Ibiza

Ibiza (Catalan: Eivissa) is a Spanish island in the Mediterranean Sea off the eastern coast of Spain. It is 150 kilometres (93 miles) from the city of Valencia. It is the third largest of the Balearic Islands, an autonomous community of Spain. Its largest settlements are Ibiza Town (Catalan: Vila d'Eivissa, or simply Vila), Santa Eulària des Riu, and Sant Antoni de Portmany. Its highest point, called Sa Talaiassa (or Sa Talaia), is 475 metres (1,558 feet) above sea level.

Ibiza has become well known for its association with nightlife, electronic dance music that originated on the island, and for the summer club scene, all of which attract large numbers of tourists drawn to that type of holiday. Several years before 2010, the island's government and the Spanish Tourist Office had been working to promote more family-oriented tourism, with the police closing down clubs that played music at late night hours, but by 2010 this policy was reversed.[1] Around 2015 it was resumed.[2]

Ibiza is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[3] Ibiza and the nearby island of Formentera to its south are called the Pine Islands, or "Pityuses".

Ibiza
Native name:
Eivissa
Ibiza flag
Flag of Ibiza
Ibiza is located in Spain
Ibiza
Ibiza
Ibiza is midway between Spain's coastline and the larger island of Majorca.
Localització d'Eivissa respecte les Illes Balears

Ibiza (west of Majorca) in Balearic Islands
Geography
LocationBalearic Sea
Coordinates38°59′N 1°26′E / 38.98°N 1.43°ECoordinates: 38°59′N 1°26′E / 38.98°N 1.43°E
ArchipelagoBalearic Islands, Pityusic Islands
Area571.6 km2 (220.7 sq mi)
Highest elevation475 m (1,558 ft)
Highest pointSa Talaia
Administration
Autonomous CommunityBalearic Islands
ProvinceBalearic Islands
Capital cityIbiza Town
Largest settlementIbiza Town (pop. 49,768)
Demographics
Population143,856 (1 January 2017)
Pop. density251.2 /km2 (650.6 /sq mi)
Additional information
Official languages:
Catalan, Spanish

Official Emblem of Ibiza Island Council
Ibiza Insular Council Emblem
Official nameIbiza, Biodiversity and Culture
TypeMixed
Criteriaii, iii, iv, ix, x
Designated1999 (23rd session)
Reference no.417
State PartySpain
RegionSouthern Europe

Names

The official Catalan name is Eivissa (pronounced [əjˈβisə]). Its name in Spanish is Ibiza (pronounced [iˈβiθa]). In British English, the name is usually pronounced in an approximation of the Spanish /aɪˈbiːθə/,[4] whereas in American English the pronunciation is closer to Latin American Spanish (/ɪˈbiːzə/,[5] /iːˈbiːsə/[6]).[7][8]

Phoenician colonists called the island Ibossim or Iboshim (Phoenician: 𐤀𐤁𐤔𐤌, ʾBŠM,[9] "Dedicated to Bes").[10][11] It was later known to Romans as Ebusus. The Greeks called the two islands of Ibiza and Formentera the Pityoûssai (Πιτυοῦσσαι, "Pine-Covered Islands").[12]

In the 18th and 19th centuries the island was known to the British and especially to the Royal Navy as Ivica.[13]

History

Anforas griegas ibiza
Ancient Greek aryballoi found in the necropolis of Puig des Molins. Museu de Puig des Molins, Ibiza

In 654 BC, Phoenician settlers founded a port on Ibiza. With the decline of Phoenicia after the Assyrian invasions, Ibiza came under the control of Carthage, also a former Phoenician colony. The island produced dye, salt, fish sauce (garum), and wool.

A shrine with offerings to the goddess Tanit was established in the cave at Es Cuieram, and the rest of the Balearic Islands entered Eivissa's commercial orbit after 400 BC. Ibiza was a major trading post along the Mediterranean routes. Ibiza began establishing its own trading stations along the nearby Balearic island of Majorca, such as Na Guardis, and "Na Galera" where numerous Balearic mercenaries hired on, no doubt as slingers,[a] to fight for Carthage.

ForbysIbizaTown 03
View of the old town from the port

During the Second Punic War, the island was assaulted by the two Scipio brothers in 217 BC but remained loyal to Carthage. With the Carthaginian military failing on the Iberian mainland, Ibiza was last used, 205 B.C, by the fleeing Carthaginian General Mago to gather supplies and men before sailing to Menorca and then to Liguria. Ibiza negotiated a favorable treaty (Foedus) with the Romans, which spared Ibiza from further destruction and allowed it to continue its Carthaginian-Punic institutions, traditions and even coinage well into the Empire days, when it became an official Roman municipality.

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire and a brief period of first Vandal and then Byzantine rule, the island was conquered by the Moors in 902, the few remaining locals converted to Islam and Berber settlers came in. Under Islamic rule, Ibiza (Yabisah) came in close contact with the city of Dénia—the closest port in the nearby Iberian peninsula, located in the Valencian Community—and the two areas were administered jointly by the Taifa of Dénia during some time (11th century).

