Ibycus (/ˈɪbɪkəs/; Greek: Ἴβυκος; fl. 2nd half of 6th century BC) was an Ancient Greek lyric poet, a citizen of Rhegium in Magna Graecia, probably active at Samos during the reign of the tyrant Polycrates[1] and numbered by the scholars of Hellenistic Alexandria in the canonical list of nine lyric poets. He was mainly remembered in antiquity for pederastic verses, but he also composed lyrical narratives on mythological themes in the manner of Stesichorus.[2] His work survives today only as quotations by ancient scholars or recorded on fragments of papyrus recovered from archaeological sites in Egypt, yet his extant verses include what are considered some of the finest examples of Greek poetry.[3] The following lines, dedicated to a lover, Euryalus, were recorded by Athenaeus as a famous example of amorous praise:

Εὐρύαλε Γλαυκέων Χαρίτων θάλος, Ὡρᾶν
καλλικόμων μελέδημα, σὲ μὲν Κύπρις
ἅ τ' ἀγανοβλέφαρος Πει-
θὼ ῥοδέοισιν ἐν θρέψαν.

The rich language of these lines, in particular the accumulation of epithets, typical of Ibycus, is shown in the following translation:

Euryalus, offshoot of the blue-eyed Graces, darling of the lovely-haired Seasons, the Cyprian and soft-lidded Persuasion nursed you among rose-blossoms.[4]

This mythological account of his lover recalls Hesiod's account of Pandora,[5] who was decked out by the same goddesses (the Graces, the Seasons and Persuasion) so as to be a bane to mankind—an allusion consistent with Ibycus's view of love as unavoidable turmoil.[6]

As is the case with many other major poets of ancient Greece, Ibycus became famous not just for his poetry but also for events in his life, largely the stuff of legend: the testimonia are difficult to interpret and very few biographical facts are actually known.[2]


The Byzantine encyclopaedia Suda represents a good example of a problematic biography, here translated by David Campbell:

Ibycus: son of Phytius; but some say son of the historian Polyzelus of Messana, others son of Cerdas; of Rhegium by birth. From there he went to Samos when it was ruled by the father of the tyrant Polycrates. This was in the time of Croesus, in the 54th Olympiad (564–60 BC). He was completely crazed with love for boys, and he was the inventor of the so-called sambyke, a kind of triangular cithara. His works are in seven books in the Doric dialect. Captured by bandits in a deserted place he declared that the cranes which happened to be flying overhead would be his avengers; he was murdered, but afterwards one of the bandits saw some cranes in the city and exclaimed, "Look, the avengers of Ibycus!" Someone overheard and followed up his words: the crime was confessed and the bandits paid the penalty; whence the proverbial expression, "the cranes of Ibycus".[7]

Suda's chronology has been dismissed as "muddled" since it makes Ibycus about a generation older than Anacreon, another poet known to have flourished at the court of Polycrates, and it is inconsistent with what we know of the Samian tyrant from Herodotus.[8] Eusebius recorded the poet's first experience of fame ("agnoscitur") somewhere between 542 and 537 BC[9] and this better fits the period of Polycrates' reign. Suda's account seems to be corroborated by a papyrus fragment (P.Oxy.1790), usually ascribed to Ibycus, glorifying a youthful Polycrates, but this was unlikely to have been the Polycrates of Samos and might instead have been his son, mentioned in a different context by Himerius as Polycrates, governor of Rhodes.[10] Suda's list of fathers of Ibycus also presents problems:[11] there were no historians in the early 6th century and Cerdas looks like an invention of the comic stage (it has low associations). There was a Pythagorean lawgiver of Rhegium known as Phytius, but the early 6th century is too early for this candidate also. Ibycus gives no indication of being a Pythagorean himself, except in one poem he identifies the Morning Star with the Evening Star, an identity first popularized by Pythagoras.[12][13] Suda's extraordinary account of the poet's death is found in other sources, such as Plutarch[14] and Antipater of Sidon[15] and later it inspired Friedrich Schiller to write a ballad called "The Cranes of Ibycus"[16] yet the legend might be derived merely from a play upon the poet's name and the Greek word for the bird ἶβυξ or ibyx—it might even have been told of somebody else originally.[17][nb 1] Another proverb associated with Ibycus was recorded by Diogenianus: "more antiquated than Ibycus" or "more silly than Ibycus". The proverb was apparently based on an anecdote about Ibycus stupidly or nobly turning down an opportunity to become tyrant of Rhegium in order to pursue a poetic career instead[18] (one modern scholar however infers from his poetry that Ibycus was in fact wise enough to avoid the lure of supreme power, citing as an example Plato's quotation from one of his lyrics: "I am afraid it may be in exchange for some sin before the gods that I get honour from men")[19] There is no other information about Ibycus' activities in the West, apart from an account by Himerius, that he fell from his chariot while travelling between Catana and Himera and injured his hand badly enough to give up playing the lyre "for some considerable time."[20]

