Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya

Shams al-Dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Abī Bakr ibn Ayyūb al-Zurʿī l-Dimashqī l-Ḥanbalī (1292–1350 CE / 691 AH–751 AH), commonly known as Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya ("The son of the principal of [the school of] Jawziyyah") or Ibn al-Qayyim ("Son of the principal"; ابن قيم الجوزية) for short, or reverentially as Imam Ibn al-Qayyim in Sunni tradition, was an important medieval Islamic jurisconsult, theologian, and spiritual writer.[4] Belonging to the Hanbali school of orthodox Sunni jurisprudence, of which he is regarded as "one of the most important thinkers,"[5] Ibn al-Qayyim is today best remembered as the foremost disciple and student of the controversial and influential fourteenth-century Sunni reformer Ibn Taymiyyah,[6] with whom he was imprisoned in 1326 for dissenting against established tradition during Ibn Taymiyyah's famous incarceration in the Citadel of Damascus.[4]

Of humble origin, Ibn al-Qayyim's father was the principal (qayyim) of the School of Jawziyya, which also served as a court of law for the Hanbali judge of Damascus during the time period.[4] Ibn al-Qayyim went on to become a prolific scholar, producing a rich corpus of "doctrinal and literary" works.[4] As a result, numerous important Muslim scholars of the Mamluk period were among Ibn al-Qayyim's students or, at least, greatly influenced by him, including, amongst others, the Shafi historian Ibn Kathir (d. 774/1373), the Hanbali hadith scholar Ibn Rajab (d. 795/1397), and the Shafi polymath Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (d. 852/1449).[4] In the present day, Ibn al-Qayyim's name has become a controversial one in certain quarters of the Islamic world due to his popularity amongst many adherents of the Sunni reform movements of Salafism and Wahhabism,[4] who see in his criticisms of such widespread orthodox Sunni practices of the medieval period as the veneration of saints and the veneration of their graves and relics a classical precursor to their own perspective.[4]

Ibn al-Qayyim
تخطيط ابن القيم
Personal
Born7 Safar 691 AH / January 28, 1292 AD
Died13 Rajab 751 AH / September 15, 1350 AD (aged 60 years)
Damascus
Resting placeBab al-Saghīr Cemetery
ReligionIslam
EraMamluk
RegionSham
DenominationSunni
JurisprudenceHanbali
CreedAthari
Main interest(s)Ethics, Fiqh, Aqidah, Hadith
Alma materAl-Madrasa al-Jawziyya
OccupationScholar
Senior posting
Arabic name
Personal (Ism)Muhammad
محمد
Patronymic (Nasab)ibn Abi Bakr ibn Ayyub ibn Sa'ad
بن أبي بكر بن أيوب بن سعد
Teknonymic (Kunya)Abu Abd Allah
أبو عبد الله
Epithet (Laqab)Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya
ابن قيم الجوزية
Ibn al-Qayyim
ابن القيم
Shams al-Din
شمس الدين
Toponymic (Nisba)ad-Dimashqi
الدمشقي

Name

Muhammad Ibn Abī Bakr Ibn Ayyub Ibn Sa'd Ibn Harīz Ibn Makkī Zayn al-Dīn al-Zur'ī (Arabic: محمد بن أبي بكر بن أيوب بن سعد بن حريز بن مكي زين الدين الزُّرعي‎), al-Dimashqi (الدمشقي), with kunya of Abu Abdullah (أبو عبد الله), called Shams al-Dīn ( شمس الدین). He is usually known as Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah, after his father Abu Bakr Ibn Sa'd al-Zur'ī who was the superintendent (qayyim) of the Jawziyyah Madrasah, the Hanbali law college in Damascus.[7]

Biography

Teachers

Ibn al-Qayyim's main teacher was the scholar Ibn Taymiyyah.[8] Ibn Qayyim first met Ibn Taymiyyah at the age of 21 and spent the rest of his life learning from him.[9] As a result of this union he shared his teacher's views in most issues.[10]

Imprisonment

Ibn al-Qayyim was imprisoned along with his teacher Ibn Taymiyyah. According to the historian al-Maqrizi, two reasons led to his arrest: the first was a sermon Ibn al-Qayyim had delivered in Jerusalem in which he decried the visitation of holy graves, including the Prophet Muhammad's grave in Medina, the second was his agreement with Ibn Taymiyyah's view on the matter of divorce, which contradicted the view of the majority of scholars in Damascus.[11]

The campaign to have Ibn al-Qayyim imprisoned was led by Shafi'i and Maliki scholars, and was also joined by the Hanbali and Hanafi judges.[12]

