Ibycus (/ˈɪbɪkəs/; Greek: Ἴβυκος; fl. 2nd half of 6th century BC) was an Ancient Greek lyric poet, a citizen of Rhegium in Magna Graecia, probably active at Samos during the reign of the tyrant Polycrates and numbered by the scholars of Hellenistic Alexandria in the canonical list of nine lyric poets. He was mainly remembered in antiquity for pederastic verses, but he also composed lyrical narratives on mythological themes in the manner of Stesichorus. His work survives today only as quotations by ancient scholars or recorded on fragments of papyrus recovered from archaeological sites in Egypt, yet his extant verses include what are considered some of the finest examples of Greek poetry. The following lines, dedicated to a lover, Euryalus, were recorded by Athenaeus as a famous example of amorous praise:
The rich language of these lines, in particular the accumulation of epithets, typical of Ibycus, is shown in the following translation:
This mythological account of his lover recalls Hesiod's account of Pandora, who was decked out by the same goddesses (the Graces, the Seasons and Persuasion) so as to be a bane to mankind—an allusion consistent with Ibycus's view of love as unavoidable turmoil.
As is the case with many other major poets of ancient Greece, Ibycus became famous not just for his poetry but also for events in his life, largely the stuff of legend: the testimonia are difficult to interpret and very few biographical facts are actually known.
Ibycus: son of Phytius; but some say son of the historian Polyzelus of Messana, others son of Cerdas; of Rhegium by birth. From there he went to Samos when it was ruled by the father of the tyrant Polycrates. This was in the time of Croesus, in the 54th Olympiad (564–60 BC). He was completely crazed with love for boys, and he was the inventor of the so-called sambyke, a kind of triangular cithara. His works are in seven books in the Doric dialect. Captured by bandits in a deserted place he declared that the cranes which happened to be flying overhead would be his avengers; he was murdered, but afterwards one of the bandits saw some cranes in the city and exclaimed, "Look, the avengers of Ibycus!" Someone overheard and followed up his words: the crime was confessed and the bandits paid the penalty; whence the proverbial expression, "the cranes of Ibycus".
Suda's chronology has been dismissed as "muddled" since it makes Ibycus about a generation older than Anacreon, another poet known to have flourished at the court of Polycrates, and it is inconsistent with what we know of the Samian tyrant from Herodotus. Eusebius recorded the poet's first experience of fame ("agnoscitur") somewhere between 542 and 537 BC and this better fits the period of Polycrates' reign. Suda's account seems to be corroborated by a papyrus fragment (P.Oxy.1790), usually ascribed to Ibycus, glorifying a youthful Polycrates, but this was unlikely to have been the Polycrates of Samos and might instead have been his son, mentioned in a different context by Himerius as Polycrates, governor of Rhodes. Suda's list of fathers of Ibycus also presents problems: there were no historians in the early 6th century and Cerdas looks like an invention of the comic stage (it has low associations). There was a Pythagorean lawgiver of Rhegium known as Phytius, but the early 6th century is too early for this candidate also. Ibycus gives no indication of being a Pythagorean himself, except in one poem he identifies the Morning Star with the Evening Star, an identity first popularized by Pythagoras. Suda's extraordinary account of the poet's death is found in other sources, such as Plutarch and Antipater of Sidon and later it inspired Friedrich Schiller to write a ballad called "The Cranes of Ibycus" yet the legend might be derived merely from a play upon the poet's name and the Greek word for the bird ἶβυξ or ibyx—it might even have been told of somebody else originally.[nb 1] Another proverb associated with Ibycus was recorded by Diogenianus: "more antiquated than Ibycus" or "more silly than Ibycus". The proverb was apparently based on an anecdote about Ibycus stupidly or nobly turning down an opportunity to become tyrant of Rhegium in order to pursue a poetic career instead (one modern scholar however infers from his poetry that Ibycus was in fact wise enough to avoid the lure of supreme power, citing as an example Plato's quotation from one of his lyrics: "I am afraid it may be in exchange for some sin before the gods that I get honour from men") There is no other information about Ibycus' activities in the West, apart from an account by Himerius, that he fell from his chariot while travelling between Catana and Himera and injured his hand badly enough to give up playing the lyre "for some considerable time."
Some modern scholars have found in the surviving poetry evidence that Ibycus might have spent time at Sicyon before journeying to Samos—mythological references indicate local knowledge of Sicyon and could even point to the town's alliance with Sparta against Argos and Athens. His depiction of the women of Sparta as "thigh-showing" (quoted by Plutarch as proof of lax morals among the women there) is vivid enough to suggest that he might have composed some verses in Sparta also. It is possible that he left Samos at the same time as Anacreon, on the death of Polycrates, and there is an anonymous poem in the Palatine Anthology celebrating Rhegium as his final resting place, describing a tomb located under an elm, covered in ivy and white reeds.
