Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt

Ibrahim Pasha (Turkish: Kavalalı İbrahim Paşa; Arabic: إبراهيم باشاIbrāhīm Bāshā; 1789 – November 10, 1848) was the eldest son of Muhammad Ali, the Wāli and unrecognised Khedive of Egypt and Sudan. He served as a general in the Egyptian army that his father established during his reign, taking his first command of Egyptian forces when he was merely a teenager. In the final year of his life, he succeeded his still living father as ruler of Egypt and Sudan, due to the latter's ill health. His rule also extended over the other dominions that his father had brought under Egyptian rule, namely Syria, Hejaz, Morea, Thasos, and Crete. Ibrahim pre-deceased his father, dying 10 November 1848, only four months after acceding to the throne. Upon his father's death the following year, the Egyptian throne passed to Ibrahim's nephew (son of Muhammad Ali's second oldest son), Abbas.

Ibrahim remains one of the most celebrated members of the Muhammad Ali dynasty, particularly for his impressive military victories, including several crushing defeats of the Ottoman Empire. Among Egyptian historians, Ibrahim, his father Muhammad Ali, and his son Ismail the Magnificent are held in far higher esteem than other rulers from the dynasty, who were largely viewed as indolent and corrupt; this is largely the result of efforts by his grandson Fuad I of Egypt to ensure the positive portrayal of his paternal ancestors in the Royal Archives that he created, which were the primary source for Egyptian history from the 1920s until the 1970s.[1] Today, a statue of Ibrahim occupies a prominent position in Egypt's capital, Cairo.

Ibrahim Pasha
Kavalalı İbrahim Paşa
إبراهيم باشا
Wāli of Egypt, Sudan, Syria (incl. Palestine and Transjordan), Hejaz, Morea, Thasos, Crete
Portrait d'Ibrahim Pacha 2
ReignMarch 2, 1848 – November 10, 1848
PredecessorMuhammad Ali Pasha
SuccessorAbbas I
Born1789
Drama, Ottoman province of Macedonia (part of modern day Greece)
Died10 November 1848 (aged 58–59)
Cairo, Egypt Eyalet
BurialNovember 10, 1848
(11 hours after his death)
Hosh al-Basha Mausoleum of Imam al-Shafi'i, Cairo, Egypt
Wives
  • Hadidja Qadin
  • Shivekiar Qadin
  • Hoshiyar Qadin
  • Ulfet Qadin
  • Gulzar Qadin
  • Sara Qadin
IssueMustafa Fazl Pasha
Muhammad Bey
Isma'il Pasha
Ahmed Rifa'at
Arabicإبراهيم باشا
TurkishKavalalı İbrahim Paşa
DynastyMuhammad Ali dynasty
FatherMuhammad Ali Pasha
MotherAmina Hanim
ReligionSunni Hanafi

Background

His Mother Emine, born at Nusretli in 1770 and died in Cairo 1824. She was the widow of Ottoman Turk Serezli Ali Bey, and a daughter of Major Ali Aga of Nusretli. Ibrahim was her first born son (her first born was Princess Tawhida). It is further known that he was born in the village of Nusratli (today Nikiforos), near the town of Drama, the Ottoman province of Rumelia, in what is now the eastern parts of Macedonian region in Greece.

In 1805, during his father's struggle to establish himself as ruler of Egypt, the adolescent Ibrahim, at 16, was sent as a hostage to the Ottoman captain Pasha (admiral). However, Ibrahim was allowed to return to Egypt once his father was recognised as Wāli of Egypt by the Ottoman Sultan, and had defeated the British military expedition of Major General Alexander Mackenzie Fraser.[2]

When Muhammad Ali went to Arabia to prosecute the war against the Ibn Saud in 1813, Ibrahim was left in command of Upper Egypt. He continued the war with the broken power of the Mameluks, whom he suppressed. In 1816, he succeeded his brother Tusun Pasha in command of the Egyptian forces in Arabia.[2]