Whilst in prison Ibn al-Qayyim busied himself with the Qur'an. According to Ibn Rajab, Ibn al-Qayyim made the most of his time of imprisonment: the immediate result of his delving into the Qur'an while in prison was a series of mystical experiences (described as dhawq, direct experience of the divine mysteries, and mawjud, ecstasy occasioned by direct encounter with the Divine Reality).[13]

Spiritual Life

Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya wrote a lengthy spiritual commentary on a treatise written by the Hanbali Sufi Khwaja Abdullah Ansari entitled Madarij al-Salikin.[14][15]

He expressed his love and appreciation for Ansari in this commentary with his statement "Certainly I love the Sheikh, but I love the truth more!'.[16][17] Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya refers to Ansari with the honorific title "Sheikh al-Islam" in his work Al-Wabil al-Sayyib min al-Kalim al-Tayyab [17][18]

Death

Ibn al-Qayyim died at the age of 60 years 5 months & 5 days, on the 13th night of Rajab, 751 AH (September 15, 1350 AD), and was buried besides his father at Bab al-Saghīr Cemetery.

Views

Jurisprudence

Like his teacher Ibn Taymiyya, Ibn Qayyim, supported broad powers for the state and prosecution. He argued, for example, "that it was often right to punish someone of lowly status" who alleged improper behavior by someone "more respectable."[19][20]

Ibn Qayyim "formulated evidential theories" that made judges "less reliant than ever before on the oral testimony." One example was the establishment of a child's paternity by experts scrutinizing the faces of "a child and its alleged father for similarities".[19][20] Another was in determining impotence. If a woman sought a divorce on the grounds of her husband's impotence and her husband contested the claim, a judge might obtain a sample of the husband's ejaculate. According to Ibn Qayyim "only genuine semen left a white residue when boiled".[19][20]

In interrogating the accused, Ibn Qayyim believed that testimony could be beaten out of suspects if they were "disreputable".[21][22] This was in contrast to the majority of Islamic jurists who had always acknowledged "that alleged sinners were entitled to remain silent if accused."[23] Attorney and author Sadakat Kadri states that, "as a matter of straightforward history, torture had originally been forbidden by Islamic jurisprudence."[20] Ibn Qayyim however, believed that "the Prophet Muhammad, the Rightly Guided Caliphs, and other Companions" would have supported his position.[20][21][22]

Astrology and alchemy

Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah opposed alchemy and divination of all varieties, but was particularly opposed to astrology, whose practitioners dared to "think they could know secrets locked within the mystery of God's supreme and all-embracing wisdom."[5] In fact, those who believed that human personalities and events were influenced by heavenly bodies, were "the most ignorant of people, the most in error and the furthest from humanity ... the most ignorant of people concerning his soul and its creator".[5]

In his Miftah Dar al-Sa'adah, in addition to denouncing the astrologers as worse than infidels, he uses empirical arguments to refute the practice of alchemy and astrology along with the theories associated with them, such as divination and the transmutation of metals,[5] for example arguing:[5]

And if you astrologers answer that it is precisely because of this distance and smallness that their influences are negligible, then why is it that you claim a great influence for the smallest heavenly body, Mercury? Why is it that you have given an influence to al-Ra's and al-Dhanab, which are two imaginary points [ascending and descending nodes]?"

Mysticism

Although Ibn al-Qayyim is sometimes characterized today as an unabashed enemy of Islamic mysticism, it is historically known that he actually had a "great interest in Sufism,"[24] which arose out of his vast exposure to the practice given Sufism's integral role in orthodox Islamic life at his time.[24] Some of his major works, such as Madārij, Ṭarīq al-hijratayn (Path of the Two Migrations) and Miftāḥ dār al-saʿāda (Key to the Joyous Dwelling), "are devoted almost entirely to Sufi themes," yet allusions to such "themes are found in nearly all his writings,"[24] including in such influential works of spiritual devotion such as al-Wābil al-Ṣayyib, a highly important treatise detailing the importance of the practice of dhikr, and his revered magnum opus, Madārij al-sālikīn (The Wayfarers' Stages), which is an extended commentary on a work written by the eleventh-century Hanbalite saint and mystic Abdullah Ansari, whom Ibn al-Qayyim referred to reverentially as "Shaykh al-Islām."[24] In all such writings, it is evident Ibn al-Qayyim wrote to address "those interested in Sufism in particular and ... 'the matters of the heart' ... in general,"[24] and proof of this lies in the fact that he states, in the introduction to his short book Patience and Gratitude, "This is a book to benefit kings and princes, the wealthy and the indigent, Sufis and religious scholars; (a book) to inspire the sedentary to set out, accompany the wayfarer on the Way (al-sā'ir fī l-ṭariq) and inform the one journeying towards the Goal."[25] Some scholars have compared Ibn al-Qayyim's role to that of Ghazali two-hundred years prior, in that he tried "rediscover and restate the orthodox roots of Islam's interior dimension."[24]