Ibycus' role in the development of Greek lyric poetry was as a mediator between eastern and western styles:
Sappho and Alcaeus wrote while Stesichorus was developing the different art of the choral ode in the West. They owed nothing to him, and he owed nothing to them. But soon afterwards the art of the West was brought to Ionia, and the fusion of the two styles marked a new stage in Greek poetry. For Stesichorus left a disciple, who began by writing in the master's manner and then turned to other purposes and made his poetry the vehicle for his own private, or public, emotions. — Cecil Maurice Bowra
Although scholars like Bowra have concluded that his style must have changed with his setting, such a neat distinction is actually hard to prove from the existing verses, which are an intricate blend of the public, "choral" style of Stesichorus, and the private, "soloist" style of the Lesbian poets. It is not certain that he ever in fact composed monody (lyrics for solo performance), but the emotional and erotic quality of his verse, and the fact that his colleague in Samos was Anacreon, who did compose monody, suggest that Ibycus did too. On the other hand, some modern scholars believe that 'choral' lyrics were actually performed by soloists and therefore maybe all Ibycus' work was monody. He modelled his work on the "choral" lyrics of Stesichorus at least in so far as he wrote narratives on mythical themes (often with original variations from the traditional stories) and structured his verses in triads (units of three stanzas each, called "strophe", "antistrophe" and "epode"), so closely in fact that even the ancients sometimes had difficulty distinguishing between the two poets[nb 2] Whereas however ancient scholars collected the work of Stesichorus into twenty-six books, each probably a self-contained narrative that gave its title to the whole book, they compiled only seven books for Ibycus, which were numbered rather than titled and whose selection criteria are unknown. Recent papyrus finds suggest also that Ibycus might have been the first to compose 'choral' victory odes (an innovation usually credited to Simonides).[nb 3]
Until the 1920s, all that survived of Ibycus' work were two large-ish fragments (one seven, the other thirteen lines long) and about fifty other lines scraped together from a variety of ancient commentaries. Since then, papyrus finds have greatly added to the store of Ibycean verses - notably, and controversially, forty-eight continuous lines addressed to Polycrates, whose identification with Polycrates of Rhodes (son of Polycrates, the Samian tyrant) requires a careful selection of historical sources. Authorship of the poem is attributed to Ibycus on textual and historical grounds but its quality as verse is open to debate: "insipid", "inept and slovenly" or, more gently, "not an unqualified success" and optimally "the work of a poet realizing a new vision, with a great command of epic material which he could manipulate for encomiastic effect." In the poem, Ibycos parades the names and characteristics of heroes familiar from Homer's Trojan epic, as types of people the poem is not about, until he reaches the final stanza, where he reveals that his real subject is Polycrates, whom he says he will immortalize in verse. An elaborate and not very amusing joke, this "puzzling" poem has been considered historically significant by some scholars as a signal from Ibycus that he is now turning his back on epic themes to concentrate on love poetry instead: a new vision or recusatio.
He composed like Stesichorus in a literary language, largely Epic with some Doric flavouring, and with a few Aeolisms that he borrowed from the love poetry of Sappho and Alcaeus. It is possible however that the Doric dialect was added by editors in Hellenistic and Roman times, when the poet's home town, Rhegium, had become more Doric than it had been in the poet's own time. In addition to this "superficial element of Doric dialect", the style of Ibycus features mainly dactylic rhythms (reflecting the Epic traditions he shared with Stesichorus), a love theme and accumulated epithets. His use of imagery can seem chaotic but it is justified as an artistic effect. His style has been described by one modern scholar as "graceful and passionate."  The ancients sometimes considered his work with distaste as a lecherous and corrupting influence[nb 4] but they also responded sympathetically to the pathos he sought to evoke—his account of Menelaus's failure to kill Helen of Troy, under the spell of her beauty, was valued by ancient critics above Eurypides's account of the same story in his play Andromache.
The following poem was quoted by the ancient scholar Athenaeus in his wide-ranging discourses Scholars at Dinner and it demonstrates some of the characteristics of Ibycean verse:
The poem establishes a contrast between the tranquility of nature and the ever restless impulses to which the poet's desires subject him, while the images and epithets accumulate almost chaotically, communicating a sense of his inner turmoil. In the original Greek, initial tranquility is communicated by repeated vowel sounds in the first six lines. His love of nature and his ability to describe it in lively images are reminiscent of Sappho's work.