Campaigns against the house of Saud

Muhammad Ali had already begun to introduce European discipline into his army, and Ibrahim had probably received some training, but his first campaign was conducted more in the old Asiatic style than his later operations. The campaign lasted two years, and ended in the destruction of the House of Saud as a political power. Muhammad Ali landed at Yanbu, the port of Medina, on 1813. The holy cities had been recovered from the Saudis, and Ibrahim's task was to follow them into the desert of Nejd and destroy their fortresses. Such training as the Egyptian troops had received, and their artillery, gave them a marked superiority in the open field. But the difficulty of crossing the desert to the Saudis stronghold of Diriyah, some 400 miles east of Medina made the conquest a very arduous one. Ibrahim displayed great energy and tenacity, sharing all the hardships of his army, and never allowing himself to be discouraged by failure. By the end of September 1818, he had forced the Saudi leader to surrender, and had taken Diriyah, which he sacked.[2]

Operations in the Morea

Ibrahim-messolonghi
Ibrahim Pasha attacks Missolonghi in the year 1826, (by Giuseppe Pietro Mazzola).
Ibrahim-Mehmet-Seve
Ibrahim Pasha, with father Muhammad Ali Pasha and Colonel Sève (Suleiman Pasha, right).

On December 11, 1819 he made a triumphal entry into Cairo. After his return Ibrahim gave effective support to the Frenchman, Colonel Sève (Suleiman Pasha), who was employed to drill the army on the European model. Ibrahim set an example by submitting to be drilled as a recruit. In 1824, Muhammad Ali was appointed governor of the Morea (the Peloponnese peninsula in southern Greece) by Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II.[2] Mahmud actually required the assistance of the well-trained Egyptian army against the contemporary Greek Revolution, which his forces had been unable to quell: in 1822, the Greeks had decisively defeated an army of some 30,000 men under Sultanzade Mahmud Dramali Pasha.

Ibrahim was sent to the Peloponnese with a squadron and an army of 17,000 men. The expedition sailed on July 4, 1824, but was for some months unable to do more than come and go between Rhodes and Crete. The fear of the Greek fire ships stopped his way to the Morea. When the Greek sailors mutinied from want of pay, Ibrahim was able to land at Modon on February 26, 1825. He remained in the Morea until the capitulation of October 1, 1828 was forced on him by the intervention of the Western powers.[2]

He defeated the Greeks in the open field, and though the siege of Missolonghi proved costly to his own troops and to the Ottoman forces who operated with him, he brought it to a successful termination on April 24, 1826. But he was defeated in Mani three times in a row. The Greek guerrilla bands harassed his army, and in revenge he desolated the country and sent thousands of the inhabitants into slavery in Egypt. These measures of repression aroused great indignation in Europe and led to the intervention of the naval squadrons of the United Kingdom, the Restored Kingdom of France and Imperial Russia in the Battle of Navarino (October 20, 1827). Their victory was followed by the landing of a French expeditionary force in the so-called Morea expedition. By the terms of the capitulation of October 1, 1828, Ibrahim evacuated the country.[2]

Campaigns in Syria

In 1831, his father's quarrel with the Porte having become flagrant, Ibrahim was sent to conquer Syria. He took Acre after a severe siege on May 27, 1832, occupied Damascus, defeated an Ottoman army at Homs on July 8 defeated another Ottoman army at Beilan on July 29, invaded Asia Minor, and finally routed the Grand Vizier Reşid Mehmed Pasha at Konya on December 21.[2] It was there in Syria where he met Umar Tal the mystic, according to accounts Umar Tal healed the son of Ibrahim Pasha from a deadly fever. Umar Tal was inspired by Ibrahim Pasha, when Umar returned to Sokoto he followed the trends set by the Pasha. Umar Tal later became the commander of the Toucouleur in what is now Guinea, Senegal, and Mali.