It is also true, however, that Ibn al-Qayyim did indeed share some of his teacher Ibn Taymiyyah's more negative sentiments towards what he perceived to be excesses in mystical practice.[26] For example, he felt that the pervasive and powerful influence the works of Ibn Arabi had begun to wield over the entire Sunni world was leading to errors in doctrine. As a result, he rejected Ibn Arabi's concept of wahdat al-wajud or the "oneness of being,[26] " and opposed, moreover, some of the more extreme "forms of Sufism that had gained currency particularly in the new seat of Muslim power, Mamluk Egypt and Syria."[26] That said, he never condemned Sufism outright, and his many works bear witness, as it has been noted above,[24] to the immense reverence in which he held the vast majority of Sufic tradition.[24] In this connection, it is also significant that Ibn al-Qayyim followed Ibn Taymiyyah in "consistently praising" the early spiritual master al-Junayd, one of the most famous saints in the Sufi tradition,[27] as well as "other early spiritual masters of Baghdad who later became known as 'sober' Sufis."[27] As a matter of fact, Ibn al-Qayyim did not condemn the ecstatic Sufis either, regarding their mystical outbursts as signs of spiritual "weakness" rather than heresy.[28] Ibn al-Qayyim's highly nuanced position on this matter led to his composing apologies for the ecstatic outbursts of several early Sufis, just as many Sufis had done so before him.[29]

Christianity

He was very critical of Christians and their beliefs, calling them among many “the brothers of swines”. “Congratulating Christians in their celebrations is as same as congratulating them for worshiping their cross and believing in Jesus as son of the God.”[30] In his book, Kitab Hidayat ul-Hayara, he writes:

“The Christians are misguided cross worshippers. They are those who swear at Allah (swt) the Creator in a way no other human has sworn at Allah (swt).

They are like those before who did not believe that Allah is unique as stated in Surah Ikhlas, nor do they make him greater than everything; rather they say, “the heaven and earth will crack and the mountains will fall down.”

The base of their Aqeedah and their biggest curse against Allah (swt) is the Trinity. According to the Christians Mariam (as) is the lover of Allah (swt) and Isa (as) is His son. They claim the Almighty Allah came down from His great chair and melted in the womb of Mariam (as), until He was killed and buried at the hands of man.

Its Deen is the worship of the cross; its supplication is for the images that are drawn on the wall, in red and yellow colours. They say in their prayer “O mother of God provide for us, forgive us and have mercy on us.”

Their Deen is to drink alcohol, eat pork, desert circumcision, worship with impurity and eat everything, even if is filthy, whether that be the elephant or the mosquito. What is lawful and unlawful is what their priests say; the priests can take them to heaven and forgive their sins."

[31]

He also wrote a poem called “Oh, Worshippers of Christ!” in it he calls Christians “liars, fabricators and cross worshippers.”[32]

Reception

Ibn Qayyim was respected by a number of scholars during and after his life. Ibn Kathir stated that Ibn al-Qayyim,

was the most affectionate person. He was never envious of anyone, nor did he hurt anyone. He never disgraced anyone, nor did he hate anyone.[7] ... I do not know in this world in our time someone who is more dedicated to acts of devotion [33]

Ibn Rajab, one of Ibn Qayyim's students, stated that,

Although, he was by no means infallible, no one could compete with him in the understanding of the texts.[7]

Despite being praised by a number of Sunni scholars, he was also criticized by others.

The influential Shafi'i chief judge of Damascus Taqi al-Din al-Subki condemned Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, on the acceptability of the triple divorce[34] and on account of his view permitting the conduct of horse races without the participation of a third competitor.[35]

Subki also stated that,

The only thing this man [Ibn al-Qayyim] wants for the commoners is to establish that there is no Muslim but him and his partisans.[36]

He also wrote a treatise entitled "The Burnished sword in refuting Ibn al-Qayyim" regarding his position on the attributes of God.[37]

Ibn Hajar al-Haytami considered Ibn Qayyim a heretic[38] and stated that,

Do not read what is in the books of Ibn al-Qayyim and others like him who have taken their own whim as their God, and who have been led astray by Allah. Their hearts and ears have been sealed, and their eyes have been covered.[39]