Some modern scholars have found in the surviving poetry evidence that Ibycus might have spent time at Sicyon before journeying to Samos—mythological references indicate local knowledge of Sicyon and could even point to the town's alliance with Sparta against Argos and Athens.[21] His depiction of the women of Sparta as "thigh-showing" (quoted by Plutarch as proof of lax morals among the women there) is vivid enough to suggest that he might have composed some verses in Sparta also.[22] It is possible that he left Samos at the same time as Anacreon, on the death of Polycrates, and there is an anonymous poem in the Palatine Anthology celebrating Rhegium as his final resting place, describing a tomb located under an elm, covered in ivy and white reeds.[23]


Ibycus' role in the development of Greek lyric poetry was as a mediator between eastern and western styles:

Sappho and Alcaeus wrote while Stesichorus was developing the different art of the choral ode in the West. They owed nothing to him, and he owed nothing to them. But soon afterwards the art of the West was brought to Ionia, and the fusion of the two styles marked a new stage in Greek poetry. For Stesichorus left a disciple, who began by writing in the master's manner and then turned to other purposes and made his poetry the vehicle for his own private, or public, emotions. — Cecil Maurice Bowra[24]

Although scholars like Bowra have concluded that his style must have changed with his setting, such a neat distinction is actually hard to prove from the existing verses, which are an intricate blend of the public, "choral" style of Stesichorus, and the private, "soloist" style of the Lesbian poets.[25][26] It is not certain that he ever in fact composed monody (lyrics for solo performance), but the emotional and erotic quality of his verse, and the fact that his colleague in Samos was Anacreon, who did compose monody, suggest that Ibycus did too.[27] On the other hand, some modern scholars believe that 'choral' lyrics were actually performed by soloists and therefore maybe all Ibycus' work was monody.[28] He modelled his work on the "choral" lyrics of Stesichorus at least in so far as he wrote narratives on mythical themes (often with original variations from the traditional stories) and structured his verses in triads (units of three stanzas each, called "strophe", "antistrophe" and "epode"), so closely in fact that even the ancients sometimes had difficulty distinguishing between the two poets[29][nb 2] Whereas however ancient scholars collected the work of Stesichorus into twenty-six books, each probably a self-contained narrative that gave its title to the whole book,[30] they compiled only seven books for Ibycus, which were numbered rather than titled and whose selection criteria are unknown.[26] Recent papyrus finds suggest also that Ibycus might have been the first to compose 'choral' victory odes (an innovation usually credited to Simonides).[31][nb 3]

Until the 1920s, all that survived of Ibycus' work were two large-ish fragments (one seven, the other thirteen lines long) and about fifty other lines scraped together from a variety of ancient commentaries. Since then, papyrus finds have greatly added to the store of Ibycean verses - notably, and controversially, forty-eight continuous lines addressed to Polycrates, whose identification with Polycrates of Rhodes (son of Polycrates, the Samian tyrant) requires a careful selection of historical sources.[32] Authorship of the poem is attributed to Ibycus on textual and historical grounds but its quality as verse is open to debate: "insipid", "inept and slovenly"[33] or, more gently, "not an unqualified success"[24] and optimally "the work of a poet realizing a new vision, with a great command of epic material which he could manipulate for encomiastic effect."[34] In the poem, Ibycos parades the names and characteristics of heroes familiar from Homer's Trojan epic, as types of people the poem is not about, until he reaches the final stanza, where he reveals that his real subject is Polycrates, whom he says he will immortalize in verse. An elaborate and not very amusing joke, this "puzzling" poem has been considered historically significant by some scholars as a signal from Ibycus that he is now turning his back on epic themes to concentrate on love poetry instead: a new vision or recusatio.[35]