The Convention of Kütahya on May 6 left Syria for a time in the hands of Muhammad Ali. Ibrahim was undoubtedly helped by Colonel Sève and the European officers in his army. After the campaign of 1832 and 1833, Ibrahim remained as governor in Syria. He might perhaps have administered successfully, but the exactions he was compelled to enforce by his father soon caused the popularity of his government to decline and provoked revolts.[2] He was assisted by French officer Beaufort d'Hautpoul from 1834 to 1837, who was his Chief-of-Staff.[3]

During the 1834 peasants' revolt in Palestine, Ibrahim Pasha besieged the Transjordanian city of Al-Karak for 17 days, in pursuit of the revolt's leader Qasim al-Ahmad. After a hole was blasted into the town's walls in late August, Al-Karak was destroyed and the orchards outside the town were uprooted as punitive measures against the residents for hosting Qasim. Fearing further retaliation from Ibrahim Pasha, the rebel leaders were handed to the Egyptians.[4]

In 1838, the Porte felt strong enough to renew the struggle, and war broke out once more. Ibrahim won his last victory for his father at Nezib on June 24, 1839. But the United Kingdom and the Austrian Empire intervened to preserve the integrity of the Ottoman Empire. Their squadrons cut his communications by sea with Egypt, a general revolt isolated him in Syria, and he was finally compelled to evacuate the country in February 1841.[2]

The Karakis were to take their revenge from Ibrahim Pasha, 6 years later when the Pasha and his Egyptian army were driven out of Damascus. In 1841, as the Pasha and his troops took the Hajj road from Damascus, they were persistently attacked all the way from Qatraneh to Gaza. The weary army were killed and robbed, and by the time Ibrahim Pasha reached Gaza, the commander had lost most of his army, ammunition and animals.[5]

Last years

Ibrahim spent the rest of his life in peace, but his health was ruined. In 1846 he paid a visit to Western Europe, where he was received with some respect and a great deal of curiosity. When his father became senile, Ibrahim was appointed Regent in his place. He held his regency from July till the time of his death on November 10, 1848.[2]

Honours

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Khaled Fahmy, Mehmed Ali: From Ottoman Governor to Ruler of Egypt (Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2009)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ibrahim Pasha". Encyclopædia Britannica. 14 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 223–224.
  3. ^ Fawaz, Leila Tarazi. An occasion for war: civil conflict in Lebanon and Damascus in 1860. Books.google.com. p. 114. Retrieved 2012-05-13.
  4. ^ Rogan, 1995, pp. 31-2
  5. ^ Frontiers of the State in the Late Ottoman Empire: Transjordan, 1850–1921. Cambridge University Press. 2002-04-11. p. 31. Retrieved 2016-06-08.

Bibliography

  • See Edouard Gouin, L'Egypte au XIX' siècle (Paris, 1847); Aimé Vingtrinier, Soliman-Pasha (Colonel Sève) (Paris, 1886). A great deal of unpublished material of the highest interest with regard to Ibrahim's personality and his system in Syria is preserved in the British Foreign Office archives; for references to these see Cambridge Mod. Hist. x. 852, bibliography to chap. xvii.

External links

Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt
Born: 1789 Died: November 10, 1848
Preceded by
Muhammad Ali Pasha
Wāli of Egypt and Sudan
1848
Succeeded by
Abbas Hilmi I
1834 Jerusalem earthquake

The 1834 Jerusalem earthquake occurred on 13 May during the first few days of the Peasants' revolt in Palestine against Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt. The earthquake's epicenter was in the Jerusalem area. After a brief lull, fighting resumed the next day.Damage from the quake included the collapse of part of the city wall near the Dome of the Rock, the collapse of the dome over the Chapel of the Ascension, a minaret in the city and one on the Mount of Olives, the collapse or damage of several large Jerusalem homes, and the severe damage of Latin and Armenian monasteries in Bethlehem. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre suffered minor damage.

1838 Druze attack on Safed

The 1838 Druze attack on Safed began on July 5, 1838, during the Druze revolt against the rule of Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt. Tensions had mounted as the Druze captured an Egyptian garrison outside of Safed. The local Safed militia of several hundred was heavily outnumbered by the Druze, and the city was gripped in despair as the militia eventually abandoned the city and the Druze rebels entered the city on July 5. The Druze rebels descended on the Jewish quarter of Safed and, in scenes reminiscent of the Safed plunder four years earlier, spent three days attacking Jews, plundering their homes and desecrating their synagogues. Some Jews ended up leaving the town, moving south to Jerusalem and Acre. Among them was Israel Beck, whose printing press had been destroyed a second time.