Legacy

Works

Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah's contributions to the Islamic library are extensive, and they particularly deal with the Qur'anic commentaries, and understanding and analysis of the prophetic traditions (Fiqh-us Sunnah) (فقه ). He "wrote about a hundred books",[40] including:

  • Zad al-Ma'ad (Provision of the hereafter)
  • Al-Waabil Sayyib minal kalim tayyib – a commentary on hadith about Prophet Yahya ibn Zakariyya.
  • I'laam ul Muwaqqi'een 'an Rabb il 'Aalameen (Information for Those who Write on Behalf of the Lord of the Worlds)
  • Tahthib Sunan Abi Da'ud
  • Madaarij Saalikeen which is a rearrangement of the book by Shaikh Abu Ismail al-Ansari al-Harawi al-Sufi, Manazil-u Sa'ireen (Stations of the Seekers);
  • Tafsir Mu'awwadhatain (Tafsir of Surah Falaq and Nas);
  • Badāʾiʿ al-Fawāʾid (بدائع الفوائد): Amazing Points of Benefit
  • Ad-Dā'i wa Dawā also known as Al Jawābul kāfi liman sa'ala 'an Dawā'i Shaafi
  • Haadi Arwah ila biladil Afrah
  • Uddat as-Sabirin wa Dhakhiratu ash-Shakirin (عدة الصابرين وذخيرة الشاكرين)
  • Ighathatu lahfaan min masaa'id ash-shaytan (إغاثة اللهفان من مصائد الشيطان) : Aid for the Yearning One in Resisting the Shayṭān
  • Rawdhatul Muhibbīn
  • Ahkām ahl al-dhimma"
  • Tuhfatul Mawdud bi Ahkam al-Mawlud: A Gift to the Loved One Regarding the Rulings of the Newborn
  • Miftah Dar As-Sa'adah
  • Jala al-afham fi fadhl salati ala khayral anam
  • Al-Manar al-Munif
  • Al-Tibb al-Nabawi – a book on Prophetic medicine, available in English as "The Prophetic Medicine", printed by Dar al-Fikr in Beirut (Lebanon), or as "Healing with the Medicine of the Prophet (sal allahu `alayhi wa salim)", printed by Darussalam Publications.
  • Al-Furusiyya[41]
  • Shifa al-Alil (Healing of the Sick)
  • Mukhtasar al-Sawa'iq
  • Hadi al-Arwah ila Bilad al-Arfah (Spurring Souls on to the Realms of Joy
  • A treatise on Arab archery is by Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya, Muḥammad ibn Abī Bakr (1292AD-1350AD) and comes from the 14th century.[42]

