus. It is used as an adjective in the names of birds with yellowish plumage to describe their appearance, including the icterine warbler and icterine greenbul.

Isbladskärret

Isbladskärret is a small lake on Djurgården, an island in central Stockholm, Sweden. The lake is much appreciated among bird-watchers, and, being part of the Royal National City Park, also carefully monitored by several organizations, including the World Wide Fund for Nature. The lake is one of six in Djurgården (including Northern Djurgården, north of the island), the others being Lillsjön, Uggleviken, Spegeldammen, Lappkärret, and Laduviken.

Järveküla Nature Reserve

Järveküla Nature Reserve is a nature reserve founded in 1990, situated by Lake Vörtsjärv in southern Estonia (Viljandi County) near the village of Järveküla. The nature reserve has been established to protect the population of white-tailed eagles present in the area, and includes pine forest and patches of bog.Other birds found in Järveküla Nature Reserve include: the Barn swallow (the national bird of Estonia), Eurasian wryneck, Eurasian golden oriole, Icterine warbler, River warbler, Spotted flycatcher, Eurasian tree sparrow, Common chaffinch, European greenfinch, European pied flycatcher, Eurasian skylark, Fieldfare, White wagtail, Yellowhammer, Hooded crow, Garden warbler, Grey heron, Eurasian blue tit, Eurasian blackcap, Common rosefinch, European goldfinch and Common chiffchaff among others.

List of birds of Bulgaria

This list of birds of Bulgaria includes all bird species which have been seen in the country. Birds marked with (W) are species which spend the winter in Bulgaria but do not breed there, birds marked with (V) are vagrant species and birds marked with (I) are introduced species. It includes 400 bird species from 21 orders, 63 families and 198 genera.

The varied natural habitat, relief and climate and relatively untouched environment are among the main reasons for the many bird species in the country. The numerous islands and wetlands along the Danube including the Persina Natural Park and Srebarna Nature Reserve, as well as the lakes and swamps along the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, support many species of diving and aquatic birds such as ducks, swans, pelicans, grebes, spoonbills and many others. The eastern Rhodopes are among the strongholds of birds of prey in Europe, with most of the species in the continent nesting in that area. The mild climate in the extreme south offers good conditions for many Mediterranean birds as well as for wintering species from the north.

List of birds of Denmark

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Denmark. The avifauna of Denmark included a total of 474 species recorded in the wild by early 2018 according to Bird list of Denmark. Of these species, 183 are rare or accidental and six have been introduced by humans.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags are used by the Danish Ornithologcial Society (Dansk Onitologisk Forening, DOF) to highlight some categories of occurrence. Those without tags are in Category A and "have been recorded in an apparently wild state in Denmark since 1st January 1950" according to DOF.

(B) Category B - species which naturally occurred in Denmark prior to 1 January 1950 but have not been recorded since then

(C) Category C - species introduced by humans, directly or indirectly, and which have established feral breeding populations

(*) Rarity - species which require submission to the Danish Rarities Committee of DOF for the sighting to be included in the official record.

List of birds of Greece

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Greece. The avifauna of Greece include a total of 453 species according to the Hellenic Rarities Committee of the Hellenic Ornithological Society (Ελληνική Ορνιθολογική Εταιρεία). Of them, four have not been recorded since 1950 and two have been introduced by humans.This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (English and scientific names) are those of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories of occurrence. Species without tags are regularly occurring residents, migrants, or seasonal visitors which have been recorded since 1 January 1950.

(*) Rare in Greece; reports of these 120 species require submission to the Hellenic Rarities Committee for inclusion in the official record.

(B) Species which have not occurred in Greece since 1 January 1950.

(C) Species that do not occur naturally in Greece, although breeding populations have been introduced by humans.

List of birds of Iceland

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Iceland. The avifauna of Iceland include a total of 378 confirmed species as of April 2016 according to the Icelandic Birding Pages (IBP). An additional 16 species had been recorded by eBird users by early 2019. Of the 394 species listed here, 313 are accidental. The entire populations of two species have resulted from introductions by humans, and a few other species have individuals of both natural and human-assisted origin. One species on the list is extinct.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (English and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags have been used to highlight some categories of occurrence.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Iceland

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Iceland as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions, and has become established

List of birds of Luxembourg

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Luxembourg. The avifauna of Luxembourg include a total of 289 species, of which five have been introduced by humans and 89 are rare or accidental; of these, 15 have not been reported in Luxembourg since 1950.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of the LNVL (Lëtzebuerger Natur- a Vulleschutzliga).

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. Not all species fall into one of these categories; those that do not are commonly occurring native species.