Agia Lavra

Agia Lavra ("Holy Lavra") is a monastery near Kalavryta, Achaea, Greece. It was built in 961 AD, on Chelmos Mountain, at an altitude of 961 meters, and can be described as the symbolic birthplace of modern Greece. It stands as one of the oldest monasteries in the Peloponnese.

It was built in the 10th century but was burnt to the ground in 1585 by the Turks. It was rebuilt in 1600 while the frescoes by Anthimos were completed in 1645. It was burnt again in 1715 and in 1826 by the armies of Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt. In 1850 after the rebirth of modern Greece, the building was completely rebuilt. The monastery was burned down by German forces in 1943.

It is famously linked with the Greek War of Independence, since it was here that the call for Eleftheria I Thanatos (Ελευθερία ή θάνατος) was first heard on 25 March 1821, launching the revolution against the Ottoman Empire. That day, Bishop Germanos of Patras performed a doxology and administered an oath to the Peloponnesian fighters. The revolutionary flag was raised by Bishop under the plane tree just outside the gate of the monastery.To this day, the vestments of Germanos, documents, books, icons, the Gospel of Tsarina Catherine II of Russia, sacred vessels, crosses, etc. are preserved in the Monastery's museum, along with the holy relics of St Alexios, given by Byzantine emperor Manuel II Palaeologus in 1398. Pieces of embroidery, made with gold or silver threads woven in pure silk materials in Smyrna and Constantinople, are also possessions of the Monastery and they date from the 16th century.

On the hill opposite, a monument to the heroes of the Revolution of 1821 looks down upon the monastery.

Bab al-Ahmar

Bab al-Ahmar (Arabic: باب الأحمر‎) meaning the Red Gate, was one of the nine historical gates of the Ancient City of Aleppo, Syria. The name was derived from the village of al-Hamr (Arabic: الحمر‎) as the gate was leading to the village at the eastern suburbs of ancient Aleppo.

It was completely ruined during the Ottoman rule over Syria.

Ballıca, Tarsus

Ballıca is a village in Tarsus district of Mersin Province, Turkey. It is situated in the plains of Çukurova (Cilicia of the antiquity). Its distance to Tarsus is 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) and its distance to Mersin is 42 kilometres (26 mi). The population of Ballıca was 170 as of 2011. There are tumuli of ancient ages around the village, but the modern village was founded in 1730 by Yörüks (once-nomadic Turkmens). During the brief occupation by Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt in the 19th century, cotton farming was introduced to village. After the village was returned to the Ottoman Empire, Turkmens from Elazığ were settled in the village to work in cotton fields. After irrigation facilities were improved during the republican era after 1923, cotton production increased.

Casemates of İbrahim Pasha

The Casemates of Ibrahim Pasha (Turkish: İbrahim Paşa Tabyaları), are a number of casemates built by Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt in 1833 to the north of Gülek Pass in southern Turkey.

Cleopatra's Gate

Cleopatra's Gate is a city gate of Tarsus, in Mersin Province, Turkey, named after the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII.

Dimitrios Papatsonis

Dimitrios Papatsonis (Greek: Δημήτριος Παπατσώνης, c. 1798 – 24 June 1825) was a fighter of the Greek War of Independence from Peloponnese. He was killed at the age of 27 in June 1825 during the battle of Trikorfa against the Egyptian forces of Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt.

Gülek Castle

Gülek Castle is a medieval castle in Mersin Province, Turkey.

