Icicle

An icicle is a spike of ice formed when water dripping or falling from an object freezes.

Icicles
Icicles on a tree

Formation and dynamics

Street Signs With Icicles
Icicles gathered on a street sign in Eugene, Oregon

Icicles can form during bright, sunny, but subfreezing weather, when ice or snow melted by sunlight or some other heat source (such as a poorly insulated building), refreezes as it drips off under exposed conditions. Over time continued water runoff will cause the icicle to grow. Another set of conditions is during ice storms, when rain falling in air slightly below freezing slowly accumulates as numerous small icicles hanging from twigs, leaves, wires, etc. Thirdly, icicles can form wherever water seeps out of or drips off vertical surfaces such as road cuts or cliffs. Under some conditions these can slowly form the "frozen waterfalls" favored by ice climbers

Icicles form on surfaces which might have a smooth and straight, or irregular shape, which in turn influences the shape of an icicle.[1] Another influence is melting water, which might flow toward the icicle in a straight line or which might flow from several directions.[2] Impurities in the water can lead to ripples on the surface of the icicles.[1]

Icicles elongate by the growth of ice as a tube into the pendant drop. The wall of this ice tube is about 0.1 mm (0.0039 in) and the width 5 mm (0.20 in). As a result of this growth process, the interior of a growing icicle is liquid water. The growth of an icicle both in length and in width can be calculated and is a complicated function of air temperature, wind speed, and the water flux into the icicle.[3] The growth rate in length typically varies with time, and can in ideal conditions be more than 1 cm (0.39 in) per minute.

Given the right conditions, icicles may also form in caves (in which case they are also known as ice stalactites). They can also form within salty water (brine) sinking from sea ice. These so-called brinicles can actually kill sea urchins and starfish, which was observed by BBC film crews near Mount Erebus, Antarctica.[4][5][6]

Damage and injuries caused by icicles

Icicles can pose both safety and structural dangers.[7] Icicles that hang from an object may fall and cause injury and/or damage to whoever or whatever is below them. In addition, ice deposits can be heavy. If enough icicles form on an object, such as a wire or a beam or pole, the weight of the ice can severely damage the structural integrity of the object and may cause the object to break. This can also happen with roofs, where failure can damage nearby parked vehicles or the contents and occupants of the structure. Icicles on roofs can also be associated with ice dams, which can cause water damage as the water penetrates below the shingles.[2]

The story of an English youth who was killed by a falling icicle in 1776 has been often recounted.[8][9][10][11]

Large icicles that form on cliffs near highways have been known to fall and damage motor vehicles.[2]

In 2010, five people were killed and 150 injured by icicles in Saint Petersburg, Russia after a heavy snow that also caused apartment block roofs to collapse, as well as creating water damage to private homes and to the National Library of Russia.[12]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Why Icicles Look the Way They Do". NY Times. 16 March 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
  2. ^ a b c Ribas, Jorge (9 February 2010). "Snowmageddon Brings Icicles of Doom". Discovery News. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
  3. ^ Makkonen, L. (1988). "A model of icicle growth". Journal of Glaciology. 34: 64–70. Bibcode:1988JGlac..34...64M. doi:10.1017/S0022143000009072.
  4. ^ Ella Davies: 'Brinicle' ice finger of death filmed in Antarctic filmed by Hugh Miller and Doug Anderson, Frozen Planet, BBC Nature, BBC One, broadcast 23 November 2011.
  5. ^ "The underwater icicle of death: Bizarre 'Brinicle' forms BENEATH the sea and kills everything in its path". Daily Mail Online. 24 November 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
  6. ^ Praetorius, Dean (23 November 2011). "Brinicle, Underwater Icicle, Captured Forming By Time-Lapse Camera". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
  7. ^ CityNews.ca – Dangerous Icicles A Concern As Pieces Fall From Above Archived 4 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ Sporting Magazine: or, Monthly Calendar of the Transactions of The Turf, The Chase, and Every Other Diversion Interesting to the Man of Pleasure, Enterprise, and Spirit, Vol. 27. London: J. Wheble. 1806. p. 95.
  9. ^ Billing, Joanna (2003). The Hidden Places of Devon. Aldermaston, England: Travel Publishing Ltd. p. 51.
  10. ^ Simons, Paul (17 February 1999). "Weatherwatch". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
  11. ^ Streever, Bill (2009). Cold: Adventures in the World's Frozen Places. New York: Little, Brown and Company. p. 147. In 1776, a son of the parish clerk of Bampton in Devon, England, was killed by an icicle that plummeted from the church tower and speared him. His memorial: Bless my eyes / Here he lies / In a sad pickle / Kill'd by an icicle.
  12. ^ Osborn, Andrew (24 March 2010). "Falling icicles kill record numbers in St Petersburg". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 19 September 2012. Russians risk their lives each year as winter becomes spring causing melting icicles and blocks of ice to fall from roofs, often from a great height, onto defenceless pedestrians below. Regional figures show icicles kill dozens of Russians each year.
Absolute Justice