He composed like Stesichorus in a literary language, largely Epic with some Doric flavouring, and with a few Aeolisms that he borrowed from the love poetry of Sappho and Alcaeus.[36] It is possible however that the Doric dialect was added by editors in Hellenistic and Roman times, when the poet's home town, Rhegium, had become more Doric than it had been in the poet's own time.[37] In addition to this "superficial element of Doric dialect", the style of Ibycus features mainly dactylic rhythms (reflecting the Epic traditions he shared with Stesichorus), a love theme and accumulated epithets.[38] His use of imagery can seem chaotic but it is justified as an artistic effect.[39] His style has been described by one modern scholar as "graceful and passionate." [40] The ancients sometimes considered his work with distaste as a lecherous and corrupting influence[nb 4] but they also responded sympathetically to the pathos he sought to evoke—his account of Menelaus's failure to kill Helen of Troy, under the spell of her beauty, was valued by ancient critics above Eurypides's account of the same story in his play Andromache.[41]

Fragment 286

The following poem was quoted by the ancient scholar Athenaeus in his wide-ranging discourses Scholars at Dinner and it demonstrates some of the characteristics of Ibycean verse:

In spring the Kydonian
apple trees, watered by flowing
streams there where the Maidens
have their unravished garden, and vine buds,
growing under the shadowy branches
of the vines, bloom and flourish. For me, however, love
is at rest in no season
but like the Thracian north wind,
ablaze with lightning,
rushing from Aphrodite with scorching
fits of madness, dark and unrestrained,
it forcibly convulses from their very roots
my mind and heart.[42]

The poem establishes a contrast between the tranquility of nature and the ever restless impulses to which the poet's desires subject him, while the images and epithets accumulate almost chaotically, communicating a sense of his inner turmoil. In the original Greek, initial tranquility is communicated by repeated vowel sounds in the first six lines.[43] His love of nature and his ability to describe it in lively images are reminiscent of Sappho's work.[44]


  • In book four of Apollonius Rhodius's Argonautica, the goddess Hera reveals that Achilles is destined to marry Medea in the Elysian Fields (Argonautica 4.811–15). A scholiast on the passage comments that this account was first put forward by Ibycus, and that it was also taken up by Simonides of Ceos. In another scholium, it is said that the Argonautica's account of Ganymede's abduction by an amorous Zeus (Argonautica 3.114–17) was also modelled on a version by Ibycus (in Homer's earlier account, Zeus abducted the youth to be his wine-pourer: Iliad 20.234), and that Ibycus, moreover, described the abduction of Tithonus by Dawn (Eos).[45] Apollonius Rhodius represented Eros as a child of Aphrodite (Argonautica 3.25–6) and there is a relevant scholium on that passage too, according to which Sappho made Eros the son of Earth and Heaven, Simonides made him the son of Aphrodite and Ares, and Ibycus made him the son of ...? The section is lost, but it has been suggested that he made Eros the son of Aphrodite and Hephaestus[46]


  1. ^ However, according to Hesychius (s.v. iota 138) ἶβυξ is a form of ibis, while the common Greek word for "crane" (γέρανος, geranos) is used of the birds associated with the death of Ibycus
  2. ^ Cambell elsewhere (Greek Lyric III, Loeb, page 63) cites this comment by Athenaeus (4.172de): "but Stesichorus or Ibycus had previously said in a poem entitled Funeral Games ..."
  3. ^ Cambell cites P.Oxy.2637 and finds also a pindaric/epinikion tone in a quote from Porphyry (comment. in Ptolem. harmon. iv):"with the gluttonous mouth of Strife will one day arm for battle against me."; translated by Cambell, Loeb III, page 271
  4. ^ D.A.Campbell, Greek Lyric III, Loeb (1991) page 8: "His love poetry was what later generations particularly remembered, sometimes with distaste", citing as proof Philodemus and Cicero, translated on page 217:
    1. Philodemus On Music, here commenting on the arguments of the Stoic Diogenes: "And he did not show that Ibycus, Anacreon and the like corrupted young men by their melodies but rather by their ideas."
    2. CiceroTusc. 4.33: "Finally, what revelations do the greatest scholars and finest poets make about themselves in their poems and songs? Alcaeus was recognised as a valiant hero in his city, but look at what he writes about love for youths! Anacreon's poetry of course is all erotic. More than any of them Ibycus of Rhegium was ablaze with love, as his writings demonstrate. And we see that the love of all these is lustful."