Ibrahim Pasha

Ibrahim Pasha may refer to the following Ottoman statesmen:

Çandarlı Ibrahim Pasha (died 1429), Ottoman statesman, grand vizier to Murad II

Çandarlı Ibrahim Pasha (died 1499), Ottoman statesman, grand vizier to Bayezid II, grandson of Çandarlı Ibrahim Pasha

Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha (1493–1536), Ottoman statesman, grand vizier to Suleiman the Magnificent (1523–1536), and governor of Egypt (1525)

Damad Ibrahim Pasha (died 1601), Ottoman statesman, grand vizier to Ahmed II

Maktul Hacı Ibrahim Pasha (died 1604), Ottoman statesman, governor of Egypt (1604), murdered in mutiny

Ibrahim Pasha (Ottoman governor of Bosnia) (fl. 1610–1620), Ottoman governor of Bosnia

Deli Ibrahim Pasha (fl. 1620-1630), Ottoman governor of Bosnia

Defterdarzade Ibrahim Pasha (fl. 1639), Ottoman Minister of Finance

Gabela Ibrahim Pasha (fl. 1645), Ottoman governor of Bosnia

Ibrahim Pasha of Algiers (fl. 1657–1659), Ottoman governor of the Regency of Algiers

Teşnak Ibrahim Pasha (fl. 1670), Ottoman governor of Bosnia

Koca Arnaud Ibrahim Pasha (fl. 1670), Ottoman governor of Bosnia

Bayburtlu Kara Ibrahim Pasha (died 1687), Ottoman statesman, grand vizier (1683–1685), and governor of Egypt (1669–1673)

Ibrahim-pasha (fl. 1690–1700), Ottoman governor of Temeşvar Eyalet

Hacı Ibrahim Pasha (fl. 1703), Ottoman governor of Bosnia

Hoca Ibrahim Pasha (fl. 1713), Ottoman grand vizier

Moralı Ibrahim Pasha (died 1725), Ottoman statesman, governor of various provinces, including Egypt (1709–1710)

Kabakulak Ibrahim Pasha (fl. 1730), Ottoman grand vizier, governor of Bosnia

Nevşehirli Damat Ibrahim Pasha (1666–1730), Ottoman statesman, grand vizier during the Tulip Era

Ibrahim Pasha al-Azm (fl. 1740), Ottoman governor of Sidon Eyalet

Hacı Ibrahim Pasha (died 1775), Ottoman statesman and governor of Egypt (1774–1775)

Eğribozlu İbrahim Pasha (fl. 1758–1768), Ottoman Grand Admiral, see list of Kapudan Pashas

Ibrahim Pasha of Berat, 18th-century ruler of the Pashalik of Berat

Ibrahim Pasha Baban (fl. 1783–1784), Kurdish leader who founded Sulaymaniyah

Ibrahim Pasha al-Halabi (fl. 1788–1789), Ottoman governor of Damascus

Ibrahim Pasha Qataraghasi, Ottoman governor of Aleppo and Damascus

Ibrahim Bushati (died 1810), Pasha of Shkodër

Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt (1789–1848), Egyptian general and eldest son of Muhammad Ali of Egypt

Hilmi Ibrahim Pasha (fl. 1800–1820), Ottoman governor of Bosnia and Crete

Ibrahim Sarim Pasha (1801–1853), Ottoman statesman

Ibrahim Dervish Pasha (fl. 1872), Ottoman governor of Bosnia

Ibrahim Edhem Pasha (1819–1893), Ottoman statesman, grand vizier to Abdulhamid II

Ali Ibrahim Pasha, Egypt Minister of Education (1879-1881)