References

  1. ^ Slitine, Moulay; Fitzgerald, Michael (2000). The Invocation of God. Islamic Texts Society. p. 4. ISBN 0946621780.
  2. ^ Ovamir Anjum. "Sufism without Mysticism: Ibn al-Qayyim's Objectives in Madarij al-Salikin". University of Toledo, Ohio: 164.
  3. ^ Livnat Holtzman. "Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah". Bar Ilan University: 219.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Laoust, H., "Ibn Ḳayyim al-D̲j̲awziyya", in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs.
  5. ^ a b c d e Livingston, John W. (1971). "Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah: A Fourteenth Century Defense against Astrological Divination and Alchemical Transmutation". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 91 (1): 96–103. doi:10.2307/600445. JSTOR 600445.
  6. ^ Hoover, Jon, "Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya", in: Christian-Muslim Relations 600 - 1500, General Editor David Thomas.
  7. ^ a b c Holtzman, Livnat. "Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah". p. 208.
  8. ^ Roger M. A. Allen, Joseph Edmund Lowry, Devin J. Stewart, Essays in Arabic Literary Biography: 1350-1850, p 211. ISBN 3447059338
  9. ^ Josef W. Meri, Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, p 362. ISBN 0415966906
  10. ^ Josef W. Meri, Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, p 363. ISBN 0415966906
  11. ^ Holtzman, Livnat. Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya. p. 211.
  12. ^ Bori, Caterina; Holtzman, Livnat. A Scholar in the Shadow. p. 19.
  13. ^ Holtzman, Livnat. Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya. p. 212.
  14. ^ Holtzman, Livnat (c. 2009). "Essay on Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya". p. 219.
  15. ^ Holtzman, Livnat (c. 2009). "Essay on Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya". p. 363.
  16. ^ Michael Fitzgerald and Moulay Slitine, The Invocation of God, Islamic Texts Society, Introduction, p 4 (quoting Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, Madarij al-Salikin fi ma bayna iyyaka na'budu wa iyyaka nasta'in, ed. Ahmad Fakhri al-Rifi and Asam Faris al-Hurstani, Beirut, Dar al-Jil, 1412/1991, II,. 41 and III. 431)
  17. ^ a b Anjum, Ovamir. Sufism without Mysticism: Ibn al-Qayyim's Objectives in Madarij al-Salikin. University of Toledo, Ohio. p. 164.
  18. ^ Fitzgerald, Michael; Slitine, Moulay. "The Invocation of God". Islamic Texts Society, Introduction. p. 4. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  19. ^ a b c Baber Johansen, "Signs as Evidence: The Doctrine of Ibn Taymiyya (1263-1328) and Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya (d.1351) on Proof", Islamic Law and Society, v.9, n.2 (2002), pp.188-90, citing Ibn Qayyim, Turuq al Hikmiya fi al-Siyasa al Sharia, pp.48-9, 92-93, 101, 228-30
  20. ^ a b c d e Kadri, Sadakat (2012). Heaven on Earth: A Journey Through Shari'a Law from the Deserts of Ancient Arabia ... macmillan. p. 140. ISBN 9780099523277.
  21. ^ a b Baber Johansen, "Signs as Evidence: The Doctrine of Ibn Taymiyya 1263-1328) and Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya (d.1351) on Proof", Islamic Law and Society, v.9, n.2 (2002), pp.191-2, citing Ibn Qayyim, Turuq al Hikmiya fi al-Siyasa al Sharia, pp.7, 13, 108
  22. ^ a b Reza, Sadiq, "Torture and Islamic Law", Chicago Journal of International Law, 8 (2007), pp.24-25
  23. ^ Baber Johansen, "Signs as Evidence: The Doctrine of Ibn Taymiyya 1263-1328) and Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya (d.1351) on Proof", Islamic Law and Society, v.9, n.2 (2002), pp.170-1, 178
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, Al-Wabil al-Sayyib min al-Kalim al-Tayyib, trans. Michael Abdurrahman Fitzgerald and Moulay Youssef Slitine as The Invocation of God (London: Islamic Texts Society, 2000), p. x
  25. ^ Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, Al-Wabil al-Sayyib min al-Kalim al-Tayyib, trans. Michael Abdurrahman Fitzgerald and Moulay Youssef Slitine as The Invocation of God (London: Islamic Texts Society, 2000), p. x ["path" changed to "Way"]
  26. ^ a b c Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, Al-Wabil al-Sayyib min al-Kalim al-Tayyib, trans. Michael Abdurrahman Fitzgerald and Moulay Youssef Slitine as The Invocation of God (London: Islamic Texts Society, 2000), p. ix
  27. ^ a b Ovamir Anjum, "SUFISM WITHOUT MYSTICISM? IBN QAYYIM AL-ǦAWZIYYAH'S OBJECTIVES IN "MADĀRIǦ AL-SĀLIKĪN"," Oriente Moderno, Nuova serie, Anno 90, Nr. 1, A SCHOLAR IN THE SHADOW: ESSAYS IN THE LEGAL AND THEOLOGICAL THOUGHT OF IBN QAYYIM AL-ǦAWZIYYAH (2010), p. 165
  28. ^ Ovamir Anjum, "SUFISM WITHOUT MYSTICISM? IBN QAYYIM AL-ǦAWZIYYAH'S OBJECTIVES IN "MADĀRIǦ AL-SĀLIKĪN"," Oriente Moderno, Nuova serie, Anno 90, Nr. 1, A SCHOLAR IN THE SHADOW: ESSAYS IN THE LEGAL AND THEOLOGICAL THOUGHT OF IBN QAYYIM AL-ǦAWZIYYAH (2010), p. 165
  29. ^ Ovamir Anjum, "SUFISM WITHOUT MYSTICISM? IBN QAYYIM AL-ǦAWZIYYAH'S OBJECTIVES IN "MADĀRIǦ AL-SĀLIKĪN"," Oriente Moderno, Nuova serie, Anno 90, Nr. 1, A SCHOLAR IN THE SHADOW: ESSAYS IN THE LEGAL AND THEOLOGICAL THOUGHT OF IBN QAYYIM AL-ǦAWZIYYAH (2010), p. 165; see Ibn al-Qayyim, Madārij, vol. 2, pp. 38-39
  30. ^ http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2018/12/iraq-christian-new-year-christmas.html#ixzz5bJta8aCa
  31. ^ https://duaat.wordpress.com/2010/06/18/ibn-qayyims-description-of-the-jews-and-christians/
  32. ^ ""O' Christ-Worshippers!" A Qasidah Which Refutes Christianity". bismikaallahuma.org. Retrieved April 24, 2007.
  33. ^ Krawietz, Birgit. "Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyah: His Life and works" (PDF).
  34. ^ Caterina Bori and Livnat Holtzman, A scholar in the shadow, p 20. https://www.academia.edu/2565390/A_Scholar_in_the_Shadow-the_Introduction-_by_Caterina_Bori_and_Livnat_Holtzman
  35. ^ Livnat Holtzman, Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah, p. 220. https://www.academia.edu/1057824/Ibn_Qayyim_al-Jawziyya
  36. ^ Stephan Conermann, Ubi Sumus? Quo Vademus?: Mamluk Studies - State of the Art, p. 82. Quoting Bori Hotlzman, Scholar in the Shadow, 24
  37. ^ Birgit Krawietz, Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyah: His Life and works, p. 33 http://mamluk.uchicago.edu/MSR_X-2_2006-Krawietz.pdf
  38. ^ Spevack, Aaron (1 Oct 2014). The Archetypal Sunni Scholar: Law, Theology, and Mysticism in the Synthesis of Al-Bajuri. State University of New York Press. p. 77. ISBN 143845371X.
  39. ^ Ibn Hajar al-Haytami, Fatawa al-Hadithiyya, 4.112
  40. ^ Oliver Leaman (ed.), The Biographical Encyclopedia of Islamic Philosophy, Bloomsbury (2015), p. 2012
  41. ^ ed. Nizam al-Din al-Fatih, Madinah al Munawara: Maktaba Dar al-Turath, 1990.
  42. ^ Ibn Qayyim al-Jawzīyah, Muḥammad ibn Abī Bakr. kitab ʻuniyat al-ṭullāb fī maʻrifat al-rāmī bil-nushshāb. [Cairo?]: [s.n.], 1932. OCLC: 643468400.