Ibiza together with the islands of Formentera and Menorca were invaded by the Norwegian King Sigurd I of Norway in the spring of 1110 on his crusade to Jerusalem. The king had previously conquered the cities of Sintra, Lisbon, and Alcácer do Sal and given them over to Christian rulers, in an effort to weaken the Muslim grip on the Iberian peninsula. King Sigurd continued to Sicily where he visited King Roger II of Sicily.[15]

The island was conquered by Aragonese King James I in 1235. The local Muslim population got deported as was the case with neighboring Majorca and elsewhere, and Christians arrived from Girona. The island maintained its own self-government in several forms until 1715, when King Philip V of Spain abolished the local government's autonomy. The arrival of democracy in the late 1970s led to the Statute of Autonomy of the Balearic Islands. Today, the island is part of the Balearic Autonomous Community, along with Majorca, Menorca, and Formentera.

World Heritage Site

Though primarily known for its party scene, large portions of the island are registered as UNESCO World Heritage Sites,[16] and thus protected from the development and commercialization of the main cities.

A notable example includes the Renaissance walls of the old town of Ibiza City which were awarded UNESCO World Heritage Status in 1999, they are one of the few world's Renaissance walls that were not demolished, and part of the medieval wall is still visible. At "God's Finger" in the Benirràs Bay there are some of the more traditional Ibizan cultural sites such as the remains of the first Phoenician settlement at Sa Caleta. Other sites are still under threat from the developers, such as Ses Feixes Wetlands,[17] but this site has now been recognised as a threatened environment, and it is expected that steps will be taken to preserve this wetland.

Geography

Ibiza ISS035-E-007431
Satellite photo (2013) showing terrain and towns as lighter areas: Ibiza Town (bottom central bay), Sant Antoni (upper left bay) and Santa Eulària (lower right). Airport runways cross the southern point.
Municipios de Ibiza
The 5 municipalities

Ibiza is a rock island covering an area of 572.56 square kilometres (221.07 sq mi), almost six times smaller than Majorca, but over five times larger than Mykonos (in the Greek Isles) or 10 times larger than Manhattan in New York City.

Ibiza is the larger of a group of the western Balearic archipelago called the "Pitiusas" or "Pine Islands" composed of itself and Formentera. The Balearic island chain includes over 50 islands, many of which are uninhabited. The highest point of the island is Sa Talaiassa, also known as Sa Talaia or Sa Talaia de Sant Josep at 475 metres (1,558 ft).

Administration

Ibiza is administratively part of the autonomous community of the Balearic Islands, whose capital is Palma, on the island of Majorca. Ibiza comprises 5 of the community's 67 municipalities. Clockwise from the south coast, these are:

Municipality Area in
square km
Census population
1 November 2001
Census population
1 November 2011
Estimated population
1 January 2017
Sant Josep de sa Talaia 159.4 14,267 24,079 26,133
Sant Antoni de Portmany 126.8 15,081 21,915 25,290
Sant Joan de Labritja 121.7 4,094 5,351 6,139
Santa Eulària des Riu 153.6 19,808 33,699 36,605
Vila d'Eivissa (Ibiza) 11.1 34,826 48,550 49,689
Totals 572.6 88,076 133,594 143,856

At the 2001 census these municipalities had a total population of 88,076 inhabitants, which had risen to an estimated 143,856 by the start of 2017, and have a land area of 572.56 km2 (221.07 sq mi).

Climate

Ibiza has a Hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa) bordering on a Hot semi-arid climate (BSh). The average annual temperature of Ibiza is 18.3 °C (65 °F), being warm and mild throughout the whole year. Ibiza lies at the same latitude as Atlantic City, yet it is much warmer for its location in the Mediterranean Basin. The climate of Ibiza is typically warm, sunny and dry, with low variation between highs and lows. The sunshine hours of Ibiza are 2700-2800 per year, while the yearly rain amount goes from 400 to 450 millimetres (16 to 18 in). The average high temperature is 22.2 °C (72 °F), while the average low is 14.3 °C (58 °F). Winters are slightly rainy and mild, from November to April normally the whole island turns green for the seasonal rains. Summers are hot and very dry, with few rainy days, often accompanied by thunderstorms. During the coldest month, January, the average high temperature is 15.7 °C (60 °F), while the average low is 8.1 °C (47 °F). In the warmest month, August, the average high temperature is 30.3 °C (87 °F), while the low is 22.2 °C (72 °F). Extreme temperatures are rare for the influence of the sea. The average temperature of the sea in Ibiza is 19.7 °C (67 °F) and beach weather usually lasts 7 months, from May to November.[18]

Culture

The typical folkloric dance of Ibiza is Ball Pagès. The origin of these dances is unknown. Nowadays, this tradition is in the process of recovery, thanks to the efforts of different Colles of Ball Pages of the islands. The clothing of the dancers is very colorful. The speed of the dance can be slow, medium or fast, although Sa Llarga, is the most danced way, and it's fast, dynamic and energetic, where the male dancer jumps around the woman and lifts up his legs.