  1. ^ David A. Campbell, Greek Lyric Poetry, Bristol Classical Press (1982), page 305
  2. ^ a b David A. Campbell, Greek Lyric III, Loeb Classical Library (1991), page 8
  3. ^ David A. Campbell, Greek Lyric Poetry, Bristol Classical Press (1982), page 306, referring to fragments 286 and 287
  4. ^ Fragment 288, cited and translated by David A. Campbell, Greek Lyric III, Loeb Classical Library (1991), page 256-7
  5. ^ Op. lines 73–100, especially:
    ἀμφὶ δέ οἱ Χάριτές τε θεαὶ καὶ πότνια Πειθὼ
    ὅρμους χρυσείους ἔθεσαν χροΐ, ἀμφὶ δὲ τήν γε
    Ὧραι καλλίκομοι στέφον ἄνθεσιν εἰαρινοῖσιν·
  6. ^ Douglas E. Gerber, A Companion to the Greek Lyric Poets, Brill (1997), page 196
  7. ^ David A. Campbell, Greek Lyric III, Loeb Classical Library (1991), pages 209-11
  8. ^ Herodotus 3.39, cited by C.M.Bowra, Greek Lyric Poetry from Alcman to Simonides, Oxford University Press (1961, reprinted 2000), page 248
  9. ^ David A. Campbell, Greek Lyric III, Loeb Classical Library (1991), page 211, note 2:the given range of dates reflects differences between manuscripts
  10. ^ Douglas E. Gerber, A Companion to the Greek Lyric Poets, Brill (1997), page 188, referring to Himerus Or. 29.22 ff. Colonna
  11. ^ David A. Campbell, Greek Lyric III, Loeb Classical Library (1991), page 208, notes 2-4
  12. ^ Scholiast on Basil, Genesis, cited by David A. Campbell, Greek Lyric III, Loeb Classical Library (1991), page 283
  13. ^ C.M.Bowra, Greek Lyric Poetry from Alcman to Simonides, Oxford University Press (1961, reprinted 2000), page 241
  14. ^ Plutarch, De Garrulitate 14 (Steph. 509 E-F)
  15. ^ Palatine Anthology 7.745: Antipater of Sidon xix Gow-Page
  16. ^ Campbell, David David A. Greek Lyric Poetry. MacMillan 1967, p. 305 - 306.
  17. ^ David A. Campbell, Greek Lyric III, Loeb Classical Library (1991), page 211, note 12
  18. ^ Diogen.2.71, cited by David A. Campbell, Greek Lyric III, Loeb Classical Library (1991), page 213
  19. ^ Plato, Phaedrus (242D), cited by C.M.Bowra, Greek Lyric Poetry from Alcman to Simonides, Oxford University Press (1961, reprinted 2000), page 245
  20. ^ Himer.Or.69.35, cited by David A. Campbell, Greek Lyric III, Loeb Classical Library (1991), page 291
  21. ^ Douglas E. Gerber, A Companion to the Greek Lyric Poets, Brill (1997), page 189
  22. ^ Plut.comp.Lyc. et Num., cited by David A. Campbell, Greek Lyric III, Loeb Classical Library (1991), page 289; see also comment page 7
  23. ^ Anth.Pal.7.714, cited by David A. Campbell, Greek Lyric III, Loeb Classical Library (1991), page 215
  24. ^ a b C.M.Bowra, Greek Lyric Poetry from Alcman to Simonides, Oxford University Press (1961, reprint 2000), page 241
  25. ^ G. O. Hutchinson, Greek Lyric Poetry: a commentary on selected larger pieces, Oxford University Press (2001), page 234
  26. ^ a b D.A.Campbell, Greek Lyric III, Loeb Classical Library (1991), page 7
  27. ^ D.A.Campbell, "Monody", in P.Easterling and B.Knox (ed.s), The Cambridge History of Classical Literature: Greek Literature, Cambridge University Press (1985), page 214
  28. ^ Gregory Nagy, Greek Literature Vol.7: Greek Literature in the Hellenistic Period, Routledge (2001), page 287
  29. ^ D.A.Cambell, Greek Lyric Poetry, Bristol Classical Press (1982), page 305
  30. ^ David A. Campbell, Greek Lyric Poetry, Bristol Classical Press (1982), page 254
  31. ^ D.A.Campbell, Greek Lyric III, Loeb Classical Library (1991), pages 8–9
  32. ^ John P. Barron, 'Ibycus:Gorgias and other poems', Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies Vol.31 Issue 1 (Dec. 1984), pages 13-24, online here
  33. ^ David A. Campbell, Greek Lyric Poetry, Bristol Classical Press (1982), pages 306-7
  34. ^ Douglas E. Gerber, citing opinions of Barron (1969) and Sisti (1967), A Companion to the Greek Lyric Poets, Brill (1997), page 191
  35. ^ D.A.Campbell, 'Monody', P.Easterling and B.Knox (ed.s), The Cambridge History of Classical Literature: Greek Literature, Cambridge University Press (1985), page 216
  36. ^ David A. Campbell, Greek Lyric Poetry, Bristol Classical Press (1982), pages 307
  37. ^ Giuseppe Ucciardello, 'Sulla tradizione del testo di Ibico' in 'Lirica e Teatro in Grecia: Il Testo e la sua ricezione—Atti del 11 incontro di Studi, Perugia, 23-24 gennaio 2003', Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane (2005), pages 21-88. See English summary online in Bryn Mawr Classical Review
  38. ^ C.M.Bowra, Greek Lyric Poetry from Alcman to Simonides, Oxford University Press (1961, reprint 2000), page 250
  39. ^ Malcolm Davies, 'Symbolism and Imagery in the Poetry of Ibycus', Hermes Vol.114, No.4 (4th Qtr 1986), pages 399-405, online here
  40. ^ Smyth, Herbert Weir, Greek Melic Poets Biblo and Tannen, 1963, page 271
  41. ^ C.M.Bowra, Greek Lyric Poetry from Alcman to Simonides, Oxford University Press (1961, reprint 2000), page 244
  42. ^ Andrew M.Miller (translator), Greek Lyric: an anthology in translation, Hackett Publishing Company Inc. (1996), page 97
  43. ^ D.A.Campbell, 'Monody', P.Easterling and B.Knox (ed.s), The Cambridge History of Classical Literature: Greek Literature, Cambridge University Press (1985), page 215
  44. ^ C.M.Bowra, Greek Lyric Poetry from Alcman to Simonides, Oxford University Press (1961, reprint 2000), page 265
  45. ^ fr. 289 and 291, D. Cambell, Greek Lyric III, Loeb Classical Library (1991) page 259
  46. ^ fr. 324, D. Campbell, Greek Lyric III, Loeb Classical Library (1991), page 279