Ancient Greek in classical antiquity, before the development of the common Koine Greek of the Hellenistic period, was divided into several varieties.
Most of these varieties are known only from inscriptions, but a few of them, principally Aeolic, Doric, and Ionic, are also represented in the literary canon alongside the dominant Attic form of literary Greek.
Likewise, Modern Greek is divided into several dialects, most derived from Koine Greek.Atreus
In Greek mythology, Atreus ( AY-tri-əs, AY-trooss; from ἀ-, "no" and τρέω, "tremble", "fearless", Greek: Ἀτρεύς) was a king of Mycenae in the Peloponnese, the son of Pelops and Hippodamia, and the father of Agamemnon and Menelaus. Collectively, his descendants are known as Atreidai or Atreidae.
Atreus and his twin brother Thyestes were exiled by their father for murdering their half-brother Chrysippus in their desire for the throne of Olympia. They took refuge in Mycenae, where they ascended to the throne in the absence of King Eurystheus, who was fighting the Heracleidae. Eurystheus had meant for their stewardship to be temporary, but it became permanent after his death in battle.
According to most ancient sources, Atreus was the father of Pleisthenes, but in some lyric poets (Ibycus, Bacchylides) Pleisthenides (son of Pleisthenes) is used as an alternative name for Atreus himself.Classical Literature of Greece
This is a list of most influential Greek authors of antiquity (by alphabetic order):
From c.VII B.C- c.VII A.D
Aeschylus - Tragedy
Aesop - Fables
Alcaeus of Mytilene-Lyric Poetry
Anthony the Great-Theology
Apollodorus of Carystus-Comedy
Aristophanes - Comedy
Archimedes - Mathematics, Geometry
Aristotle - Philosophy, Physics, Biology
Aratus - Poetry, Astronomy
Arrian - History
Athanasius of Alexandria-Theology
Claudius Ptolemy -Geography, Astronomy
Clement of Alexandria-Theology, Philosophy
Democritus - Philosophy, Chemistry
Demosthenes - Rhetorics, Politics
Diodorus - History
Diogenes Laërtius - History of Philosophy
Duris of Samos-History
Epimenides of Knossos - Philosophy, Philosophical poetry
Euclid of Megara - Mathematics, Geometry
Euripides - Tragedy
Gorgias - Philosophy
Hegemon of Thasos-Comedy
Herodotus of Halicarnassus - History
Hesiod - Epic Poetry
Hippocrates of Cos - Medicine
Homer - Epic Poetry
Ibycus of Rhegium-Lyric Poetry
Justin the Martyr-Theology, Philosophy
Luke the Evangelist-Theology, Medicine, History
Lycurgus of Athens-Rhetorics
Maximus the Confessor-Theology, Philosophy
Menander - Comedy
Melissus of Samos-Philosophy
Nicomachus of Gerasa-Mathematics
Papias of Hierapolis-Theology
Pherecydes of Leros-Mythography, Logography
Philo of Alexandria-Theology, Philosophy
Pindar - Lyrical Poetry
Plato - Philosophy
Plutarch - History, Biography, Philosophy
Posidippus (comic poet)-Comedy
Protagoras - Philosophy
Pythagoras of Samos-Philosophy, Mathematics, Religion (No works)
Sappho of Lesbos-Lyric Poetry
Socrates-Philosophy (No Works)
Solon - Politics, Philosophy
Thales of Miletus-Philosophy, Mathematics, Astronomy, Physics
Theocritus - Bucolic poetry
Thucydides - History
Xenarchus of Seleucia-Philosophy, Philology
Xenophanes- Philosophy, Theology
Xenophon - History
Zeno of Citium-Philosophy
Zeno of Elea-PhilosophyCrane (bird)
Cranes are a family, the Gruidae, of large, long-legged, and long-necked birds in the group Gruiformes. The 15 species of cranes are placed in four genera. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Cranes live on all continents except Antarctica and South America.
They are opportunistic feeders that change their diets according to the season and their own nutrient requirements. They eat a range of items from suitably sized small rodents, fish, amphibians, and insects to grain and berries.
Cranes construct platform nests in shallow water, and typically lay two eggs at a time. Both parents help to rear the young, which remain with them until the next breeding season.Some species and populations of cranes migrate over long distances; others do not migrate at all. Cranes are solitary during the breeding season, occurring in pairs, but during the nonbreeding season, they are gregarious, forming large flocks where their numbers are sufficient.