People

Demographically, Ibiza displays a very peculiar configuration, as census agencies diverge on exact figures. According to the 2001 national census, Ibiza had 88,076 inhabitants (against 76,000 in 1991, 64,000 in 1981, 45,000 in 1971, and 38,000 in 1961). However, by the 2011 national census, this had grown to 133,594, and by the start of 2017 had reached 143,856. This rapid growth stems from the amnesty which incorporated a number of unregistered foreign migrants. In terms of origin, about 55 percent of island residents were born in Ibiza, 35 percent are domestic migrants from mainland Spain (mostly working-class families from Andalusia, and the remainder from Catalonia, Valencia and Castile), and the remaining 10 to 15 percent are foreign, dual and multi-national citizens of the EU and abroad (Govern de les Illes Balears – IBAE 1996). In decreasing order, the most commonly visiting foreigners are German, British, Latin American, French, Italian and Dutch, in addition to a myriad of other nationalities. This mosaic reflects the fluidity of foreigners living and moving across the island, in ways that render impossible to exactly quantify the expatriate population (Rozenberg 1990).

The Spanish composer and music theorist Miguel Roig-Francolí was born in Ibiza,[23] as was the politician and Spain's former Minister of Foreign Affairs, Abel Matutes.[24] Notable former residents of Ibiza include: English punk musician John Simon Ritchie (Sid Vicious),[25] the psychedelic rock band Philiac, comic actor Terry-Thomas,[26] Hungarian master forger Elmyr de Hory,[27] American author Clifford Irving, and film director/actor Orson Welles.[28]

Language

Eivissenc is the native dialect of Catalan that is spoken on Ibiza and nearby Formentera. Catalan shares co-official status with Spanish. Additionally, because of the influence of tourism and expatriates living in or maintaining residences on the island, other languages like English, French, German and Italian are widely spoken.[29]

Tourism

Nightlife

West End Sant Antoni
Sant Antoni, West End
Sunset at Cafe del Mar, Sant Antoni de Portmany (Ibiza) (190294471)
Sunset at Café del Mar, Sant Antoni de Portmany

Ibiza is considered to be a popular tourist destination, especially due to its well-known and at times riotous nightclub-based nightlife centred on two areas: Ibiza Town, the island's capital on the southern shore and Sant Antoni to the West.

Night life in Ibiza has undergone several changes since the island's opening to international tourism in the late 1950s. Origins of today's club culture may be traced back to the hippie gatherings held during the 1960s and 1970s. During these, people of various nationalities sharing the hippie ethos would regroup, talk, play music and occasionally take drugs. These would most often happen on beaches during the day, with nude bathing a common sight, and in rented fincas in the evenings or at nights. Apart from this confidential scene, which nevertheless attracted many foreigners to the island, local venues during the 1960s consisted mostly of bars, which would be the meeting points for Ibicencos, ex-pats, seafarers and tourists alike. The Estrella bar on the port and La Tierra in the old city of Eivissa were favourites.[30]

During the 1970s, a decade that saw the emergence of the contemporary nightclub, several places opened and made a lasting impact on Ibiza's nightlife. Four of these original clubs are still in operation today: Pacha, Privilege (formerly Ku), Amnesia and Es Paradís. These four clubs mainly defined nightlife on the White Island, which has evolved and developed from several distinctive elements: open-air parties (Es Paradis, Privilege, Amnesia), held in isolated places, eventually old fincas (Pacha, Amnesia), that mixed in nudity and costume party (Es Paradis, Privilege, Pacha) and enabled people from various backgrounds to blend (all). The hippie ethos served as a common factor that infused all these venues and catalyzed the experience of a certain kind of freedom, accentuated by the holiday nature of most of the stays on the White Island.

During the 1980s, the music played in these clubs gained in reputation and became known as Balearic beat, a precursor of the British acid house scene. As rave parties blossomed all over Europe, a DJ-driven club culture took hold of Ibizenca nightlife. It was at that time that Space opened, thanks to Pepe Rosello, which found a niche in the after-hour parties. The club would close at 6 AM and open again at 7 AM, when all the other clubs were still closed, enabling party-goers to flock from the other clubs to Space and continue dancing in broad daylight.

At the end of the 1990s, the after-hour parties took firm root on the island. In 1999, the Circoloco parties made their debut at DC10, with some of the original elements of Ibiza nightlife at the forefront.

In recent years, during the summer, top producers and DJs in dance music come to the island and play at the various clubs, in between touring to other international destinations. Some of the most famous DJs run their own weekly nights around the island. Many of these DJs use Ibiza as an outlet for presenting new songs within the house, trance and techno genres of electronic dance music. The island has achieved fame as a cultural centre for house and trance in particular, with its name often being used as a partial metonym for the particular flavour of electronic music originating there, much like Goa in India.