(H) Historical - a species not recorded in Luxembourg since 1950

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Luxembourg as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Luxembourg, for which supporting descriptions are required by the Luxemburg Rarities Committee (Luxemburger Homologationskommission)

List of birds of the Gambia

This is a list of the bird species recorded in the Gambia. The avifauna of the Gambia include a total of 576 species, one of which has been introduced by humans and two of which are globally threatened. The country, which is very small and almost completely surrounded by Senegal, has no endemic species.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. Not all species will fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring native species.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in the Gambia

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to the Gambia as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of the Netherlands

This is a list of the bird species recorded in the Netherlands. The avifauna of the Netherlands included a total of 534 species recorded in the wild by early 2018 according to Checklist of Dutch bird species and Bird Checklists of the World. Of these species, 238 are accidental, 16 have been introduced by humans, and one is extinct.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags have been used to highlight some categories of occurrence. The (A) tags are from one or both of Checklist of Dutch bird species and Bird Checklists of the World, and (I) tags are from Bird Checklists of the World. The notes of population status such as "endangered" apply to the world population and are also from Bird Checklists of the World.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in the Netherlands

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to the Netherlands as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

Melodious warbler

The melodious warbler (Hippolais polyglotta) is an Old World warbler in the tree warbler genus Hippolais. It breeds in southwest Europe and northwest Africa. It is migratory, wintering in sub-Saharan Africa. This small passerine bird is a species found in open woodland with bushes. Three to five eggs are laid in a nest in a tree or a bush. This is a common bird in many parts of its wide range and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated its conservation status as being of "least concern".

Old World warbler

Old World warblers are a large group of birds formerly grouped together in the bird family Sylviidae. The family held over 400 species in over 70 genera, and were the source of much taxonomic confusion. Two families were split out initially, the cisticolas into Cisticolidae and the kinglets into Regulidae. In the past ten years they have been the subject of much research and many species are now placed into other families, including the Acrocephalidae, Cettiidae, Phylloscopidae, and Megaluridae. In addition some species have been moved into existing families or have not yet had their placement fully resolved. A smaller family of warblers, together with some babblers formerly placed in the family Timaliidae and the parrotbills, are retained in a much smaller family Sylviidae.

Prioksko-Terrasny Nature Reserve

Prioksko-Terrasny Nature Biosphere Reserve (Russian: Приокско-Террасный государственный природный биосферный заповедник) is one of Russia's smallest zapovedniks (nature reserves), sprawling over an area of 5,000 hectares along the left bank of the Oka River in the Serpukhov District of Moskva Oblast. It was established in 1945 as part of the Moscow Nature Reserve and is home to 900 plant species, 130 bird species, and 54 mammal species. A wisent nursery was established in 1948 to populate the region with European bisons from the Belovezhskaya Pushcha and Western Caucasus. There is also a small herd of American bisons.

The very important to scientists was the fact that Prioksko-Terrasny biosphere reserve is situated on the border of the subzone of European taiga with the admixture of broad-leaved species and the subzone of broad-leaved forests. The functions of reserve were in preservation of typical ecosystems and unique observation of the natural dynamics of ecosystems and their components (biota, soil, water, climate), the study of the influence of anthropogenic factors on the change in the natural state of the natural environment at the territory of the biosphere reserve and training researchers in conservation and environmental monitoring.

Tree warbler

Tree warblers are medium-sized warblers in the marsh- and tree-warbler family Acrocephalidae. They are found in Europe, Africa and western Asia. Until recently, they were all classified in the single genus Hippolais.

These warblers are associated with trees, though normally in fairly open woodland rather than tight plantations. Compared with the closely related Acrocephalus species, tree warblers have squarer tails and broader bill-bases. Most are unstreaked greenish or brownish above and cream or white below. They are insectivorous, but will occasionally take berries or seeds. The species breeding in temperate regions are mostly strongly migratory.

Upcher's warbler

The Upcher's warbler (Hippolais languida) is an Old World warbler in the tree warbler genus Hippolais. It breeds in an area from Turkey south and east to Pakistan. It is migratory, wintering in eastern Africa, from Eritrea and Somalia south to Tanzania.

This small passerine bird is a species found in semi-desert habitats, frequenting bushy scrub and thickets of tamarisk. 4-5 eggs are laid in a nest in bushes and low trees.

This is a medium-sized warbler, similar in size to the icterine warbler, with a slightly longer bill and shorter wings and a longer tail. Its frequent tail movement is reminiscent of a Sylvia warbler or a chat. Its rather grey plumage is similar to the olivaceous warbler, but tail movements are diagnostic.

It feeds on invertebrates. Its song is similar to that of other Hippolais warblers, but distinctive and unmistakable, and entirely different from that of the olivaceous warbler.

Ehrenberg's original description of this bird was 'rather vague' and it was redescribed by Henry Baker Tristram in 1864, naming it Hippolais upcheri after his friend Henry Morris Upcher. This is the origin of the bird's common name.

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