External links

Ancient Greek dialects

Ancient Greek in classical antiquity, before the development of the common Koine Greek of the Hellenistic period, was divided into several varieties.

Most of these varieties are known only from inscriptions, but a few of them, principally Aeolic, Doric, and Ionic, are also represented in the literary canon alongside the dominant Attic form of literary Greek.

Likewise, Modern Greek is divided into several dialects, most derived from Koine Greek.


In Greek mythology, Atreus ( AY-tri-əs, AY-trooss; from ἀ-, "no" and τρέω, "tremble", "fearless", Greek: Ἀτρεύς) was a king of Mycenae in the Peloponnese, the son of Pelops and Hippodamia, and the father of Agamemnon and Menelaus. Collectively, his descendants are known as Atreidai or Atreidae.

Atreus and his twin brother Thyestes were exiled by their father for murdering their half-brother Chrysippus in their desire for the throne of Olympia. They took refuge in Mycenae, where they ascended to the throne in the absence of King Eurystheus, who was fighting the Heracleidae. Eurystheus had meant for their stewardship to be temporary, but it became permanent after his death in battle.

According to most ancient sources, Atreus was the father of Pleisthenes, but in some lyric poets (Ibycus, Bacchylides) Pleisthenides (son of Pleisthenes) is used as an alternative name for Atreus himself.