Since 2005, the live music event Ibiza Rocks has changed perceptions of the Ibiza party landscape. Bands such as Arctic Monkeys, Kasabian, The Prodigy, and the Kaiser Chiefs have played in the courtyard of the Ibiza Rocks Hotel.

The season traditionally begins at the start of June with Space and DC10's opening parties and finishes on the first weekend of October with the closing parties. A typical schedule for clubbers going to Ibiza includes waking at noon, early evening naps, late night clubbing, and "disco sunrises." Due to Ibiza's notable tolerance toward misbehavior from young adult tourists, it has acquired the sobriquet "Gomorrah of the Med." Also well-known is Café del Mar, a long-standing bar where many tourists traditionally view the sunset made famous by José Padilla, who has released more than a dozen eponymous album compilations of ambient music played at the location. That and other bars nearby have become an increasingly popular venue for club pre-parties after sunset, hosting popular DJ performers, such as Patrick Topping, Carl Cox, Green Velvet, Jozeff and many more international artists.

The island's government is trying to encourage a more cultured and quieter tourism scene, passing rules including the closing of all nightclubs by 6 a.m. at the latest and requiring all new hotels to be 5-star.[31] The administration wants to attract a more international mixture of tourists.[32]

In popular culture

A number of novels and other books have been written using Ibiza as the setting, including "The White Island" by Stephen Armstrong, Joshua Then and Now by Mordecai Richler, Soma Blues by Robert Sheckley,[33] Vacation in Ibiza by Lawrence Schimel,[34] A Short Life on a Sunny Isle: An Alphonse Dantan Mystery by Hannah Blank,[35] They Are Ruining Ibiza by A. C. Greene,[36] and The Python Project by Victor Canning.[37] Memes Eivissencs also have registered the traditions of their residents and their history in social media.

In popular music, American singer-songwriter Mike Posner released "I Took a Pill in Ibiza" (alternatively known as "In Ibiza", or its clean title "I Took a Plane to Ibiza") in April 2015, as single on his Vevo account and in the exclusive The Truth EP; it was later released on At Night, Alone. in May 2016. Originally an acoustic guitar-based folk pop song, it was remixed by the Norwegian duo SeeB as a tropical house dance pop song, and released digitally as a single in the United States on July 24, 2015. "I Took a Pill in Ibiza" peaked at #4 on the Billboard Hot 100 in the U.S.,[38] and reached #1 on seventeen other charts. Tourism officials in Ibiza were reportedly "annoyed" by the song's apparent reinforcement of drug culture associated with Ibiza in the past, and Tourism Director Vicent Ferrer subsequently invited Posner to witness the island's culture and how it contrasts with the party "typecast." [39]

Because of its rustic beauty, companies and artists alike frequently use the island for photographic and film shoots. A monument ("The Egg") erected in honour of Christopher Columbus can be found in Sant Antoni; Ibiza is one of several places purporting to be his birthplace.

Development

Since the early days of mass tourism on the island, there have been a large number of development projects ranging from successful ventures, such as the super clubs at Space and Privilege, to failed development projects, such as Josep Lluís Sert's abandoned hotel complex at Cala D'en Serra,[40] the half-completed and now demolished "Idea" nightclub in Sant Antoni,[41] and the ruins of a huge restaurant/nightclub in the hills near Sant Josep called "Festival Club" that only operated for three summer seasons in the early 1970s.[42] The transient nature of club-oriented tourism is most obvious in these ruins scattered all over the island. Local artist Irene de Andrès has tackled the difficult issue of the impact of mass tourism on the island local landscapes, both natural and cultural, in an ongoing project called "Donde nada ocurre" (Where nothing happens).[43] In 2013, Ibiza property prices generally remained above market value, and many of the development projects on the island have now been completed or continue, as well as some new projects announced at the end of 2012. Since 2009, Ibiza has seen an increase in tourist numbers every year, with nearly 6 million people traveling through Ibiza Airport in 2012. The summer season has become concentrated between June and September, focusing on the "clubbing calendar"[44] which is currently booming. In recent years, the luxury market has dramatically improved, with new restaurants, clubs, and improvements to the marina in Ibiza Town.[45]

Ibiza's increased popularity has led to problems with potable water shortages and overrun infrastructure. This has led to the imposition of a "Sustainable Tourism Tax" which went into effect in July 1, 2016.[46] Minister of Tourism Vincente Torres stated in an interview in 2016 that the government has instituted a moratorium and building in certain areas. He said that with almost 100,000 legal touristic beds and about 132,000 inhabitants on the island's 572 square kilometres (221 sq mi) not much more tourism can be supported.[46]

Transport

Location map Ibiza
Map of roads and Ibiza Airport (on southern point) and water routes (click map to enlarge).

Ibiza is served by Ibiza Airport, which has many international flights during the summer tourist season, especially from the European Union.

There are also ferries from the harbour of Sant Antoni and Ibiza Town to Barcelona, Majorca, Dénia, and Valencia. There are also ferries to Formentera leaving Sant Antoni Harbour (normally every Wednesday), and daily from Ibiza Town, Santa Eulària, and Figueretes–Platja d'en Bossa.