Ibrahim Ilhami Pasha (1836–1860), son of Abbas I of Egypt

Ibrahim Fehmi Pasha (1838–1896), Ottoman statesman

Ibrahim Hakki Pasha (1862–1918), Ottoman statesman

Abdel Fattah Yahya Ibrahim Pasha (1876–1951), Egyptian political figure

Konstantinos Mavromichalis

Konstantinos Mavromichalis (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Μαυρομιχάλης; Mani, 1797 – Nauplio, 1831), brother of the Bey of Mani Petros Mavromichalis, was a commander of Maniot forces during the Greek War of Independence and the assassin of the first head of state of Greece, Ioannis Capodistrias. Along with Demetrius Ypsilanti, he commanded the forces that saved Nauplio from Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt. When two of his brothers, Tzanis Mavromichalis and Petros were captured by government forces under Capodistrias, Konstantinos and the old bey's son Georgios Mavromichalis decided to take revenge. On 9 October [O.S. 27 September] 1831, the two Maniots were waiting by the doors of the church St. Spyridonas. The Governor of Greece recognised the two men and was worried. But before he could do anything the two men attacked him. Konstantinos shot the Governor through the head and his nephew stabbed Capodistrias through the heart. As the Maniot was escaping, he was shot by one of Capodistrias' bodyguards and by General Fotomaras who had watched the murder scene from his home window. Running half dead through the streets of Nauplio, Konstantinos was shot several times before he died. The angry citizens of the city dragged his body and threw it off a cliff called the Arvanitis. His nephew was captured alive and executed by a firing squad.

Nikolaos Petimezas

Nikolaos Petimezas (Greek: Νικόλαος Πετιμεζάς, 1790–1865) was a Greek revolutionary leader during the Greek War of Independence, politician and officer of the Hellenic Gendarmerie.

He was born in 1790 in Soudena near Kalavryta. He was the son of Athanasios Petimezas. After his father was murdered in 1804 he fled to British-held Zakynthos, and enrolled in the British-sponsored Greek light infantry units.

He returned to the Peloponnese at the outbreak of the War of Independence, and fought in several battles. In 1826, with 600 men, he occupied Mega Spilaio and drove back the attacks of Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt. He was chosen as a representative of his native Kalavryta in the Greek National Assemblies, and became an MP in the independent Kingdom of Greece.

He died in Kalavryta in 1865.

Ottoman–Egyptian invasion of Mani

The Ottoman–Egyptian Invasion of Mani was a campaign during the Greek War of Independence that consisted of three battles. The Maniots fought against a combined Egyptian and Ottoman army under the command of Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt.

On March 17, 1821, the Maniots (residents of the central peninsula on the southern part of the Peloponnese) declared war on the Ottoman Empire, preceding the rest of Greece in joining the revolution by about a week. The various Greek forces won a quick string of victories. However, disputes broke out amongst the leaders and anarchy ensued. The Ottomans seized this chance and called for reinforcements from Egypt. The reinforcements came under the command of Ibrahim Pasha, the son of the leader of Egypt, Muhammad Ali. With the Greeks in disarray, Ibrahim ravaged the Peloponnese and after a four months siege he captured the city of Missolonghi in April. He then went back to the Peloponnese and turned his attention in June to Mani.

Ibrahim tried to enter Mani from the north-east near Almiro on June 21, 1826, but he was forced to stop at the fortifications at Vergas. His army of 7,000 men was held off by an army of 2,000 Maniots and 500 refugees from other parts of Greece. Despite Egyptian and Ottoman artillery, the outnumbered Maniots managed to hold off the Ottomans. Ibrahim sent 1,500 men to attempt a landing near Areopolis and go north to threaten the Maniot rear. This force was initially successful; however they were repelled with heavy losses. When the Egyptians at Vergas heard that Theodoros Kolokotronis was advancing on their rear they retreated.

In August, Ibrahim renewed the offensive and he sent a group of regular soldiers down the coast and they reached Kariopoli before they retreated. Ibrahim sent a force of 8,000 men down to Polytsaravo and on the way they destroyed a tower that was opposing them. When they reached Polytsaravo, they were faced by the Maniots in their forts. The Egyptians and the Ottomans were forced to retreat with significant losses. This was the last time Mani was invaded during the War for Independence, as Greece was liberated in 1828.

Prastos

Prastos (Greek: Πραστός) is a settlement in Arcadia, Greece. Formerly, Prastos was the premier town of the Tsakonian region, but declined in importance after its devastation by Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt during the Greek War of Independence and a general economic migration to urban areas that occurred in the following decades. It is considered a traditional settlement.