Classical Literature of Greece

This is a list of most influential Greek authors of antiquity (by alphabetic order):

From c.VII B.C- c.VII A.D


Aeschylus - Tragedy

Aesop - Fables

Alcaeus of Mytilene-Lyric Poetry

Alcman-Lyric Poetry

Anacreon-Lyric Poetry


Anaximander-Philosophy, Mathematics

Anaximenes-Philosophy, Mathematics


Anthony the Great-Theology


Apollodorus of Carystus-Comedy

Aristophanes - Comedy

Archimedes - Mathematics, Geometry

Aristotle - Philosophy, Physics, Biology

Aratus - Poetry, Astronomy

Arrian - History

Athanasius of Alexandria-Theology

Bacchylides-Lyric Poetry



Claudius Ptolemy -Geography, Astronomy

Clement of Alexandria-Theology, Philosophy

Democritus - Philosophy, Chemistry

Demosthenes - Rhetorics, Politics



Diodorus - History

Diogenes Laërtius - History of Philosophy

Duris of Samos-History


Epimenides of Knossos - Philosophy, Philosophical poetry

Eubulus (poet)-Comedy

Euclid of Megara - Mathematics, Geometry

Euripides - Tragedy

Evagrius Ponticus-Theology

Gorgias - Philosophy

Hegemon of Thasos-Comedy


Herodotus of Halicarnassus - History

Hesiod - Epic Poetry

Hippocrates of Cos - Medicine

Homer - Epic Poetry



Ibycus of Rhegium-Lyric Poetry

Irenaeus-Theology, Philosophy

Isaeus-Rhetorics, Logography


Justin the Martyr-Theology, Philosophy

Leucippus-Philosophy, Atomism

Luke the Evangelist-Theology, Medicine, History

Lycurgus of Athens-Rhetorics

Lysias-Logography, Rhetorics

Maximus the Confessor-Theology, Philosophy

Menander - Comedy

Melissus of Samos-Philosophy

Nicomachus of Gerasa-Mathematics

Origen-Theology, Philosophy

Papias of Hierapolis-Theology


Pherecydes of Leros-Mythography, Logography

Philo of Alexandria-Theology, Philosophy

Pindar - Lyrical Poetry

Plato - Philosophy

Plutarch - History, Biography, Philosophy

Posidippus (comic poet)-Comedy

Protagoras - Philosophy

Pythagoras of Samos-Philosophy, Mathematics, Religion (No works)

Sappho of Lesbos-Lyric Poetry

Simonides-Lyric Poetry

Socrates-Philosophy (No Works)

Solon - Politics, Philosophy

Stesichorus-Lyric Poetry


Thales of Miletus-Philosophy, Mathematics, Astronomy, Physics

Theocritus - Bucolic poetry


Thucydides - History

Xenarchus of Seleucia-Philosophy, Philology

Xenophanes- Philosophy, Theology

Xenophon - History

Zeno of Citium-Philosophy

Zeno of Elea-Philosophy

Crane (bird)

Cranes are a family, the Gruidae, of large, long-legged, and long-necked birds in the group Gruiformes. The 15 species of cranes are placed in four genera. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Cranes live on all continents except Antarctica and South America.

They are opportunistic feeders that change their diets according to the season and their own nutrient requirements. They eat a range of items from suitably sized small rodents, fish, amphibians, and insects to grain and berries.

Cranes construct platform nests in shallow water, and typically lay two eggs at a time. Both parents help to rear the young, which remain with them until the next breeding season.Some species and populations of cranes migrate over long distances; others do not migrate at all. Cranes are solitary during the breeding season, occurring in pairs, but during the nonbreeding season, they are gregarious, forming large flocks where their numbers are sufficient.

Most species of cranes have been affected by human activities and are at the least classified as threatened, if not critically endangered. The plight of the whooping cranes of North America inspired some of the first US legislation to protect endangered species.

Die Kraniche des Ibykus

"The Cranes of Ibycus" (original name "Die Kraniche des Ibycus") is a ballad by Friedrich Schiller, written in 1797, the year of his friendly ballad competition with Goethe. It is set in the 6th century BC and is based on the murder of Ibycus.

Greek lyric

Greek lyric is the body of lyric poetry written in dialects of Ancient Greek.

It is primarily associated with the early 7th to the early 5th centuries BC, sometimes called the "Lyric Age of Greece", but continued to be written into the Hellenistic and Imperial periods.


Helicarionidae is a family of air-breathing land snails or semi-slugs, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Helicarionoidea.