"Absolute Justice" is the eleventh episode of the ninth season of the CW series Smallville, and the 185th episode of the overall series. The episode originally aired on February 5, 2010 in the United States, and was initially slated to be two individual episodes before it was ultimately turned into a two-hour, single episode. Glen Winter directed the first half of "Absolute Justice", which was originally known as "Society". Tom Welling directed the second half, which was called "Legends". Comic book author Geoff Johns, who first wrote the season eight episode "Legion", wrote both hours of "Absolute Justice".

In the episode's narrative, Clark Kent (Welling), Chloe Sullivan (Allison Mack), Oliver Queen/Green Arrow (Justin Hartley) and John Jones (Phil Morris) meet a team of superheroes, called the Justice Society of America, who operated during the 1970s. The Justice Society is being hunted by an assassin known as Icicle (Wesley MacInnes). Icicle was recruited by the organization Checkmate, which is being headed by Agent Amanda Waller (Pam Grier). Clark, Chloe, Oliver and John team up with the Justice Society members to battle Icicle.

The introduction of the Justice Society was developed to be relevant to the series, primarily being used to teach the new generation of superheroes—Clark, Oliver, and the rest of the team—a lesson about family and leadership. Johns modeled his vision of the Justice Society after the film Watchmen, where a group of superheroes come out of retirement. Johns also included references to other Justice Society members throughout the episode. "Absolute Justice" is Smallville's highest-rated episode for season nine in total viewers, adults 18–49, and men 18–49. The episode received generally mixed reviews from critics; while praise was given to the guest characters' back stories, criticism was dealt for what was perceived as a poor choice of a villain.

Chris Sharrock

Chris Sharrock (born 30 May 1964) is an English drummer, hailing from Bebington, Merseyside, England. He has been a member of the Icicle Works, the La's, the Wild Swans, World Party, the Lightning Seeds, Robbie Williams Live, Oasis, Beady Eye and currently in Noel Gallagher's High Flying Birds.

Ian McNabb

Robert Ian McNabb (born 3 November 1960) is an English singer-songwriter and musician. Previously the frontman of The Icicle Works, McNabb has since embarked on a solo career and performed with Ringo Starr, Neil Young/Crazy Horse, Mike Scott (of The Waterboys), and Danny Thompson of folk band Pentangle.

McNabb's first book, an autobiography entitled Merseybeast, was published in October 2008.

Icicle (comics)

Icicle is the name of two fictional supervillains appearing in comic books published by DC Comics: Joar Mahkent and Cameron Mahkent.

A version of the character appears in the fifth season of The Flash, played by actor Kyle Secor. This version is Thomas Snow who is the father of Caitlin Snow.

