Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī or Ibn Ḥajar (Arabic: ابن حجر العسقلاني, full name: Shihāb al-Dīn Abu ’l-Faḍl Aḥmad b. Nūr al-Dīn ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī) (18 February 1372 – 2 February 1449 [852 A.H.]), was a medieval Shafiite Sunni Muslim scholar of Islam "whose life work constitutes the final summation of the science of hadith." represents the entire realm of the Sunni world in the field of Hadith, also known as Shaykh al Islam. He authored some 50 works on hadith, history, biography, tafsir, poetry, and Shafi'ite jurisprudence, the most valued of which being his commentary of the Sahih of Bukhari, titled Fath al-Bari.
Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani
|Title||Shaykh al-Islām/ Hafidh|
|Born||18 February 1372|
|Died||2 February 1449 (aged 76)|
|Resting place||City of the Dead (Cairo), Cairo, Egypt|
Ibn Hajar did not interpret the mutashabihat, or 'unapparent in meaning' verses and hadiths in a literal anthropomorphic way. He states that:
Those who assert a direction for Allah have used this hadith as proof that He (Allah) is in the direction of aboveness. The vast majority of the scholars reject this, because such a saying leads to establishing boundaries for Him and Allah is exalted above that.
He was born in Cairo in 1372, the son of the Shafi'i scholar and poet Nur al-Din 'Ali. Both of his parents died in his infancy, and he and his sister, Sitt al-Rakb, became wards of his father's first wife's brother, Zaki al-Din al-Kharrubi, who enrolled Ibn Hajar in Quranic studies when he was five years old. Here he excelled, learning Surah Maryam in a single day and memorising the entire Qur'an by the age of 9. He progressed to the memorization of texts such as the abridged version of Ibn al-Hajib's work on the foundations of fiqh.
When he accompanied al-Kharrubi to Mecca at the age of 12, he was considered competent to lead the Tarawih prayers during Ramadan. When his guardian died in 1386, Ibn Hajar's education in Egypt was entrusted to hadith scholar Shams al-Din ibn al-Qattan, who entered him in the courses given by al-Bulqini (d. 1404) and Ibn al-Mulaqqin (d. 1402) in Shafi'i fiqh, and Abd al-Rahim ibn al-Husain al-'Iraqi (d. 1404) in hadith, after which he travelled to Damascus and Jerusalem, to study under Shams al-Din al-Qalqashandi (d. 1407), Badr al-Din al-Balisi (d. 1401), and Fatima bint al-Manja al-Tanukhiyya (d. 1401). After a further visit to Mecca, Medina, and Yemen, he returned to Egypt. Al-Suyuti said: “It is said that he drank Zamzam water in order to reach the level of al-Dhahabi in memorization—which he succeeded in doing, even surpassing him.”
In 1397, at the age of twenty-five, he married Uns Khatun. She was a hadith expert in her own right, holding ijazas from Hafiz al-Iraqi. Khatun gave celebrated public lectures to crowds of ulema, including al-Sakhawi.
Ibn Hajar went on to be appointed to the position of Egyptian chief-judge (Qadi) several times.
Ibn Hajar died after 'Isha' (night prayer) on 8th Dhul Hijja 852 (2 February 1449), aged 79. An estimated 50,000 people attended his funeral in Cairo, including Sultan Sayf ad-Din Jaqmaq (1373-1453 CE) and Caliph Al-Mustakfi II (r. 1441-1451 CE).
Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd al-Raḥmān al-Sakhāwi (Arabic: شمس الدين محمد بن عبدالرحمن السخاوي, 1428/831 AH – 1497/902 AH) was a reputable Shafi‘i Muslim hadith scholar and historian who was born in Cairo. Al-Sakhawi" refers to the village of Sakha in Egypt, where his relatives belonged. He was a prolific writer that excelled in the knowledge of hadith, tafsir, literature, and history. His work was also anthropological. For example, in Egypt he recorded the marital history of 500 women, the largest sample on marriage in the Middle Ages, and found that at least a third of all women in the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt and the Bilad al-Sham married more than once, with many marrying three or more times. According to al-Sakhawi, as many as three out of ten marriages in 15th century Cairo ended in divorce. His proficiency in hadith has its influences trace back heavily on his Shaykh al-Hafiz, ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani. He died in Medina.Al-Zubayr ibn Bakkar
Al-Zubayr ibn Bakkār (Arabic: أبو عبدالله الزبير بن بكار بن عبد الله بن مصعب بن ثابت بن عبد الله بن الزبير بن العوام, (788-870 CE / 172-256 AH), a descendant of Al-Zubayr ibn al-ʻAwwām, was a leading Arab Muslim historian and genealogist of the Arabs, particularly the Hijaz region. He composed a number of works on genealogy that made him a standing authority on the subject of the genealogies of the Quraysh tribe. Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani regarded him as the most reliable authority for Quraysh genealogical matters.Ashʿari
Ashʿarism or Ashʿari theology (; Arabic: الأشعرية al-ʾAšʿarīyya or الأشاعرة al-ʾAšāʿira) is the foremost theological school of Sunni Islam which established an orthodox dogmatic guideline based on clerical authority, founded by the Arab theologian Abu al-Hasan al-Ashʿari (d. 936 / AH 324). The disciples of the school are known as Ashʿarites, and the school is also referred to as the Ashʿarite school, which became the dominant strand within Sunni Islam. It is considered one of the orthodox schools of theology in Sunni Islam, alongside the Maturidi school of theology.Amongst the most famous Ashʿarites are Al-Bayhaqi, Al-Nawawi, Al-Ghazali, Izz al-Din ibn 'Abd al-Salam, Al-Suyuti, Ibn 'Asakir, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Al-Qurtubi and Al-Subki.Banu Najjar
Banu Najjar (Arabic: بنو نجّار, "sons of the carpenter") or Banu al-Naggar is the name of several unrelated historical and modern-day tribes throughout the Arab world. The individual tribes vary in religious composition.Bid‘ah
In Islam, bid‘ah (Arabic: بدعة; English: innovation) refers to innovation in religious matters. Linguistically the term means "innovation, novelty, heretical doctrine, heresy".In classical Arabic literature (adab), it has been used as a form of praise for outstanding compositions of prose and poetry.Bulugh al-Maram
Bulugh al-Maram min Adillat al-Ahkam, translation: Attainment of the Objective According to Evidences of the Ordinances by al-Hafidh ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (1372 – 1448) is a collection of hadith pertaining specifically to Shafi'i jurisprudence. This genre is referred to in Arabic as Ahadith al-Ahkam.Fath al-Bari
Fatḥ al-Bārī fī Sharḥ Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī (Arabic: فتح الباري, lit. 'Victory of the Creator') is a multi-volume commentary on the Sunni hadith collection Sahih al-Bukhari, composed by Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani. Considered his magnum opus, it is the most celebrated hadith commentary. It is reported that it took Ibn Hajar 25 years to finish his work.Hadith of position
The hadith of position (Arabic: حديث المنزلة, Hadith al-Manzilah) is a Sahih hadith in Islamic traditions, in which Muhammad draws a parallel between himself and Musa (Moses) and Ali to Haroun (Aaron). It is one of the primary hadiths used by the Shia to justify Ali's right in the succession to Muhammad; Sunnis however, interpret it otherwise and do not consider Ali to be the successor, stating that Haroun (Aaron) did not succeed Musa (Moses).Hadith terminology
Hadith terminology (Arabic: مُصْطَلَحُ الحَدِيْث, translit. muṣṭalaḥ al-ḥadīth) is the body of terminology in Islam which specifies the acceptability of the sayings (hadith) attributed to the Prophet Muhammad other early Islamic figures of significance, such as Muhammad's family and/or successors. Individual terms distinguish between those hadith considered rightfully attributed to their source or detail the faults of those of dubious provenance. Formally, it has been defined by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani as: "knowledge of the principles by which the condition of the narrator and the narrated are determined." This page comprises the primary terminology used within hadith studies.Ibn Hajar
Ibn Hajar may refer to:
Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (died 852 AH), Shafi'i and Hadith scholar
Ibn Hajar Al-Haythami (909-974 AH), Shafi'iIbn Kathir
Ismail ibn Kathir (ابن كثير (Abridged name); Abu al-Fida' 'Imad Ad-Din Isma'il bin 'Umar bin Kathir al-Qurashi Al-Busrawi (إسماعيل بن عمر بن كثير القرشي الدمشقي أبو الفداء عماد الدين) c. 1300 – 1373) was a highly influential historian, exegete and scholar during the Mamluk era in Syria. An expert on tafsir (Quranic exegesis) and faqīh (jurisprudence), he wrote several books, including a fourteen-volume universal history. Al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani said about him, “Ibn Kathir worked on the subject of the hadith in the texts (متون) and chains of narrators (رجال). He had a good memory; his books became popular during his lifetime, and people benefited from them after his death.”Ibn Nuhaas
Ahmad Ibrahim Muhammad al Dimashqi al Dumyati, commonly known as ibn Nuhaas, (-1411) was an Islamic scholar and a mujahid who was killed fighting the Byzantine army. His birth was not known. At the time of death he was in Egypt.