Hellenic Quest

Hellenic Quest is an urban legend mostly praising the Greek language for its superiority amongst all languages.

Index of Greece-related articles

This page list topics related to Greece.


In Greek mythology, Kymopoleia (Κυμοπόλεια), latinized as Cymopoleia, was a daughter of sea god Poseidon and sea Nereid Amphitrite, and is known as the Greek goddess of the seas and of storms, and the wife of Briares one of the three Hecatoncheires.She was perhaps the mother of Oiolyke, who was given as the daughter of Briareus and a possible possessor of the girdle that Heracles was sent to fetch. The girdle was also said to have belonged to Deilyke (otherwise unknown) or, most commonly, to Hippolyta, queen of the Amazons.


The Mesosemiini are one of the tribes of metalmark butterflies (family Riodinidae). They are the basalmost living tribe of the Riodininae, outside the main radiation together with the slightly more advanced Eurybiini.

Nine Lyric Poets

The Nine Lyric or Melic Poets were a canonical group of ancient Greek poets esteemed by the scholars of Hellenistic Alexandria as worthy of critical study. In the Palatine Anthology it is said that they established lyric song. They were:

Alcman of Sparta (choral lyric, 7th century BC)

Sappho of Lesbos (monodic lyric, c. 600 BC)

Alcaeus of Mytilene (monodic lyric, c. 600 BC)

Anacreon of Teos (monodic lyric, 6th century BC)

Stesichorus of Metauros (choral lyric, 7th century BC)

Ibycus of Rhegium (choral lyric, 6th century BC)

Simonides of Ceos (choral lyric, 6th century BC)

Bacchylides of Ceos (choral lyric, 5th century BC)

Pindar of Thebes (choral lyric, 5th century BC)In most Greek sources the word melikos (from melos, "song") is used to refer to these poets, but the variant lyrikos (from lyra, "lyre") became the regular form in both Latin (as lyricus) and in modern languages. The ancient scholars defined the genre on the basis of the musical accompaniment, not the content. Thus, some types of poetry which would be included under the label "lyric poetry," in modern criticism are excluded—namely, the elegy and iambus which were performed with flutes.

The Nine Lyric Poets are traditionally divided among those who primarily composed choral verses, and those who composed monodic verses. This division is contested by some modern scholars.Antipater of Thessalonica proposes an alternative canon of nine female poets.

Ode to Polycrates

Ode to Polycrates (also To Polycrates, 282a or S151) is an ancient Greek poem written by Ibycus and dedicated to Polycrates, tyrant of Samos. It was composed some time in the middle of the 6th century BC and displays close similarities to the work of Stesichorus.


Polycrates (; Greek: Πολυκράτης, in English usually Polycrates but sometimes Polykrates), son of Aeaces, was the tyrant of Samos from c. 538 BC to 522 BC. He had a reputation as both a fierce warrior and an enlightened tyrant.


A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears. There are over three hundred species and thousands of cultivars. They form a group of plants that can be erect shrubs, climbing, or trailing, with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles. Flowers vary in size and shape and are usually large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwestern Africa. Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and often are fragrant. Roses have acquired cultural significance in many societies. Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach seven meters in height. Different species hybridize easily, and this has been used in the development of the wide range of garden roses.


In Greek mythology, Scylla ( SIL-ə; Greek: Σκύλλα, pronounced [skýl̚la], Skylla) was a legendary monster that lived on one side of a narrow channel of water, opposite her counterpart Charybdis. The two sides of the strait were within an arrow's range of each other—so close that sailors attempting to avoid Charybdis would pass dangerously close to Scylla and vice versa.

Scylla made her first appearance in Homer's Odyssey, where Odysseus and his crew encounter her and Charybdis on their travels. Later myth gave her an origin story as a beautiful nymph who gets turned into a monster.The strait where Scylla dwelled has been associated with the Strait of Messina between mainland Italy and Sicily, for example, as in Book Three of Virgil's Aeneid. The idiom "between Scylla and Charybdis" has come to mean being forced to choose between two similarly dangerous situations.


Stesichorus (; Greek: Στησίχορος, Stēsikhoros; c. 630 – 555 BC) was the first great lyric poet of the West. He is best known for telling epic stories in lyric metres but he is also famous for some ancient traditions about his life, such as his opposition to the tyrant Phalaris, and the blindness he is said to have incurred and cured by composing verses first insulting and then flattering to Helen of Troy.