Icicle Station

Icicle Station, also known as Leavenworth station, is a train station for Amtrak's Empire Builder in Leavenworth, Washington. The station started service on September 25, 2009.Former mayor Rob Eaton initiated the station project in 2003 as a way to bring tourists to Leavenworth, which is famous for its "Bavarian Village" themed downtown. By February 2007, track-owner BNSF Railway and Amtrak had approved the station project and it moved forward. HNTB, Inc. completed the station design and managed construction.The station, 600-foot (180 m) platform, and parking lot are owned by the City of Leavenworth. The track is owned by BNSF Railway. There is no Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach connection at this station, but there is a stop nearby at U.S. Route 2 and Icicle Road.

Icicle hitch

An icicle hitch is a knot that is excellent for connecting to a post when weight is applied to an end running parallel to the post in a specific direction. This type of hitch will hold its place even when holding a substantial load on a smooth surface. One can even suspend from a tapered post (such as a marlinspike) with this knot (hence the name "icicle hitch"). To tie an icicle hitch, bring the working end over the post, front to back, four or five times, working away from the end of the post (and the direction of expected pull). Bring the working end, back to front, alongside the standing end, leaving a substantial bight hanging behind the post. Bring this bight over both ends and over the end of the post. Tighten by pulling both ends perpendicular to the post. The pull on the standing end (running the direction of the post) will tighten the knot as more pull is given.

This knot is similar to the Prusik knot and the Klemheist knot. This class of knots is a "slip-and-grip" friction type that will pull tight when the load is applied in the correct direction and slide easily for placement with no load. The Prusik knot can withstand load in both directions, making it ideal for climbing situations. Upon examination of the icicle hitch, one finds that it operates under the same principle as the Klemheist knot and is in fact the same knot tied only with a bight in the end instead of the more common short loop used for climbing.

This knot was first demonstrated at the eighth Annual General Meeting of the International Guild of Knot Tyers in 1990.

No Need to Argue

No Need to Argue is the second studio album by the Irish rock band The Cranberries, released on 3 October 1994. It is the band's best selling album, and has sold about 17 million copies worldwide. It contains the band's most successful single, "Zombie". The album's mood is darker and harsher than that on Everybody Else Is Doing It, So Why Can't We?, released a year before.

Notothenioidei

Notothenioidei is one of 19 suborders from the order Perciformes and includes Antarctic fish and non-Antarctic fish. These species, which are referred to collectively as the notothenioids, account for approximately 90% of the fish fauna biomass in the continental shelf waters surrounding Antarctica. Antarctic notothenioids are highly endemic to the Southern Ocean.

Paul Burgess (musician)

Paul Burgess (born 28 September 1950 in Manchester, England) is an English rock drummer, notable for his association with a wide range of British rock and folk-rock bands. In addition to extensive session work, he has been an official member of 10cc, Jethro Tull, Camel, Magna Carta, and The Icicle Works.

Radish

The radish (Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. sativus) is an edible root vegetable of the Brassicaceae family that was domesticated in Europe in pre-Roman times

Radishes are grown and consumed throughout the world, being mostly eaten raw as a crunchy salad vegetable. They have numerous varieties, varying in size, flavor, color, and length of time they take to mature. Radishes owe their sharp flavor to the various chemical compounds produced by the plants, including glucosinolate, myrosinase, and isothiocyanate. They are sometimes grown as companion plants and suffer from few pests and diseases. They germinate quickly and grow rapidly, smaller varieties being ready for consumption within a month, while larger daikon varieties take several months. Another use of radish is as cover or catch crop in winter or as a forage crop. Some radishes are grown for their seeds; daikon, for instance, may be grown for oil production. Others are used for sprouting.