Pylos

Pylos (UK: , US: ; Greek: Πύλος), historically also known under its Italian name Navarino, is a town and a former municipality in Messenia, Peloponnese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Pylos-Nestoras, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit. It was the capital of the former Pylia Province. It is the main harbour on the Bay of Navarino. Nearby villages include Gialova, Pyla, Elaiofyto, Schinolakka, and Palaionero. The town of Pylos has 2,767 inhabitants, the municipal unit of Pylos 5,287 (2011). The municipal unit has an area of 143.911 km2.Pylos has a long history, having been inhabited since Neolithic times. It was a significant kingdom in Mycenaean Greece, with remains of the so-called "Palace of Nestor" excavated nearby, named after Nestor, the king of Pylos in Homer's Iliad. In Classical times, the site was uninhabited, but became the site of the Battle of Pylos in 425 BC, during the Peloponnesian War. Pylos is scarcely mentioned thereafter until the 13th century, when it became part of the Frankish Principality of Achaea. Increasingly known by its French name of Port-de-Jonc or its Italian name Navarino, in the 1280s the Franks built the Old Navarino castle on the site. Pylos came under the control of the Republic of Venice from 1417 until 1500, when it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans used Pylos and its bay as a naval base, and built the New Navarino fortress there. The area remained under Ottoman control, with the exception of a brief period of renewed Venetian rule in 1685–1715 and a Russian occupation in 1770–71, until the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence in 1821. Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt recovered it for the Ottomans in 1825, but the defeat of the Turco-Egyptian fleet in the 1827 Battle of Navarino forced Ibrahim to withdraw from the Peloponnese and confirmed Greek independence.

Rakita, Greece

Rakita (Greek: Ρακίτα) is a location in the municipal unit Leontio, Achaea, Greece. It is part of the community of Ano Mazaraki. Located at an altitude of about 1,100 m in a plateau near mount Barbas, it is surrounded by fir forests and mountain views. In recent years it has seen an increase in the number of tourists visiting, partly due to improved road access.

During recent excavations in the region of Rakita an ancient temple, sacred to the Goddess Artemis, was discovered. Also in the settlement lies the historic old church of Agia Paraskevi (built in 1700) where the Greek rebels under Theodoros Kolokotronis attended the divine liturgy just before the crucial victorious battle in Kafkaria against the Turkish general Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt. (26 August 1827).

Siege of Acre

Siege of Acre may refer to:

Siege of Acre (1104) - following the First Crusade

Siege of Acre (1189–1191) – during the Third Crusade

Siege of Acre (1263) – Baibars laid siege to the Crusader city, but abandoned it to attack Nazareth.

Siege of Acre (1291) – Fall of the final Crusader city in the Levant

Siege of Acre (1799) – during the French Revolutionary Wars

Siege of Acre (1821) – part of Ottoman power struggles

Siege of Acre (1832) – by Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt

Siege of Al-Karak (1834)

Siege of Al-Karak was a 17-day siege imposed by Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt on the Transjordanian town of Al-Karak in 1834. The Pasha laid the siege on the town in pursuit of Qasim al-Ahmad, the leader of the Peasants' revolt in Palestine, who had fled from Nablus to take shelter in Al-Karak.Egyptian troops looted the town and the countryside for five days, while Karak's famous fortifications were shelled with gunpowder and the town was reduced to ruins. The Karakis took vengeance upon the Pasha and his Egyptian army when Ibrahim Pasha was driven out of Syria, six years after the siege.

Syrian Peasant Revolt (1834–35)

The Syrian Peasant Revolt was an armed uprising of Arab peasant classes against the rule of Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt in 1834–35. The revolt took place in areas of Ottoman Syria, at the time ruled by the semi-independent ruler of Egypt, who conquered the region from loyal Ottoman forces in 1831.

The main arena of the revolt evolved in the Damascus Eyalet - Jerusalem, Nablus and Hebron (Palestine or Southern Syria), as well as a major tribal Bedouin rebellion in Al-Karak (Transjordan); other peasant revolts also erupted in Sidon Eyalet - led by Arab Muslims and Druze and encompassing Mount Lebanon, Hauran and Galilee; and a revolt in Aleppo Eyalet - led by Alawites of the Syrian coast. The cause of the revolts was mainly refusal of Syrian peasants to answer conscription and disarmament orders of new Egyptian rulers of the Muhammad Ali dynasty, in line with anti-Egyptian attitudes of local Ottoman loyalists.

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