The scholar Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, the author of the great commentary on Bukhari, wrote that "He was inseparable from Jihad in the front line of Demyat, and this is a perfect and excellent quality".
Al-sakhawi writes, "He strove in doing good, and preferred obscurity, he did not become proud because of his knowledge, on the contrary maybe those who did not know him would think him to be a commoner, with his pleasant appearance, beautiful beard, stocky and even body, he participated much in Ribat and Jihad until he was martyred".Abu Imaad States: “The sheikh, the Imam, the scholar and the example.”
During the year of 814 hijri, the Roman army attacked the people of At-Teenah, a
village in Egypt, and the people of Dumyat marched to their help, the most
notable of them being Ibn-Nuhaas. There then flared an immense battle
between the two sides and Ibn-Nuhaas was killed whilst attacking the
Abdullah Yusuf Azzam who is commonly noted as being responsible for the revival of jihad in the twentieth century, referred to ibn Nuhaases most famous piece of work as the best books he has read.Jaban al-Kurdi
Jaban al-Kurdi or Jaban Sahabi, (Arabic: جابان صحابي), Jaban Abu Maymun (Arabic: جابان أبو ميمون), or Jaban al-Kurdi (Arabic: جابان الکردي), was a companion of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad.In the year 18 after Hijra, he came back to Kurdistan to preach Islam in his homeland.
Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani mentions in his book Finding the Truth in Judging the Companions, 10 hadithes which are quoted by Jaban.Jaban's son Abu Basir was a Tabi'i.List of Ash'aris and Maturidis
The list of Ash'aris and Maturidis includes prominent adherents of the Ash'ari and Maturidi schools of thought. The Ash'aris are a doctrinal school of thought named after Imam Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari, and the Maturidi school is named for Abu Mansur al-Maturidi.
Abu Mansur Al-Baghdadi
Al-Bayhaqi, Hadith, Fiqh scholar
Abu Al-Walid Al-Baji
Al-Ghazali, Hujjat al-Islam (Authority of Islam), Jurist, Philosopher, Theology (Tauhid)
Ibn Khaldun, Muslim Scientist, Forerunner of Modern Disciplines in Sociology, Demography, Historiographer, Historian, Economics, Political Science
Fakhr Al-Din Al-Razi, Muslim Scientist, Tafsir (Exegesis), Principles of Islamic jurisprudence, Rhetoric, Kalam, Islamic Philosophy, Logic, Astronomy, Ontology, Chemistry, Physics, Medicine, Anatomy
Sayf Al-Din Al-Amidi
Salahuddin al-Ayyoubi (Saladin), Founder of Ayyubid Dynasty, Islamic Caliphate of Ayyubid Dynasty, Sultan of Egypt and Syria, Islamic scholar, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
Izz Al-Din ibn 'Abd Al-Salam
Al-Nawawi, Hadith scholar, Shafi'i Sunni Jurist, Theologian, Biographer
Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani, Shaykh al-Islām (Outstanding scholars of the Islamic sciences), Hadith scholar, Shafi'i Sunni scholar, Tafsir scholar
Al-Qastallani, Sunni Islamic scholar in Hadith and Theology, Commentary on the Sahih al-Bukhari
Abu Hayyan Al-Gharnati
Jalal Al-Din Al-Suyuti, Theologian, Shafi'i scholar, Scholar on Ijtihad, Hadith, Quranic Exegesis (Tafsir), Aqidah (Tawhid)
Taqi Al-Din Al-Subki, Shafi'i scholar, Master in Tafsir (Qur'anic Exegesis) and Prophetic Hadith (Sunnah), Shaykh al-Islām (Outstanding scholars of the Islamic sciences), Qadi (Chief Judge in Islamic Shari'ah Court)
Taj Al-Din Al-Subki
Ibn Hajar Al-Haytami
Ibn 'Ata' Allah Al-Iskandari (or Al-Sakandari)
'Abdullah Ibn 'Alawi Al-Haddad
Muhammad Zahid Al-Kawthari
Muhammad Al-Tahir Ibn 'Ashur