Richard Naiff

Richard Naiff is a pianist and flautist from London, England who has performed with the bands Soulsec, The Catacoustics, The Waterboys and The Icicle Works. Naiff is a classically trained musician, having joined the Guildhall School of Music at age ten. The Irish music website Cluas.com describes Naiff as "phenomenally talented".Naiff was invited to participate on The Waterboys' album A Rock in the Weary Land after the group's leader Mike Scott heard his piano work in a studio next to one where the recording sessions for A Rock in the Weary Land were taking place. Naiff joined the band officially in June 2000. Along with Mike Scott and Steve Wickham, Naiff makes up the core of the post-2000 Waterboys band.

Former Waterboy Ian McNabb described Naiff as Scott's "find of the century". Not coincidentally, while keeping his membership in the Waterboys, Naiff also joined McNabb's touring band in 2004, and became a member of a revived version of McNabb's old band The Icicle Works in 2006.

Naiff's rock and roll influences include The Damned.

The Flash (season 5)

The fifth season of the American television series The Flash, which is based on the DC Comics character Barry Allen / Flash, premiered on The CW on October 9, 2018 and is set to consist of 22 episodes. The season follows Barry, a crime scene investigator with superhuman speed who fights criminals, including others who have also gained superhuman abilities, as he deals with the consequences of his future daughter's time traveling. It is set in the Arrowverse, sharing continuity with the other television series of the universe, and is a spin-off of Arrow. The season is produced by Berlanti Productions, Warner Bros. Television, and DC Entertainment, with Todd Helbing serving as showrunner.

The season was ordered in April 2018, and production began that July. Grant Gustin stars as Barry, with principal cast members Candice Patton, Danielle Panabaker, Carlos Valdes, Tom Cavanagh, and Jesse L. Martin also returning from previous seasons, while Hartley Sawyer, Danielle Nicolet, and Jessica Parker Kennedy were promoted to series regulars from their recurring statuses in season four. They are joined by new cast member Chris Klein.

The Icicle Thief

The Icicle Thief (Italian: Ladri di saponette) is a 1989 Italian comedy film directed by Maurizio Nichetti, titled in imitation of Vittorio De Sica's classic Italian neorealist film The Bicycle Thief (Italian: Ladri di biciclette). Some feel The Icicle Thief was created as a spoof of neorealism, which predominated Italian cinema after World War II. However, it is generally understood to go beyond this and to take a stand against commercialism as destructive towards art. The film won the Golden St. George at the 16th Moscow International Film Festival.

The Icicle Works

The Icicle Works are an English alternative rock band and were named after the 1960 short story "The Day the Icicle Works Closed" by science fiction author Frederik Pohl. They had a top 20 UK hit with "Love Is a Wonderful Colour" (1983). In the US and Canada, they had only one top 40 hit, the 1984 single "Birds Fly (Whisper to a Scream)".

Led by singer/songwriter Ian McNabb, the band released five albums from 1984 to 1990 before breaking up in 1991. McNabb later convened a revised line-up of the band in 2006 to play live shows; this revised Icicle Works line-up still plays sporadic live dates.

Tree structure

A tree structure or tree diagram is a way of representing the hierarchical nature of a structure in a graphical form. It is named a "tree structure" because the classic representation resembles a tree, even though the chart is generally upside down compared to an actual tree, with the "root" at the top and the "leaves" at the bottom.

A tree structure is conceptual, and appears in several forms. For a discussion of tree structures in specific fields, see Tree (data structure) for computer science: insofar as it relates to graph theory, see tree (graph theory), or also tree (set theory). Other related pages are listed.

Tsurara-onna

Tsurara-onna (つらら女, "icicle woman") is a Japanese folklore. It is a tale about an icicle that became a woman, so it is often confused with yuki-onna.

Zak Starkey

Zak Richard Starkey (born 13 September 1965) is an English rock drummer. He is the son of The Beatles drummer Ringo Starr, and has performed and recorded with English rock band The Who since 1996. He is also the third drummer to have appeared with English rock band Oasis.

Other musicians and bands he has worked with include, Johnny Marr, Paul Weller, The Icicle Works, The Waterboys, ASAP, The Lightning Seeds and John Entwistle.

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