Several public buses also travel between Sant Antoni and Ibiza Town—every 15 minutes in summer and every half-hour in winter. In addition, there are buses from Sant Antoni to Cala Bassa, Cala Conta and Cala Tarida, and to the Airport. From Ibiza there are buses to the Platja d'en Bossa, Ses Salines, the Airport, and Santa Eulària.

Cuisine

Ibiza's local cuisine is typically Mediterranean. Of the most common culinary products of the island are sweets known as flaons. Other savory dishes include sofrit pagès, bullit de peix (fish stew), arròs de matança (rice with pork) and arròs a la marinera.

Gallery

PlayaDenBossaIbiza

The Platja d'en Bossa looking north towards Ibiza Town

Puig de Missa

Puig de Missa in Santa Eulària

Marina of Santa Eulària des Riu

Marina of Santa Eulària des Riu

Little bay in sant josep

Bay

Little bay in sant josep3

Clear water

Phoenician Settlement remains, Sa Caleta, Ibiza 28 May 2012 (2)

Phoenician settlement remains at Sa Caleta

2016 Ibiza Altes Landhaus

Old country house

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "The Rhodians, like the Baleares, were celebrated slingers." (Latin: Iam cui Tlepolemus sator, et cui Lindus origo, Funda bella ferens Balearis et alite plumbo.)[14]

References

Citations

  1. ^ Ibiza renews its party spirit, Luke Bainbridge, June 27, 2010 (The Guardian)
  2. ^ Inside the police crackdown on Ibizas endless party culture Michelle Lhooqe, November 13, 2015 (Vice TV website)
  3. ^ "Ibiza, Biodiversity and Culture". UNESCO. United Nations. Retrieved 14 February 2018.
  4. ^ "Ibiza". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  5. ^ Random House dictionary
  6. ^ American Heritage dictionary
  7. ^ Jones, Daniel; Peter Roach; et al. (2003). English Pronouncing Dictionary (16th ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  8. ^ Wells, John C. (2000). Longman Pronunuciation Dictionary (2nd ed.). Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.
  9. ^ Head & al. (1911), p. 3.
  10. ^ "Ibiza Literature, Literature in Ibiza". Liveibiza.com. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
  11. ^ Kuhbier, Heinrich; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Guerau d'Arellano Tur, Cristòfol, eds. (1984). Biogeography and Ecology of the Pityusic Islands. Monographiae Biologicae, Volume 52. The Hague, The Netherlands: Dr. W. Junk (Kluwer). p. 1. ISBN 978-90-6193-105-8.
  12. ^ Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon
  13. ^ "Ivica". Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, Or, Universal Dictionary of Knowledge. 21. London. 1845. p. 167.
  14. ^ Strab. xiv. p. 654; Plin. l. c. Sil. Ital. iii. 364, 365.
  15. ^ Jakobsson, Ármann (2013-09-13). "Image is Everything: The Morkinskinna Account of King Sigurðr of Norway's Journey to the Holy Land". Parergon. 30 (1): 121–140. doi:10.1353/pgn.2013.0016. ISSN 1832-8334.
  16. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Ibiza, Biodiversity and Culture".
  17. ^ Ibiza Preservation Fund Archived 14 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ Ltd, Copyright Global Sea Temperatures - A-Connect. "Ibiza Water Temperature - Spain - Sea Temperatures". World Sea Temperatures.
  19. ^ "Valores climatológicos normales. Ibiza, Aeropuerto". March 2016.
  20. ^ "Valores extremos. Ibiza, Aeropuerto". March 2016.
  21. ^ "Ibiza Sea Temperature". seatemperature.org. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
  22. ^ "Ibiza, Spain - Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
  23. ^ Enciclopèdia d'Eivissa i Formentera. "Roig-Francoli Costa, Miguel Angel"
  24. ^ Who's Who at NATO. "Abel Matutes"
  25. ^ "Sid Vicious - Life History Part 1".
  26. ^ Bounder! The Biography of Terry-Thomas by Graham McCann, serialised in The Times
  27. ^ Clark, Thomas G. (18 May 2011). "Sant Agustí".
  28. ^ "Ibiza Literature, Literature in Ibiza".
  29. ^ "Le guide touristique IBIZA du Petit Futé : Population et langues (français)". 13 August 2017.
  30. ^ "Bares y cafés de la Marina". Diario de Ibiza. 23 December 2016.
  31. ^ Robbins, Tom (2007-11-18). "Is the party over in Ibiza?". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2010-05-04.
  32. ^ "Is Ibiza changing??". Bbs.clubplanet.com. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  33. ^ Sheckley, Robert (1997). Soma Blues. New York: Forge/Tom Doherty Associates. p. 222. ISBN 0-312-86273-3.
  34. ^ Schimel, Lawrence (2003). Vacation in Ibiza. Eurotica. ISBN 1-56163-377-1.
  35. ^ Blank, Hannah (2002). A Short Life on a Sunny Isle: An Alphonse Dantan Mystery. New York: Hightrees/Prism Corporation. p. 221. ISBN 0-9652778-4-4.
  36. ^ Greene, A. C. (1998). They Are Ruining Ibiza. Denton, TX: University of North Texas Press. p. 123. ISBN 1-57441-042-3.
  37. ^ Canning, Victor (1967). The Python Project. London, UK: Heinemann. p. 284.
  38. ^ "Mike Posner Chart History (Hot 100)". Billboard. Billboard. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
  39. ^ "Tourism chiefs invite singer of hit drugs song to see other side of Ibiza". the Guardian.
  40. ^ Clark, Thomas G. (7 July 2011). "Josep Lluís Sert's abandoned hotel at Cala D'en Serra".
  41. ^ Clark, Thomas G. (29 May 2011). "An abandoned Idea".
  42. ^ "Ibiza Party". TravelnTourism. Retrieved 2016-06-18.
  43. ^ "Irene de Andrès website". 24 December 2016.
  44. ^ "Vakantie Ibiza 2017 » De beste tips voor op vakantie!". Europa Vakanties (in Dutch). 4 January 2015. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
  45. ^ "Ibiza – a hedonist's paradise whatever your poison". Ibiza Traveller. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
  46. ^ a b Shortlidge, Chadler (17 July 2016). "Ibiza "Cannot Support Much More Increase in Tourism" Says Govt". Pulse. Retrieved 23 July 2016.