Muhammad Alawi al-Maliki, Islamic scholar, Habib, Al-Marfullah
Mohamed Said Ramadan Al-Bouti, Syrian scholar, Shaykh of the Levant
Abdallah Bin Bayyah, Specialist in 4 Islamic School of Thoughts, proponent in Maliki School of Thought
Ahmed El-Tayeb, Grand Imam of Al-Azhar
Ali Gomaa, Egyptian Grand Mufti
Ahmed Kuftaro, former Grand Mufti of Syrian Arab Republic, Advocator of Interreligious Dialogues and Women's Rights, Head of issuing Fatwa throughout the Sunni Islamic world
Habib Ali Al-Jifri
Hamza Yusuf, American Islamic scholar, co-founder of Zaytuna College
Muhammad al-Yaqoubi, Syrian Islamic scholar
Suhaib Webb, American Imam, Shaykh, One of the 500 Most Influential Muslims in the World
Ahmad Badreddin Hassoun, Grand Mufti of Syria
Nuh Ha Mim Keller
Habib Umar bin Hafiz, Shaykh, Habib, Islamic scholar, Dean at Dar al-MustafaMajlis-ash-Shura
In Arabic culture, a Majlis-ash-Shura (Arabic: مجلس الشورى) is an advisory council or consultative council. In Islamic context, the Majlis-ash-Shura is one of two ways that a Khalifa (Islamic leader) may be selected, the other way being by nomination.
The noun شورى (shura), alone, means "consultation" and refers to (among other things) a topic in Islamic law or sharia; see Shura. Combined with the term Majlis, مجلس, which refers to a council or legislature, it is meant to indicate a body of individuals who advise, consult or determine.Shihab al-Din
Shihab al-Din (Arabic: شهاب الدین) may refer to:
Abu al-Abbas al-Mursi (1219–1286), Spanish Sufi saint
Adib Sabir (died 1143), royal poet of Persia
Adnan Shihab-Eldin, Kuwaiti, acting secretary-general of OPEC
Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri (1302–1367), Egyptian Sunni Shafi'i scholar and author of Reliance of the Traveller
Ahmad Zarruq (1442–1493), Shadhili Sufi Sheikh
Ahmed Shihabuddine of the Maldives (died c. 1347), Sultan of Maldives
al-Nagawri (fl. 1390), Persian physician
al-Qalqashandi (c. 1355–1418), Egyptian writer and mathematician
Am'aq (died 1148), Persian poet
An-Nasir Ahmad, Sultan of Egypt (died 1344), Mamluk Sultan of Egyptibn al-Majdi (d. 1447), Egyptian mathematician and astronomer
ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani, (1372–1448), Shafi‘i Sunni scholarKhwaja Shahabuddin (1898–1977), governor of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of PakistanMakhdoom Shahabuddin (born 1947), Pakistani politician
Mohammad Shahabuddin (born 1967), Indian mobster
Muhammad of Ghor (1162–1206), sultan of the Ghorid dynasty, Afghanistan
Muhammad Shahabuddin (born 1895), Chief Justice of PakistanShabban Shahab-ud-Din (1909–1983), Indian field hockey player
Shah Jahan (1592–1666), Mughal emperor
Shahab al-Din Abu Hafs Umar Suhrawardi (1144–1234), Persian Sufi
Shahab al-Din Yahya ibn Habash Suhrawardi (1155–1191), Persian philosopher
Shahabedin Sadr (born 1962), Iranian politician
Shahabuddin Ahmed (artist) (born 1950), Bangladeshi painter
Shahabuddin Ahmed (born 1930), president and Chief Justice of Bangladesh
Shahabuddin Hekmatyar, Afghan detained by Pakistan authorities
Shahabuddin Rathod (born 1937), Gujarati comedian
Shehab El-Din Ahmed (born 1990), Egyptian footballer
Shihab al-Din al-Qarafi (1228–1285), Egyptian jurist
Shihabuddin Nadvi (1931–2002), Indian writer
Shihabuddin Bayazid Shah (fl. 1413), Sultan of Bengal
Syed Ahmad Shahabuddin (1925–2008), Malaysian politicianŞihabetdin Märcani (1818–1889), Tatar theologian and historianTala' al Badru 'Alayna
Tala‘ al-Badru ‘Alaynā (Arabic: طلع البدر علينا) is a traditional Islamic poem known as nasheed that the Ansar (residents of Madinah) sang for Muhammad upon his arrival at Medina.