Most species of cranes have been affected by human activities and are at the least classified as threatened, if not critically endangered. The plight of the whooping cranes of North America inspired some of the first US legislation to protect endangered species.Die Kraniche des Ibykus
"The Cranes of Ibycus" (original name "Die Kraniche des Ibycus") is a ballad by Friedrich Schiller, written in 1797, the year of his friendly ballad competition with Goethe. It is set in the 6th century BC and is based on the murder of Ibycus.Greek lyric
Greek lyric is the body of lyric poetry written in dialects of Ancient Greek.
It is primarily associated with the early 7th to the early 5th centuries BC, sometimes called the "Lyric Age of Greece", but continued to be written into the Hellenistic and Imperial periods.Helicarionidae
Helicarionidae is a family of air-breathing land snails or semi-slugs, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Helicarionoidea.Hellenic Quest
Hellenic Quest is an urban legend mostly praising the Greek language for its superiority amongst all languages.Index of Greece-related articles
This page list topics related to Greece.Kymopoleia
In Greek mythology, Kymopoleia (Κυμοπόλεια), latinized as Cymopoleia, was a daughter of sea god Poseidon and sea Nereid Amphitrite, and is known as the Greek goddess of the seas and of storms, and the wife of Briares one of the three Hecatoncheires.She was perhaps the mother of Oiolyke, who was given as the daughter of Briareus and a possible possessor of the girdle that Heracles was sent to fetch. The girdle was also said to have belonged to Deilyke (otherwise unknown) or, most commonly, to Hippolyta, queen of the Amazons.Mesosemiini
The Mesosemiini are one of the tribes of metalmark butterflies (family Riodinidae). They are the basalmost living tribe of the Riodininae, outside the main radiation together with the slightly more advanced Eurybiini.Nine Lyric Poets
The Nine Lyric or Melic Poets were a canonical group of ancient Greek poets esteemed by the scholars of Hellenistic Alexandria as worthy of critical study. In the Palatine Anthology it is said that they established lyric song. They were:
Alcman of Sparta (choral lyric, 7th century BC)
Sappho of Lesbos (monodic lyric, c. 600 BC)
Alcaeus of Mytilene (monodic lyric, c. 600 BC)
Anacreon of Teos (monodic lyric, 6th century BC)
Stesichorus of Metauros (choral lyric, 7th century BC)
Ibycus of Rhegium (choral lyric, 6th century BC)
Simonides of Ceos (choral lyric, 6th century BC)
Bacchylides of Ceos (choral lyric, 5th century BC)
Pindar of Thebes (choral lyric, 5th century BC)In most Greek sources the word melikos (from melos, "song") is used to refer to these poets, but the variant lyrikos (from lyra, "lyre") became the regular form in both Latin (as lyricus) and in modern languages. The ancient scholars defined the genre on the basis of the musical accompaniment, not the content. Thus, some types of poetry which would be included under the label "lyric poetry," in modern criticism are excluded—namely, the elegy and iambus which were performed with flutes.
The Nine Lyric Poets are traditionally divided among those who primarily composed choral verses, and those who composed monodic verses. This division is contested by some modern scholars.Antipater of Thessalonica proposes an alternative canon of nine female poets.Ode to Polycrates
Ode to Polycrates (also To Polycrates, 282a or S151) is an ancient Greek poem written by Ibycus and dedicated to Polycrates, tyrant of Samos. It was composed some time in the middle of the 6th century BC and displays close similarities to the work of Stesichorus.Polycrates
Polycrates (; Greek: Πολυκράτης, in English usually Polycrates but sometimes Polykrates), son of Aeaces, was the tyrant of Samos from c. 538 BC to 522 BC. He had a reputation as both a fierce warrior and an enlightened tyrant.Rose
A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears. There are over three hundred species and thousands of cultivars. They form a group of plants that can be erect shrubs, climbing, or trailing, with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles. Flowers vary in size and shape and are usually large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwestern Africa. Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and often are fragrant. Roses have acquired cultural significance in many societies. Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach seven meters in height. Different species hybridize easily, and this has been used in the development of the wide range of garden roses.Scylla
In Greek mythology, Scylla ( SIL-ə; Greek: Σκύλλα, pronounced [skýl̚la], Skylla) was a legendary monster that lived on one side of a narrow channel of water, opposite her counterpart Charybdis. The two sides of the strait were within an arrow's range of each other—so close that sailors attempting to avoid Charybdis would pass dangerously close to Scylla and vice versa.