Further reading

  • Bori, Caterina; Holtzman, Livnat, eds. (2010). A scholar in the shadow : essays in the legal and theological thought of Ibn Qayyim al-Ǧawziyyah. Oriente Moderno. Nuova serie, Anno 90. Roma : Istituto per l'Oriente C.A. Nallino. ISSN 0030-5472. JSTOR i23249612.

External links

Ahmad ibn Hanbal

Aḥmad Ibn Muḥammad Ibn Ḥanbal Abū ʿAbdullāh Ash-Shaybānī (Arabic: احمد بن محمد بن حنبل ابو عبد الله الشيباني‎; 780–855 CE/164–241 AH), often referred to as Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal or Ibn Ḥanbal or Ibn Hambal or Ahmad Ibn Hambal for short, or reverentially as Imam Aḥmad by Sunni Muslims, was an Arab Muslim jurist, theologian, ascetic, and hadith traditionist. An enormously influential and vigorous scholar during his lifetime, Ibn Hanbal went on to become "one of the most venerated" and celebrated personalities in the tradition of Sunni Islam, within which he was often referred to by such reverent epithets as True Shaykh of Islam, Proof of the Faith, and Seal of the Mujtahid Imams. He has been retrospectively described as "the most significant exponent of the traditionalist approach in Sunni Islam," with his "profound influence affecting almost every area of" orthodox Sunni thought. One of the foremost classical proponents of the importance of using hadith literature to govern Islamic law and life, Ibn Hanbal is famous for compiling one of the most important Sunni hadith collections, the celebrated Musnad, an enormous compendium of prophetic traditions that has continued to wield considerable influence in the field of hadith studies up to the present time. Additionally, Ibn Hanbal is also honored as the founder of the Hanbali school of Sunni jurisprudence, which is one of the four major orthodox legal schools of Sunni Islam.Having studied fiqh and hadith under many teachers during his youth, Ibn Hanbal became famous in his later life for the crucial role he played in the Mihna, the inquisition instituted by the Abbasid Caliphate al-Ma'mun towards the end of his reign, in which the ruler gave official state support to the Mutazilite dogma of the Quran being created, a view that contradicted the orthodox doctrine of the Quran being the eternal, uncreated Word of God. Suffering physical persecution under the caliph for his unflinching adherence to the traditional doctrine, Ibn Hanbal's fortitude in this particular event only bolstered his "resounding reputation" in the annals of Islamic history.