Bibliography

External links

Balearic Islands

The Balearic Islands (; Catalan: Illes Balears, pronounced [ˈiʎəz bələˈas]; Spanish: Islas Baleares, pronounced [ˈizlaz βaleˈaɾes]) are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.

The four largest islands are Mallorca, Menorca, Ibiza, and Formentera. Many minor islands and islets are close to the larger islands, including Cabrera, Dragonera, and S'Espalmador. The islands have a Mediterranean climate, and the four major islands are all popular tourist destinations. Ibiza, in particular, is known as an international party destination, attracting many of the world's most popular DJs to its nightclubs. The islands' culture and cuisine are similar to those of the rest of Spain but have their own distinctive features.

The archipelago forms an autonomous community and a province of Spain, with Palma de Mallorca as the capital. The 2007 Statute of Autonomy declares the Balearic Islands as one nationality of Spain. The co-official languages in the Balearic Islands are Catalan and Spanish.

Balearic beat

Balearic beat, also known as Balearic house, or simply Balearic initially is an eclectic blend of DJ-led dance music that emerged in the mid-1980s. It later became the name of a more specific style of electronic dance music that was popular into the mid-1990s. Balearic beat was named for its popularity among European nightclub and beach rave patrons on the Balearic island of Ibiza, a popular tourist destination. Some dance music compilations referred to it as "the sound of Ibiza," even though many other, more aggressive and upbeat forms of dance music could be heard on the island.

Carl Cox

Carl Cox (born 29 July 1962) is a British house and techno record producer and DJ. In the 1980s, Cox became a mainstage DJ in the electronica industry. He has performed at numerous clubs and events worldwide and has served as a monthly DJ for BBC Radio 1's Essential Mix. He has hosted a residency known as 'Music is Revolution' every summer season at the world renowned nightclub, Space Ibiza, from 2001 to 2016.He runs the record label, Intec Digital, which was founded in 1999 as Intec Records. Cox also had his own radio show, entitled 'Global'. In 2017 he announced that from February onwards he would no longer work on the show. He has featured his own 'Carl Cox & Friends' stage at many festivals, such as Ultra Music Festival, The BPM Festival and Tomorrowland.

Divisiones Regionales de Fútbol in Balearic Islands

The Divisiones Regionales de Fútbol in the Balearic Islands, are organized by Balearic Football Federation :

Primera Regional Preferente de Mallorca (Level 5)

Regional Preferente de Menorca (Level 5)

Regional de Ibiza y Formentera (Level 5)

Primera Regional de las Islas Baleares (Level 6)

Segunda Regional de las Islas Baleares (Level 7)

Tercera Regional de las Islas Baleares (Level 8)

Flaó

Flaó (plural flaons, pronounced [fləˈons]) is a type of pastry made in different locations of the Catalan-speaking regions of Spain, like Morella, Ibiza, Formentera, Menorca and Olot. Traditionally flaons were part of Easter family celebrations in Menorca, but now they are available all year round.

The flaons have different shapes, semicircular or circular, and fillings usually based on some type of cheese, varying according to the location. Sweet flaons are usually sweetened with sugar, but traditionally honey was used more often. Historically the first recorded mention of these cakes is from 1252 and they are mentioned as well in Ramon Llull's book Blanquerna, written in 1283. There is a similar pastry in Cyprus known as flaounes.

Formentera

Formentera (Catalan pronunciation: [furmənˈteɾə], Spanish: [foɾmenˈteɾa]) is the smallest and more southerly island of the Pityusic Islands group (comprising Ibiza and Formentera, as well as various small islets), which belongs to the Balearic Islands autonomous community (Spain).

Fuck Me I'm Famous

Fuck Me I'm Famous is a series of electronic dance music compilation albums by the French DJ David Guetta. His now ex-wife Cathy Guetta collaborated in the production. The first album in the series was released in 2003. The albums have traditionally been released during the summer months of their respective years.

I Took a Pill in Ibiza

"I Took a Pill in Ibiza" (also known by its censored title "In Ibiza" or its clean title "I Took a Plane to Ibiza") is a song by American singer Mike Posner. The song, originally acoustic guitar-based, was remixed by the Norwegian duo Seeb and released digitally as a single in the United States on July 24, 2015. The original version is on Posner's second EP The Truth, while both versions are on his second studio album At Night, Alone.

The Seeb remix reached the top ten of the charts in twenty seven countries, including number one in Belgium, Ireland, Israel, Netherlands, Norway and the United Kingdom. In the UK, the song remained at the top of the charts for four weeks. It has achieved high chart positions in Posner's native United States, where it reached number one on both the Billboard Dance/Mix Show Airplay Chart and the Billboard Pop Songs chart, also peaking at number four on the main chart Billboard Hot 100 for two weeks. The song became Posner's biggest single, outperforming his debut, "Cooler than Me" (2010), and was later nominated for a Grammy Award for Song of the Year.

Ibiza (Madrid)

Ibiza is a ward (barrio) of Madrid belonging to the district of Retiro.

Ibiza (Vino de la Tierra)

Ibiza is a Spanish geographical indication for Vino de la Tierra wines located in the autonomous region of the Balearic Islands, Spain. Vino de la Tierra is one step below the mainstream Denominación de Origen indication on the Spanish wine quality ladder.

The area covered by this geographical indication comprises all the municipalities of the island of Ibiza. There are currently about 35 hectares of vineyards, spread over a large part of the island and 5 wineries (known as bodegas in Spanish) registered with the Regulatory Council.

It acquired its Vino de la Tierra status in 1996.

Ibiza (town)

Ibiza (Catalan: Eivissa [əjˈvisə]; Spanish: Ibiza), also known as Ibiza Town, is a city and municipality located on the southeast coast of the island of Ibiza in the Balearic Islands autonomous community.

Ibiza Airport

Ibiza Airport (IATA: IBZ, ICAO: LEIB) (Catalan: Aeroport d'Eivissa, Spanish: Aeropuerto de Ibiza) is the international airport serving the Balearic Islands of Ibiza and Formentera in Spain located 7 km (4.3 mi) southwest of Ibiza Town. As the island is a major European holiday destination, it features some year-round domestic services as well as several dozen seasonal routes to cities across Europe. It is also used as a seasonal base for Vueling.

Pete Tong

Peter Michael Tong MBE (born 30 July 1960), better known as Pete Tong, is an English disc jockey who works for BBC Radio 1. He is the host of programmes such as Essential Mix and Essential Selection on the radio service, which can be heard through Internet radio streams, for his record label FFRR Records, and for his own performances at nightclubs and music festivals. Tong has also worked as a record producer, and is regarded as the "global ambassador for electronic music"

The phrase "It's all gone Pete Tong", where the name is used as rhyming slang for "a bit wrong", was reputedly first coined by Paul Oakenfold in late 1987 in an article about acid house called "Bermondsey Goes Balearic" for Terry Farley and Pete Heller's Boys Own fanzine. It's All Gone Pete Tong is also the title of a 2004 film which portrays a fictional DJ's experiences as he realizes he is becoming deaf. Tong appears briefly in the film. It is also the name Tong has adopted for his club night at the nightclub Pacha in Ibiza and his nightly radio programme in the United States on iHeartRadio's "Evolution" EDM format platform.In 2008, Tong was involved with organizing the International Music Summit in Ibiza, an event that has become an annual fixture (the 2016 Summit was held during 25–27 May).In 2017, Tong won Radio Show of the Year at the Electronic Music Awards for "The Essential Collection".

SEAT

SEAT, S.A. (English: , Spanish: [ˈseat]; Sociedad Española de Automóviles de Turismo) is a Spanish automobile manufacturer with its head office in Martorell, Spain. It was founded on May 9, 1950, by the Instituto Nacional de Industria (INI), a Spanish state-owned industrial holding company. It quickly became the largest supplier of cars in Spain. In 1986, the Spanish government sold SEAT to the German Volkswagen Group of which it remains a wholly owned subsidiary.

The headquarters of SEAT, S.A. are located at SEAT's industrial complex in Martorell near Barcelona. By 2000, annual production peaked at over 500,000 units; in total up to 2006, over 16 million cars have been produced including more than 6 million from the Martorell plant, with three-quarters of the annual production being exported to over 70 countries worldwide.

SEAT Ibiza

The SEAT Ibiza is a supermini car manufactured by Spanish car manufacturer SEAT since 1984. It is SEAT's best-selling car. The Ibiza is named after the Spanish island of Ibiza, and it is the second SEAT model to be named after a Spanish city, after the SEAT Ronda.

It was introduced at the 1984 Paris Motor Show as the first car developed by SEAT as an independent company, though it was designed by SEAT in collaboration with well-known firms such as Italdesign, Karmann and Porsche.From the second generation version onwards, SEAT formed part of the German automotive industry concern Volkswagen Group, and all further Ibiza generations, as well as the rest of the SEAT model range, were built on Volkswagen Group platforms, parts and technologies.

The Ibiza spans five generations, among which it has debuted twice (in its second and in its fourth generations) a new platform of the Volkswagen Group. All of them were the top seller model in SEAT's range. A rebadged redeveloped version of the first generation Ibiza remains still in production under license in China, by the Nanjing Automobile Group automaker.

The Ibiza is now available only in the five-door hatchback variants, and between 1993 and 2008, saloon, coupé and estate versions were sold as the SEAT Córdoba. In 2010, an estate version, called Ibiza ST, was launched.

Sa Caleta Phoenician Settlement

Sa Caleta Phoenician Settlement can be found on a rocky headland about 10 kilometers west of Ibiza Town. The Phoenicians established a foothold around 650 BC. On this site archaeologists have discovered the remains of simple stone buildings. The discovery is so important that the site has been designated a World Heritage Site.

Space (Ibiza nightclub)

Space (, Spanish: [esˈpeis], Catalan: [əsˈpejs]) was a Superclub on the island of Ibiza, Spain from 1986 to 2016, owned by STANCA. It was awarded "Best Global Club" at the International Dance Music Awards in 2005, 2006, 2012, 2013, and 2014. Space was located in Playa d'en Bossa on the outskirts of Ibiza Town, close to the airport.

Uncovered (TV series)

Uncovered was a British documentary show that was broadcast on Sky One from 6 July 1997 to 26 May 2002.

Climate data for Eivissa Airport 6 metres (20 feet) (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 23.8
(74.8)
23.5
(74.3)
26.5
(79.7)
27.8
(82.0)
31.0
(87.8)
36.5
(97.7)
36.6
(97.9)
36.6
(97.9)
38.4
(101.1)
32.0
(89.6)
28.4
(83.1)
23.8
(74.8)
38.4
(101.1)
Average high °C (°F) 15.7
(60.3)
15.9
(60.6)
17.7
(63.9)
19.7
(67.5)
22.7
(72.9)
26.8
(80.2)
29.7
(85.5)
30.3
(86.5)
27.7
(81.9)
24.0
(75.2)
19.6
(67.3)
16.7
(62.1)
22.2
(72.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) 11.9
(53.4)
12.1
(53.8)
13.7
(56.7)
15.6
(60.1)
18.6
(65.5)
22.6
(72.7)
25.6
(78.1)
26.3
(79.3)
23.8
(74.8)
20.2
(68.4)
15.9
(60.6)
13.1
(55.6)
18.3
(64.9)
Average low °C (°F) 8.1
(46.6)
8.3
(46.9)
9.6
(49.3)
11.4
(52.5)
14.6
(58.3)
18.4
(65.1)
21.4
(70.5)
22.2
(72.0)
19.9
(67.8)
16.5
(61.7)
12.3
(54.1)
9.5
(49.1)
14.3
(57.7)
Record low °C (°F) −1.2
(29.8)
0.2
(32.4)
1.0
(33.8)
3.4
(38.1)
7.6
(45.7)
10.0
(50.0)
15.9
(60.6)
16.5
(61.7)
12.1
(53.8)
8.5
(47.3)
2.4
(36.3)
1.1
(34.0)
−1.2
(29.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 37
(1.5)
36
(1.4)
27
(1.1)
31
(1.2)
27
(1.1)
11
(0.4)
5
(0.2)
18
(0.7)
57
(2.2)
58
(2.3)
53
(2.1)
52
(2.0)
413
(16.3)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 5 5 3 4 3 1 1 2 4 6 6 5 45
Average snowy days 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 162 166 211 246 272 299 334 305 236 205 157 151 2,744
Percent possible sunshine 52 54 57 63 63 67 72 70 66 60 52 54 61
Source #1: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[19]
Source #2: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología,[20]
Climate data for Ibiza
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average sea temperature °C (°F) 14.7
(58.5)
14.3
(57.7)
14.5
(58.0)
16.3
(61.4)
19.1
(66.3)
22.5
(72.6)
25.1
(77.1)
26.2
(79.1)
25.2
(77.4)
22.7
(72.9)
19.6
(67.3)
16.6
(61.8)
19.7
(67.5)
Mean daily daylight hours 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 15.0 14.0 12.0 11.0 10.0 9.0 12.2
Average Ultraviolet index 2 3 5 6 8 9 9 8 6 4 3 2 5.4
Source #1: seatemperature.org[21]
Source #2: Weather Atlas[22]
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