Scylla made her first appearance in Homer's Odyssey, where Odysseus and his crew encounter her and Charybdis on their travels. Later myth gave her an origin story as a beautiful nymph who gets turned into a monster.The strait where Scylla dwelled has been associated with the Strait of Messina between mainland Italy and Sicily, for example, as in Book Three of Virgil's Aeneid. The idiom "between Scylla and Charybdis" has come to mean being forced to choose between two similarly dangerous situations.Stesichorus
Stesichorus (; Greek: Στησίχορος, Stēsikhoros; c. 630 – 555 BC) was the first great lyric poet of the West. He is best known for telling epic stories in lyric metres but he is also famous for some ancient traditions about his life, such as his opposition to the tyrant Phalaris, and the blindness he is said to have incurred and cured by composing verses first insulting and then flattering to Helen of Troy.
He was ranked among the nine lyric poets esteemed by the scholars of Hellenistic Alexandria and yet his work attracted relatively little interest among ancient commentators, so that remarkably few fragments of his poetry now survive. As one scholar observed in 1967: "Time has dealt more harshly with Stesichorus than with any other major lyric poet." Recent discoveries, recorded on Egyptian papyrus (notably and controversially, the Lille Stesichorus), have led to some improvements in our understanding of his work, confirming his role as a link between Homer's epic narrative and the lyric narrative of poets like Pindar.The following description of the birthplace of the monster Geryon, preserved as a quote by the geographer Strabo, is characteristic of the "descriptive fulness" of his style:
σχεδὸν ἀντιπέρας κλεινᾶς Ἐρυθείας
σοῦ ποταμοῦ παρὰ παγὰσ ἀπείρονας ἀρ-
ἐν κευθμῶνι πέτρας.A nineteenth century translation imaginatively fills in the gaps while communicating something of the richness of the language:
Where monster Geryon first beheld the light,
Famed Erytheia rises to the sight;
Born near th' unfathomed silver springs that gleam
'Mid caverned rocks, and feed Tartessus' stream.Stesichorus exercised an important influence on the representation of myth in 6th century art and on the development of Athenian dramatic poetry.Thesaurus Linguae Graecae
The Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG) is a research center at the University of California, Irvine. The TLG was founded in 1972 by Marianne McDonald (a graduate student at the time and now a professor of theater and classics at the University of California, San Diego) with the goal to create a comprehensive digital collection of all surviving texts written in Greek from antiquity to the present era. Since 1972, the TLG has collected and digitized most surviving literary texts written in Greek from Homer to the fall of Constantinople in 1453 CE, and beyond. Theodore Brunner (1934-2007) directed the project from 1972 until his retirement from the University of California in 1998. Maria Pantelia, also a classics professor at UC Irvine, succeeded Theodore Brunner in 1998, and has been directing the TLG since. TLG's name is shared with its online database, the full title of which is Thesaurus Linguae Graecae: A Digital Library of Greek Literature (the TLG, in italics, for short).The challenge of this huge undertaking was originally met with the help of several classicists and technology experts but primarily thanks to the efforts of David Woodley Packard and his team who created the Ibycus system, namely the hardware and software originally used to proofread and search the corpus. David Packard also developed Beta code, a character and formatting encoding convention used to encode Polytonic Greek. The collection was originally circulated on CD-ROM. The first CD-ROM was released in 1985, and was the first compact disc that did not contain music. Subsequent versions were released in 1988 and in 1992, thanks to technical support provided by David W. Packard.
By the late 1990s, it became obvious that the old Ibycus technology was outdated. Under the direction of Professor Maria Pantelia, a number of new projects were undertaken, including the massive migration out of the Ibycus, the development of a new state of the art system to digitize, proofread, and manage the textual collection, a new CD-ROM (TLG E), released in 1999, and eventually the move of the corpus to the web environment in 2001. At the same time, the TLG undertook the project of working with the Unicode Technical Committee to include all characters needed to encode and display Greek in the Unicode standard. The corpus continues to be expanded significantly to include Byzantine, medieval, and eventually modern Greek texts. More recent projects include the lemmatization of the Greek corpus (2006) – a substantial undertaking, given the highly inflectional nature of the Greek language and the complexity of the corpus, covering more than two millennia of literary development – and the Online Liddell–Scott–Jones Greek–English Lexicon (commonly referred to as the LSJ), released in February 2011.
Since 2001, the TLG corpus has been searchable online by members of subscribing institutions, which number close to 1500 worldwide. All bibliographical information and a subset of the texts are available to the general public.
According to an undated document on the TLG's web site, the total number of Greek words amounts to 110 million, while the number of unique wordforms amount to 1.6 million and the number of unique lemmata to 250,000.Zeuxippus of Sicyon
In Greek mythology, Zeuxippus (Ancient Greek: Ζεύξιππος) was the son of Apollo and the nymph Syllis (or Hyllis, daughter of Hyllus and Iole). He succeeded Phaestus as the king of Sicyon, and was in turn succeeded by Hippolytus.