Throughout Islamic history, Ibn Hanbal was venerated as an exemplary figure in all the traditional schools of Sunni thought, both by the exoteric ulema and by the mystics, with the latter often designating him as a saint in their hagiographies. The fourteenth-century hadith master al-Dhahabi referred to Ibn Hanbal as "the true Shaykh of Islām and leader of the Muslims in his time, the ḥadīth master and Proof of the Religion."In the modern era, Ibn Hanbal's name has become controversial in certain quarters of the Islamic world. This is due to the influence some believe he had upon the Hanbali reform movement known as Wahhabism, which cites him as a principal influence along with the thirteenth-century Hanbali reformer Ibn Taymiyyah. However it has been argued by certain scholars that Ibn Hanbal's own beliefs actually played "no real part in the establishment of the central doctrines of Wahhabism," as there is evidence, according to the same authors, that "the older Hanbalite authorities had doctrinal concerns very different from those of the Wahhabis," rich as medieval Hanbali literature is in references to saints, grave visitation, miracles, and relics. In this connection, scholars have cited Ibn Hanbal's own support for the use of relics as simply one of several important points upon which the theologian's opinions diverged from those of Wahhabism.

Al-Aqidah Al-Waasitiyyah

Al-Aqidah Al-Waasitiyyah (Arabic: العقيدة الواسطية‎) is a book of Islamic creed written by Ibn Taymiyyah. It is considered relatively easy to understand compared to Ibn Taymiyyah's other works on creed. The work was of special interest to the Wahhabi movement. Ibn Taymiyyah was charged by his opponents with anthropomorphism.

Al-Dimashqi

The Arabic nisbah (attributive title) Al-Dimashqi (Arabic: الدمشقي‎) denotes an origin from Damascus, Syria.

Al-Dimashqi may refer to:

Al-Dimashqi (geographer): a medieval Arab geographer.

Abu al-Fadl Ja'far ibn 'Ali al-Dimashqi: 12th-century Muslim merchant.

Al-Dhahabi: Shafi'i Muhaddith and historian of Islam.

Ibn al-Nafis: Arab physician who is mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood.

Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya: a prominent Sunni Islamic jurist.

Ibn 'Asakir: a Sunni Islamic scholar and historian

Al-Qarada raid

The Al-Qarada raid was an event in early Islamic history which took place in Jumad at Thaniya, in the year 3 A.H of the Islamic calendar, i.e. November 624.The Meccans led by Safwan ibn Umayyah, who lived on trade, left in Summer for Syria for their seasonal trade business. After Muhammad received intelligence about the Caravan's route, Muhammad ordered Zayd ibn Haritha to go after the Caravan, and they successfully raided it and captured 100,000 dirhams worth of booty.

Al-Wabil al-Sayyib

Al-Waabil as-Sayyib min al-Kalim at-Tayyib (Arabic: الوابل الصيب من الكلم الطيب ) is a book by Islamic scholar Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya.

Authenticity Party

The Authenticity Party (Arabic: حزب الأصالة‎, ḥizb el-asala) is one of the political parties created in Egypt after the 2011 Egyptian Revolution. It has an ultra-conservative Islamist Salafist ideology, which believes in implementing strict Sharia law. The party was formed by the former head of the Virtue Party, General Adel Abdel Maksoud; he left the Virtue Party after allegedly discovering a plot which changed the moderate principles of the party. The party is considering leaving the Anti-Coup Alliance.In the 2011–12 Egypt parliamentary elections, the Authenticity party ran on the platform of the Islamist Bloc led by Al-Nour Party, another Salafist party. The Islamist Bloc received 7,534,266 votes out of a total 27,065,135 correct votes (27.8%). The Islamist Bloc gained 127 of the 498 parliamentary seats contested, second-place after the Muslim Brotherhood's Freedom and Justice Party. The Authenticity Party received 3 of these 127 seats.

Expedition of Bir Maona

The Expedition of Bir Maona (also spelt Ma'una), took place four months after the Battle of Uhud in the year 4 A.H of the Islamic calendar.

Muhammad sent missionaries to preach Islam, at the request of Abu Bara. Forty (as per Ibn Ishaq) or seventy (as per Sahih Bukhari) of the Muslim missionaries sent by Muhammed were killed.

Expedition of Muhammad ibn Maslamah

The Expedition of Muhammad ibn Maslamah took place in July, 627 AD in Muharram, 6AH.

Expedition of Qatan

The Expedition of Qatan, was the first Raid on the Banu Asad bin Khuzaymah tribe, which occurred directly after the Battle of Hamra al-Asad in the year 4 A.H of the Islamic calendar. The expedition was ordered by Muhammad after he received intelligence that some members of the Banu Asad bin Khuzaymah were planning to attack Medina.