He was ranked among the nine lyric poets esteemed by the scholars of Hellenistic Alexandria and yet his work attracted relatively little interest among ancient commentators, so that remarkably few fragments of his poetry now survive. As one scholar observed in 1967: "Time has dealt more harshly with Stesichorus than with any other major lyric poet." Recent discoveries, recorded on Egyptian papyrus (notably and controversially, the Lille Stesichorus), have led to some improvements in our understanding of his work, confirming his role as a link between Homer's epic narrative and the lyric narrative of poets like Pindar.The following description of the birthplace of the monster Geryon, preserved as a quote by the geographer Strabo, is characteristic of the "descriptive fulness" of his style:

σχεδὸν ἀντιπέρας κλεινᾶς Ἐρυθείας


> Ταρτησ-

σοῦ ποταμοῦ παρὰ παγὰσ ἀπείρονας ἀρ-


ἐν κευθμῶνι πέτρας.A nineteenth century translation imaginatively fills in the gaps while communicating something of the richness of the language:

Where monster Geryon first beheld the light,

Famed Erytheia rises to the sight;

Born near th' unfathomed silver springs that gleam

'Mid caverned rocks, and feed Tartessus' stream.Stesichorus exercised an important influence on the representation of myth in 6th century art and on the development of Athenian dramatic poetry.

Thesaurus Linguae Graecae

The Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG) is a research center at the University of California, Irvine. The TLG was founded in 1972 by Marianne McDonald (a graduate student at the time and now a professor of theater and classics at the University of California, San Diego) with the goal to create a comprehensive digital collection of all surviving texts written in Greek from antiquity to the present era. Since 1972, the TLG has collected and digitized most surviving literary texts written in Greek from Homer to the fall of Constantinople in 1453 CE, and beyond. Theodore Brunner (1934-2007) directed the project from 1972 until his retirement from the University of California in 1998. Maria Pantelia, also a classics professor at UC Irvine, succeeded Theodore Brunner in 1998, and has been directing the TLG since. TLG's name is shared with its online database, the full title of which is Thesaurus Linguae Graecae: A Digital Library of Greek Literature (the TLG, in italics, for short).The challenge of this huge undertaking was originally met with the help of several classicists and technology experts but primarily thanks to the efforts of David Woodley Packard and his team who created the Ibycus system, namely the hardware and software originally used to proofread and search the corpus. David Packard also developed Beta code, a character and formatting encoding convention used to encode Polytonic Greek. The collection was originally circulated on CD-ROM. The first CD-ROM was released in 1985, and was the first compact disc that did not contain music. Subsequent versions were released in 1988 and in 1992, thanks to technical support provided by David W. Packard.

By the late 1990s, it became obvious that the old Ibycus technology was outdated. Under the direction of Professor Maria Pantelia, a number of new projects were undertaken, including the massive migration out of the Ibycus, the development of a new state of the art system to digitize, proofread, and manage the textual collection, a new CD-ROM (TLG E), released in 1999, and eventually the move of the corpus to the web environment in 2001. At the same time, the TLG undertook the project of working with the Unicode Technical Committee to include all characters needed to encode and display Greek in the Unicode standard. The corpus continues to be expanded significantly to include Byzantine, medieval, and eventually modern Greek texts. More recent projects include the lemmatization of the Greek corpus (2006) – a substantial undertaking, given the highly inflectional nature of the Greek language and the complexity of the corpus, covering more than two millennia of literary development – and the Online Liddell–Scott–Jones Greek–English Lexicon (commonly referred to as the LSJ), released in February 2011.

Since 2001, the TLG corpus has been searchable online by members of subscribing institutions, which number close to 1500 worldwide. All bibliographical information and a subset of the texts are available to the general public.

According to an undated document on the TLG's web site, the total number of Greek words amounts to 110 million, while the number of unique wordforms amount to 1.6 million and the number of unique lemmata to 250,000.

Zeuxippus of Sicyon

In Greek mythology, Zeuxippus (Ancient Greek: Ζεύξιππος) was the son of Apollo and the nymph Syllis (or Hyllis, daughter of Hyllus and Iole). He succeeded Phaestus as the king of Sicyon, and was in turn succeeded by Hippolytus.

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