Many sources claim it was first sung as he sought refuge there after being forced to leave his hometown of Mecca. Some others, disagree by saying the second line reads "From the valley of Wada" (ﻣﻦ ﺛﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺩﺍﻉ). The valley of Wada was the place where people would walk with their loved ones who were travelling and say goodbye. It is located north of Medina and Mecca is south and the Prophet arrived at Quba which is south, so it is geographically impossible that it was sung at the Hijrah, some say.
The alternative opinion mainly put forth by Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani is that it was sung for Prophet Muhammad upon his arrival at Medina, to welcome him after completing the Battle of Tabuk.The song is currently over 1450 years old, and one of the oldest in the Islamic culture.Zakariyya al-Ansari
Zakariyyā al-Ansārī was a leading Islamic scholar of the 15th century. He was born in or around 1420 CE, in Sunaika, located in the Egyptian province of Sharqiyya. During his adolescence, al- Ansārī moved to Cairo to study at al-Azhar University. He lived in such poverty there, that he would venture out into the night in search of water faucets and the rinds of watermelon. However, according to al-Ansārī’s own account, after a few years at al-Azhar, a mill worker came to his aid. He provided the young al-Ansārī with money for his food, clothing and books. al-Ansārī told of a remarkable encounter with his benefactor told him,
Zakariyyā, you will live to see all of your peers die, and your prestige will rise, and for many years you will occupy the highest post of Islam, and your students will become the shaykhs of Islam during your lifetime – when you go blind.
Eventually, this foretelling would prove to be accurate. While a student, al- Ansārī studied under al-Qāyāti, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalāni, Jalāl al-Dīn al Mahallī and Sharaf al-Din al Munawi.Zakariyyā al-Ansārī held the office of Shāfi’ī qādī for a twenty-year period during the reign of Qā’it Bey. Over the course of his lifetime, al-Ansārī spent eighty years engaged as a teacher and muftī. One of al-Ansārī students was al-Sha’rānī, who was responsible for much of the information that survives in regards to the life of al-Ansārī. Of his teacher, al-Sha’rānī wrote that al-Ansārī was, "a pillar of the fiqh and the tasawwuf".Al-Ansārī held several teaching positions over the course of his life, which included professorships at the madrasa of the mausoleum of al-Shāfī and the madrasa Jāmaliyya. Fifty-two writings are listed under al-Ansārī’s name in Brockelmann's Geschichte der Arabischen Litteratur. These writings include, but are not limited to, topics of logic, grammar, philosophy, scientific terminology, rhetoric, Qur’anic exegesis, Holy Tradition, the life of Muhammad, jurispridence (fiqh), dogma and mysticism. Some of al-Ansārī’s most famous works include: Manhaj al-tullab (“The Way of the Students”), Fath al-Wahhab (“The help of the Bountiful”), Tuhfat al-tullāb (“The Gift offered to the Students”), Lubb al-usul (“The Kernel of the Science of the roots”), and his commentary on al-Qushairī’s Risāla fī ‘l-tasawwuf.From an early age, Zakariyyā al-Ansārī was attracted to mysticism. So encompassing was his interest, that al-Ansārī claimed no one expected much of anything from him in the way of legal studies. Al-Ansārī studied, and was initiated as a Sufi under Muhammad al-Ghamrī. He wrote several treaties on Sufism, but al-Ansārī is especially well known for his commentary on al-Qushairī’s Risāla fī ‘l-tasawwuf. In this commentary he defines tasawwuf in a number of ways, complete earnestness in the progression towards the King of all kings;… it is the devotion to works of good and the avoidance of defects."
In terms of al-Ansārī’s Sufi legacy, his name is also remembered in connection to his student al-Sha’rānī. Al-Sha’rānī established Neo-Sufism, also known as the "middle course". Neo-Sufism combines tasawwuf and fiqh.Al-Ansārī died in 1520, in Cairo, at the age of 100. He was given the honorary title "Shaikh al-Islam" and is known for the legacy of his mystic and legal writings. Al-Ansārī gained fame especially in Indonesia and Malaya due to his frequent mention as a source for Malay writers. His commentaries on the Sahih of Bukhari, Abhari’s adaptation of Isagoge, al-Jazari’s tajwid and his Futuhat al-ilahiyya on mysticism are among Ansārī’s most popular texts in Indonesia.
Scholars of other Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence