Ibisbill

The ibisbill (Ibidorhyncha struthersii) is a bird related to the waders, but sufficiently distinctive to merit its own family Ibidorhynchidae. It is grey with a white belly, red legs and long down-curved bill, and a black face and black breast band. It occurs on the shingle riverbanks of the high plateau of central Asia and the Himalayas.

Ibisbill
Ibisbill4
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Charadriiformes
Family: Ibidorhynchidae
Bonaparte, 1856
Genus: Ibidorhyncha
Vigors, 1832
Species:
I. struthersii
Binomial name
Ibidorhyncha struthersii
Vigors, 1832
Ibidorhyncha struthersii map
Synonyms

Clorhynchus strophiatus Hodgson, 1835

Taxonomy

The ibisbill belongs to the order Charadriiformes which also includes the sandpipers, plovers, terns, auks, gulls, skuas and others. Although its evolutionary relationships are not fully understood, the ibisbill appears to be most closely related to a group including the oystercatchers, avocets, stilts and Pluvialis plovers,[2] but sufficiently distinctive to merit its own family, Ibidorhynchidae.[3]

JC Ibisbill
River Kosi, outskirts of Jim Corbett National Park, India

There are no subspecies.[3] The species was described in 1831 by Vigors based on painting by John Gould although Brian Hodgson had sent a manuscript to the Asiatic Society of Bengal two years earlier describing it as the "Red-billed Erolia" but this was published only in 1835 with an apology from the editor.[4][5] Hodgson later suggested a new genus name of Clorhynchus for the bird stating that Gould's description of Ibidorhyncha was inaccurate while Vieillot's Erolia had been rejected.[6] The species is named in honour of Dr. Struthers who collected specimens of the bird from the Himalayas.

Description

The ibisbill is 38–41 cm (15–16 in) long and is quite unmistakable in appearance. The adult is grey with a white belly, a crimson, long down-curved bill similar to that of the unrelated ibis, and a black face and black breast band. The sexes are similar, but young birds lack the black on the face and breast, and the bill is duller. The bill is 6.8–8.2 cm (2.7–3.2 in) long and is slightly longer in females. The legs are greyish purple in the breeding adults and dull sepia in juveniles or greenish in younger or non-breeding adults.[7][8] The legs of deceased ibisbills change color to a crimson similar to the bill shade shortly after death. The tarsi is short and reticulated. The ibisbill has three toes, lacking the hind toe. The outer and middle toes are connected by a small, indented web, while the middle and inner toes possess no webbing. The Ibisbill typically weighs 270–320 g (9.5–11.3 oz) and females weigh slightly more than males.[7] In spite of its spectacular appearance it is inconspicuous in its stony environment. The call is a ringing Klew-klew similar to that of a greenshank. In flight, its outstretched neck and rounded wings give an ibis-like appearance.[3]

Ibisbill from Bhutan
Pochu River, Punakha, Bhutan

Distribution and habitat

Ibisbill
Jia Bhorali River, Nameri National Park, India

The ibisbill breeds across southern Central Asia along stony riverbeds,[9] typically between 1,700 and 4,400 m (5,600 and 14,400 ft), although there are records of the ibisbill breeding as low as 500 m (1,600 ft).[7] Outside the breeding season, it may descend as low as 100 m (330 ft).[3] It typically is found in shingle-bed river valleys from 100 to 1,500 m (330 to 4,920 ft) across with patches of sand and silt mixed in with pebbles and small boulders. The river valleys frequented by the ibisbill tend to have very little vegetation and gentle slopes to ensure a slow flow of water. It must live near slow-flowing water in order to feed, limiting its habitat despite a large range.[7]

Behaviour

During the autumn and winter, the ibisbill typically is solitary, though they can be found in pairs or in small flocks of up to eight birds. One group of 25 ibisbills has been reported. Ibisbills breed solitarily and are territorial, though limited habitat availability can cause ibisbills to breed while neighboring others.[7] They are generally not shy of humans.[10] They are good swimmers and prefer crossing rivers by swimming instead of flying.[7]

Wintering birds tend to be fairly inactive, while they become more active and noisy as the breeding season approaches.[7]

When scratching the feathers on their head with their toes, they reach from over the wings. This indirect approach pattern is also found in plovers and lapwings but not in stone-plovers and other waders that reach directly from under the wing.[11]

Breeding

The ibisbill is apparently a monogamous breeder. During the breeding season, the ibisbill is known to run short distances while holding the head down, only standing upright to look at its surroundings.[7] The nest is located on a bank, island or peninsula on the river, and is little more than a scrape on the ground, which may sometimes be lined with small pebbles. Eggs are laid in the end of April and the beginning of May (exact timing varies due to the weather). The clutch size varies from two to four oval eggs. The behaviour of adults near the nest are said to be similar to lapwings.[10] The exact time taken to incubate the eggs is unknown, but both parents share incubation duties.[7] It is suspected that chicks from the previous brood may act as helpers at the nest.[12]

Feeding

The ibisbill feeds by probing under rocks or gravel on stream beds.[3] It will take a variety of terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates including caddisfly and mayfly larvae that hide under boulders in streams,[13] grasshoppers[10] and also small fish.[3]

Conservation status

This species has an extremely large range, estimated at 5 million square kilometres (1.9 million square miles) which is not believed to declining or fragmentating. Although its population is unknown, it is not thought to be declining. For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern by the IUCN.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b BirdLife International (2012). "Ibidorhyncha struthersii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ Baker, Allan J; Sérgio L Pereira; Tara A Paton (2007). "Phylogenetic relationships and divergence times of Charadriiformes genera: multigene evidence for the Cretaceous origin of at least 14 clades of shorebirds". Biology Letters. 3 (2): 205–210. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0606. PMC 2375939. PMID 17284401.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Hayman, Peter; Marchant, John; Prater, Tony (1986). Shorebirds: an identification guide to the waders of the world. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. p. 231. ISBN 0-395-60237-8.
  4. ^ Inskipp, C. "A pioneer of Himalayan Ornithology". In Waterhouse, David M (ed.). The origins of the Himalayan studies: Brian Houghton Hodgson in Nepal and Darjeeling, 1820–1858. Routledge. p. 174.
  5. ^ Hodgson, B.H. (1835). "Red-billed Erolia". J. Asiatic Soc. Bengal. 4: 458–461.
  6. ^ Hodgson, BH (1835). "Note on the Red-billed Erolia". Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal. 4: 701–702.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Knystautas, A. J. (1996). "Family Ibidorhynchidae (Ibisbill)". In Josep, del Hoyo; Elliot, Alan; Sargatal, Jordi (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 3, Hoatzin to Auks. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. pp. 326–331. ISBN 84-87334-20-2.
  8. ^ Phillips, B.T. (1945). "Photographing the Ibis-bill (Ibidorhyncha struthersii Gould)". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 45 (3): 347–352.
  9. ^ "Ibisbill – BirdLife Species Factsheet". BirdLife International. retrieved 28 December 2009
  10. ^ a b c Baker, ECS (1929). The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Birds. Volume 6 (2nd ed.). Taylor and Francis, London. pp. 196–198.
  11. ^ Simmons, KEL (1987). "The head-scratching method of the Ibisbill Ibidorhyncha struthersii". Ibis. 129 (1): 114–115. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.1987.tb03167.x.
  12. ^ Ali, S & S D Ripley (1980). Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan. 2 (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 334–336. ISBN 0-19-562063-1.
  13. ^ Pierce, Raymond J (1986). "Observations on behaviour and foraging of the Ibisbill Ibidorhyncha struthersii in Nepal". Ibis. 128 (1): 37–47. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.1986.tb02090.x.

Other sources

  • Cordeaux, WW (1897) Notes on Ibidorhynchus struthersii. Ibis 7 3(12):563–564.
  • Stanford, JK (1935) On the occurrence of the Ibisbill Ibidorhyncha struthersii (Gould) in Upper Burma. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 38(2):403–404.
  • Bailey, FM (1909) Nesting of the Ibis bill (Ibidorhynchus struthersi). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 19(4):993–994.
  • Whymper, SL (1910) A breeding ground of the Ibisbill (Ibidorynchus struthersi). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 20(2):519–520.
  • Whymper, SL (1906) Nesting of the Ibis-bill (Ibidorhynchus struthersi) and the Common Sandpiper (Totanus hypoleucus). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 17(2):546–547.

External links

Charadriiformes

Charadriiformes is a diverse order of small to medium-large birds. It includes about 350 species and has members in all parts of the world. Most Charadriiformes live near water and eat invertebrates or other small animals; however, some are pelagic (seabirds), some occupy deserts and a few are found in thick forest.

Handbook of the Birds of the World

The Handbook of the Birds of the World (HBW) is a multi-volume series produced by the Spanish publishing house Lynx Edicions in partnership with BirdLife International. It is the first handbook to cover every known living species of bird. The series is edited by Josep del Hoyo, Andrew Elliott, Jordi Sargatal and David A. Christie.

All 16 volumes have been published. For the first time an animal class will have all the species illustrated and treated in detail in a single work. This has not been done before for any other group in the animal kingdom.

Material in each volume is grouped first by family, with an introductory article on each family; this is followed by individual species accounts (taxonomy, subspecies and distribution, descriptive notes, habitat, food and feeding, breeding, movements, status and conservation, bibliography). In addition, all volumes except the first and second contain an essay on a particular ornithological theme. More than 200 renowned specialists and 35 illustrators (including Toni Llobet, Hilary Burn, Chris Rose and H. Douglas Pratt) from more than 40 countries have contributed to the project up to now, as well as 834 photographers from all over the world.

Since the first volume appeared in 1992, the series has received various international awards. The first volume was selected as Bird Book of the Year by the magazines Birdwatch and British Birds, and the fifth volume was recognised as Outstanding Academic Title by Choice Magazine, the American Library Association magazine. The seventh volume, as well as being named Bird Book of the Year by Birdwatch and British Birds, also received the distinction of Best Bird Reference Book in the 2002 WorldTwitch Book Awards This same distinction was also awarded to Volume 8 a year later in 2003.Individual volumes are large, measuring 32 by 25 centimetres (12.6 by 9.8 in), and weighing between 4 and 4.6 kilograms (8.8 and 10.1 lb); it has been commented in a review that "fork-lift truck book" would be a more appropriate title.

As a complement to the Handbook of the Birds of the World and with the ultimate goal of disseminating knowledge about the world's avifauna, in 2002 Lynx Edicions started the Internet Bird Collection (IBC). It is a free-access, but not free-licensed, on-line audiovisual library of the world's birds with the aim of posting videos, photos and sound recordings showing a variety of biological aspects (e.g. subspecies, plumages, feeding, breeding, etc.) for every species. It is a non-profit endeavour fuelled by material from more than one hundred contributors from around the world.

In early 2013, Lynx Edicions launched the online database HBW Alive, which includes the volume and family introductions and updated species accounts from all 17 published HBW volumes. Since its launch, the taxonomy has been thoroughly revised and updated twice (once for non-passerines and once for passerines), following the publication of the two volumes of the HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World.

The Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive site also provides a free access 'Key to Scientific Names in Ornithology'.

Ile-Alatau National Park

Ile-Alatau National Park (Kazakh: Іле Алатауы ұлттық паркі, Ile Alataýy Ulttyq parki) is a national park in Kazakhstan. It was created in 1996 and covers about 200,000 ha. It is situated in the mountains south of Almaty between Gorge Turgen in the east and Chemolgan River in the west. The National Park borders Almaty Nature Reserve, which is located around Peak Talgar.The landscape includes woodlands, alpine meadows, glaciers and lakes, including Big Almaty Lake. Remarkable trees include apricot, maple, and apple. A total of 300 species of birds and animals have been recorded from the Ile-Alatau National Park. The park is home to snow leopards, Central Asian lynx, Tian Shan brown bears, Central Asian stone martens, Siberian ibexes, bearded vultures and golden eagles. Other notable bird species found in Ile-Alatau National Park include Himalayan snowcock, ibisbill, Eurasian scops owl, and Eurasian three-toed woodpecker. The park also protects specific species of deer whose antlers are believed to have medicinal properties.

List of birds

This page lists living orders and families of birds. The links below should then lead to family accounts and hence to individual species.

The passerines (perching birds) alone account for well over 5000 species. In total there are about 10,000 species of birds described worldwide, though one estimate of the real number places it at almost twice that.

Taxonomy is very fluid in the age of DNA analysis, so comments are made where appropriate, and all numbers are approximate. In particular see Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy for a very different classification.

List of birds by common name

In this list of birds by common name, a total of 9,722 extant and recently extinct bird species are recognised, belonging to a total of 204 families.

List of birds of Bhutan

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Bhutan. The avifauna of Bhutan include a total of 680 species, of which two have been introduced by humans and six are rare or accidental. Twenty-two species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Bhutan.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Bhutan

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Bhutan as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of China

This is a list of the bird species recorded in China. The avifauna of China include a total of 1314 species, of which 52 are endemic, two have been introduced by humans, and 56 species listed are accidental. Of these, 87 species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for China.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in China

(E) Endemic - a species native or restricted to China

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to China as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of India

This is a list of the bird species of India and includes extant and recently extinct species recorded within the political limits of the Republic of India as defined by the Indian government are known to have around 1266 species as of 2016, of which sixty-one are endemic to the country, one has been introduced by humans and twenty-five are rare or accidental. Two species are suspected have been extirpated in India and eighty-two species are globally threatened. The Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) is the national bird of India. This list does not cover species in Indian jurisdiction areas such as Dakshin Gangothri and oceanic species are delineated by an arbitrary cutoff distance. The list does not include fossil bird species or escapees from captivity.

Two of the most recently discovered birds of India are the Himalayan forest thrush and Bugun liocichla both discovered in Arunachal Pradesh in 2016 and 2006. Also, a few birds considered to be extinct, such as the Jerdon's courser, have been rediscovered. Several species have been elevated from subspecies to full species.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fit within any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - Also known as a rarity, it refers to a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in India-typically less than ten confirmed records.

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to India

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in India although populations exist elsewhere

(NB) Non-breeding range

List of birds of Kazakhstan

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Kazakhstan. The avifauna of Kazakhstan include a total of 513 species, of which five are rare or accidental.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Kazakhstan.

The following tag has been used to highlight accidentals. The commonly occurring native species are untagged.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Kazakhstan

List of birds of Kyrgyzstan

376 bird species have occurred in the Kyrgyz Republic.

List of birds of Mongolia

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Mongolia. The avifauna of Mongolia include a total of 427 species, of which four are rare or accidental. One species listed is extirpated in Mongolia and is not included in the species count.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Mongolia.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Mongolia

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Mongolia although populations exist elsewhere

List of birds of Myanmar

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Myanmar. The avifauna of Myanmar include a total of 1062 species, of which six are endemic, two have been introduced by humans and ten are rare or accidental. One species listed is extirpated in Myanmar and is not included in the species count. Of these, 51 species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Myanmar.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Myanmar

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Myanmar

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Myanmar as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Myanmar although populations exist elsewhere

List of birds of Nepal

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Nepal. The avifauna of Nepal include a total of about 900 species (886 species recorded) which are 9% of the total bird found in the world, of which two are endemic, one has been introduced by humans and 74 are rare or accidental. Thirty-two species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Nepal.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Nepal

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Nepal

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Nepal as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of Pakistan

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Pakistan. The avifauna of Pakistan include a total of 786 species, of which 39 are rare or accidental. One species listed is extirpated in Pakistan and is not included in the species count. The chukar (Alectoris chukar) is the official national bird of Pakistan, and the shaheen falcon is the symbolic icon of the Pakistan Air Force and Pakistan Avicultural Foundation.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) generally follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Pakistan.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Pakistan

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Pakistan but exists in other places

List of birds of Tajikistan

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Tajikistan. The avifauna of Tajikistan include a total of 353 species, none of which are introduced, accidental or endemic.This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account.

List of birds of Uzbekistan

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Uzbekistan. The avifauna of Uzbekistan include a total of 368 species, of which four are rare or accidental.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Uzbekistan.

The following tag has been used to highlight a category. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into this category.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Uzbekistan

Nameri National Park

Nameri National Park is a national park in the foothills of the eastern Himalayas in the Sonitpur District of Assam, India, about 35 km from Tezpur. Nameri is about 9 km from Chariduar, the nearest village.Nameri shares its northern boundary with the Pakhui Wildlife Sanctuary of Arunachal Pradesh. Together they constitute an area of over 1000 km2 of which Nameri has a total area of 200 km2.Nameri is also declared as Tiger Reserve in the year 1999-2000, which is the 2nd Tiger reserve of Assam after Manas Tiger Reserve. It has 2 core areas: Nameri National Park & Sonai- Rupai Wildlife Sanctuary (Satellite Core of the Nameri Tiger Reserve). The

Pakke Tiger Reserve

Pakke Tiger Reserve, also known as Pakhui Tiger Reserve, is a Project Tiger reserve in the East Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh in northeastern India. The 862 km2 (333 sq mi) reserve is protected by the Department of Environment and Forest of Arunachal Pradesh. In a notification (CWL/D/26/94/1393-1492) dated Itanagar 19 April 2001, issued by the Principal Secretary, the Governor of Arunachal Pradesh renamed Pakhui Wildlife Sanctuary as Pakke Wildlife Sanctuary Division.

This Tiger Reserve has won India Biodiversity Award 2016 in the category of 'Conservation of threatened species' for its Hornbill Nest Adoption Programme.

Wader

Waders are birds commonly found along shorelines and mudflats that wade in order to forage for food (such as insects or crustaceans) in the mud or sand. They are called shorebirds in North America, where the term "wader" is used to refer to long-legged wading birds such as storks and herons. Waders are members of the order Charadriiformes, which includes gulls, auks and their allies.

There are about 210 species of wader, most of which live in wetland or coastal environments. Many species of Arctic and temperate regions are strongly migratory, but tropical birds are often resident, or move only in response to rainfall patterns. Some of the Arctic species, such as the little stint, are amongst the longest distance migrants, spending the non-breeding season in the southern hemisphere.

Many of the smaller species found in coastal habitats, particularly but not exclusively the calidrids, are often named as "sandpipers", but this term does not have a strict meaning, since the upland sandpiper is a grassland species.

The smallest member of this group is the least sandpiper, small adults of which can weigh as little as 15.5 grams and measure just over 13 cm (5.1 in). The largest species is believed to be the Far Eastern curlew, at about 63 cm (25 in) and 860 grams (1.90 pounds), although the beach thick-knee is the heaviest at about 1 kg (2.2 lb).

In the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy, waders and many other groups are subsumed into a greatly enlarged Ciconiiformes order. However, the classification of the Charadriiformes is one of the weakest points of the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy, as DNA–DNA hybridization has turned out to be incapable of properly resolving the interrelationships of the group. Formerly, the waders were united in a single suborder Charadrii, but this has turned out to be a "wastebasket taxon", uniting no less than four charadriiform lineages in a paraphyletic assemblage. However, it indicated that the plains wanderer actually belonged into one of them. Following recent studies (Ericson et al., 2003; Paton et al., 2003; Thomas et al., 2004a, b; van Tuinen et al., 2004; Paton & Baker, 2006), the waders may be more accurately subdivided as follows:

Suborder Scolopaci

Family Scolopacidae: snipe, sandpipers, phalaropes, and allies

Suborder Thinocori

Family Rostratulidae: painted snipe

Family Jacanidae: jacanas

Family Thinocoridae: seedsnipe

Family Pedionomidae: plains wanderer

Suborder Chionidi

Family Burhinidae: thick-knees

Family Chionididae: sheathbills

Family Pluvianellidae: Magellanic plover

Suborder Charadrii

Family Ibidorhynchidae: ibisbill

Family Recurvirostridae: avocets and stilts

Family Haematopodidae: oystercatchers

Family Charadriidae: plovers and lapwingsIn keeping more in line with the traditional grouping, the Thinocori could be included in the Scolopaci, and the Chionidi in the Charadrii. However, the increasing knowledge about the early evolutionary history of modern birds suggests that the assumption of Paton et al. (2003) and Thomas et al. (2004b) of 4 distinct "wader" lineages (= suborders) already being present around the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary is correct.

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