Ibn al-Jawzi (disambiguation)

Ibn al-Jawzi may refer to:

Abu'l-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi (1116–1201), Arab historian and Hanbali jurist

Sibt ibn al-Jawzi (died 1256), Arab scholar and Hanafi jurist, grandson of Abu-al-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi

Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya (1292–1350), Arab scholar

Ibrahim ibn Ya'qub al-Juzajani

Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Ya'qub ibn Ishaq al-Sa'di al-Juzajani (Arabic: أبو إسحاق إبراهيم بن يعقوب بن إسحاق السعدي الجوزجاني‎, born around 180 AH – died 872 CE/259 AH) was a Muslim hadith scholar, one of the imams of al-jarh wa al-ta'deel and a student of Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Some of the hadith scholars that transmitted his narrations include Abu Dawood, al-Tirmidhi and al-Nasa'i.

Khwaja Abdullah Ansari

Hazrat Shaikh Abu Ismaïl Abdullah al-Herawi al-Ansari or Khajah Abdullah Ansari of Herat (1006–1088) (Persian: خواجه عبدالله انصاری‎) also known as Pir-i Herat (پیر هرات) (sage of Herat) was a Persian Sufi saint of Arab origin who lived in the 11th century in Herat (then Khorasan, now Herat province, Afghanistan). One of the outstanding figures in Khorasan in the 5th/11th century: commentator of the Qur'an, traditionist, polemicist, and spiritual master, known for his oratory and poetic talents in Arabic and Persian.

List of Sunni books

This is a list of significant books of Sunni Islam doctrine.

Muhammad Hayyat ibn Ibrahim al-Sindhi

Muhammad Hayyat al-Sindhi (Urdu: محمد حيات سنڌي‎) (died 3 February 1750) was an Islamic scholar who lived during the period of the Ottoman Empire.

He belonged to the Naqshbandi order of Sufism.

Punishment of the Grave

Punishment of the Grave (Arabic: عذاب القبر‎ ʿAdhāb al-Qabr, also translated torment of the grave) is an Islamic concept whereby in the time between death and resurrection on the Day of Judgement, the souls of the unrighteous are punished in the grave and those of the righteous find the grave "peaceful and blessed".According to Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, those in the grave "may be punished for their ignorance of Allah, their ignoring His commands and their disobedience towards Him".Unlike most Islamic theological principles the punishment of the grave is not mentioned in the Quran "in any obvious way", but found in a hadith compiled by scholars such as Ibn Hanbal.

Sahwa movement

Sahwa Movement (Awakening movement) or Al–Sahwa Al-Islamiyya (Islamic Awakening) is a faction of Saudi Qutbism. In Saudi Arabia, it has been involved in peaceful political reform. Safar Al-Hawali and Salman al-Ouda are representatives of this trend. Because of being active on social media they have earned some support amongst the more educated youth.This group opposed the presence of US troops on the Arabian peninsula.

Sailaifengye

Sailaifengye (Chinese: 赛莱菲耶) mean Salafiyah (Salafi) in China. The sect is part of the Salafi Movement which was founded a few hundred years ago.

Shuaib Al Arna'ut

Shuaib Al Arna'ut (in Arabic شعيب الأرنؤوط ) was born in Damascus Syria in the year 1928. His family were originally from Albania but immigrated to Syria before his birth. Al Arna'ut was a well known scholar of Hadith in the Islamic World his most notable work was as chief editor of a 45 volume work on the Musnad of Ahmad Ibn Hanbal in which he investigated various manuscripts, cross-referenced with other Hadith books, and critiqued over 28,000 Hadiths. Beyond that, he wrote several less known works on Hadith Methodology, Manuscript Investigation and Research, and Hadith Criticism. His 16 volume work on Tahawi Sharh mushkil al-athar (The Explanation of Problematic Hadiths) and on Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya Zad al-Ma'ad (Provisions of the Afterlife). Al Arna'ut followed the Hanafi school of Jurisprudence and the Ash'ari school of Scholastic Theology. Although he is most well known for his work on Hadith Literature, Al Arna'ut was a strong proponent of Sunni Orthodoxy and following the four Madhhabs. He died in October 27, 2016.

Syed Nazeer Husain

Syed Nazeer Husain Dehlawi (1805–1902) was a leading scholar of the reformist Ahl-i Hadith movement and one of its major proponents in India. Earning the appellation shaykh al-kull (teacher of all, or the shaykh of all knowledge) for his authority among early Ahl-i Hadith scholars, he is regarded, alongside Siddiq Hasan Khan (1832–1890), as the founder of the movement and has been described as "perhaps the single most influential figure in the spread of the Ahl-i-Ḥadīth".

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