Iberian Peninsula

The Iberian Peninsula /aɪˈbɪəriən/,[a] also known as Iberia,[b] is located in the southwest corner of Europe. The peninsula is principally divided between Spain and Portugal, comprising most of their territory. It also includes Andorra, small areas of France, and the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. With an area of approximately 596,740 square kilometres (230,400 sq mi)[1]), it is both the second largest European peninsula by area, after the Scandinavian Peninsula, and by population, after the Balkan Peninsula.

Iberian Peninsula
España y Portugal
Satellite image of the Iberian Peninsula.
Iberia (orthographic projection)
Geography
LocationSouthwestern Europe
Coordinates40°30′N 4°00′W / 40.500°N 4.000°WCoordinates: 40°30′N 4°00′W / 40.500°N 4.000°W
Area596,740 km2 (230,400 sq mi)
Highest elevation3,478 m (11,411 ft)
Highest pointMulhacén
Administration
Capital and largest townAndorra la Vella
Area covered468 km2 (181 sq mi; 0.1%)
Capital and largest cityLisbon
Area covered89,015 km2 (34,369 sq mi; 14.9%)
Capital and largest cityMadrid
Area covered492,175 km2 (190,030 sq mi; 82.5%)
Gibraltar (United Kingdom)
Capital cityGibraltar
Largest districtWestside
Area covered7 km2 (2.7 sq mi; 0%)
Largest communeFont-Romeu-Odeillo-Via
Area covered33,563 km2 (12,959 sq mi; 5.6%)
Demographics
DemonymIberian
PopulationAbout 57,2 million

Name

Iberia Europe satfoto 2014067
Iberian Peninsula and southern France, satellite photo on a cloudless day in March 2014

Greek name

The word Iberia is a noun adapted from the Latin word "Hiberia" originated by the Ancient Greek word Ἰβηρία (Ibēríā) by Greek geographers under the rule of the Roman Empire to refer to what is known today in English as the Iberian Peninsula.[2] At that time, the name did not describe a single political entity or a distinct population of people.[3] Strabo's 'Iberia' was delineated from Keltikē (Gaul) by the Pyrenees[4] and included the entire land mass southwest (he says "west") of there.[5] With the fall of the Roman Empire and the establishment of the new Castillian language in Spain, the word "Iberia" appeared for the first time in use as a direct 'descendant' of the Greek word "Ἰβηρία" and the Roman word "Hiberia".

The ancient Greeks reached the Iberian Peninsula, of which they had heard from the Phoenicians, by voyaging westward on the Mediterranean.[6] Hecataeus of Miletus was the first known to use the term Iberia, which he wrote about circa 500 BC.[7] Herodotus of Halicarnassus says of the Phocaeans that "it was they who made the Greeks acquainted with... Iberia."[8] According to Strabo,[9] prior historians used Iberia to mean the country "this side of the Ἶβηρος (Ibēros)" as far north as the river Rhône in France, but currently they set the Pyrenees as the limit. Polybius respects that limit,[10] but identifies Iberia as the Mediterranean side as far south as Gibraltar, with the Atlantic side having no name. Elsewhere[11] he says that Saguntum is "on the seaward foot of the range of hills connecting Iberia and Celtiberia."

Strabo[12] refers to the Carretanians as people "of the Iberian stock" living in the Pyrenees, who are distinct from either Celts or Celtiberians.

Roman names

According to Charles Ebel, the ancient sources in both Latin and Greek use Hispania and Hiberia (Greek: Iberia) as synonyms. The confusion of the words was because of an overlapping in political and geographic perspectives. The Latin word Hiberia, similar to the Greek Iberia, literally translates to "land of the Hiberians". This word was derived from the river Ebro, which the Romans called Hiberus. Hiber (Iberian) was thus used as a term for peoples living near the river Ebro.[4][13] The first mention in Roman literature was by the annalist poet Ennius in 200 BC.[14][15][16] Virgil refers to the Ipacatos Hiberos ("restless Iberi") in his Georgics.[17] The Roman geographers and other prose writers from the time of the late Roman Republic called the entire peninsula Hispania.

As they became politically interested in the former Carthaginian territories, the Romans began to use the names Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior for 'near' and 'far' Hispania. At the time Hispania was made up of three Roman provinces: Hispania Baetica, Hispania Tarraconensis, and Hispania Lusitania. Strabo says[9] that the Romans use Hispania and Iberia synonymously, distinguishing between the near northern and the far southern provinces. (The name "Iberia" was ambiguous, being also the name of the Kingdom of Iberia in the Caucasus.)

Whatever language may generally have been spoken on the peninsula soon gave way to Latin, except for that of the Vascones, which was preserved as a language isolate by the barrier of the Pyrenees.

Etymology

Sesars
Northeast Iberian script from Huesca.

The Iberian Peninsula has always been associated with the Ebro, Ibēros in ancient Greek and Ibērus or Hibērus in Latin. The association was so well known it was hardly necessary to state; for example, Ibēria was the country "this side of the Ibērus" in Strabo. Pliny goes so far as to assert that the Greeks had called "the whole of Spain" Hiberia because of the Hiberus River.[18] The river appears in the Ebro Treaty of 226 BC between Rome and Carthage, setting the limit of Carthaginian interest at the Ebro. The fullest description of the treaty, stated in Appian,[19] uses Ibērus. With reference to this border, Polybius[20] states that the "native name" is Ibēr, apparently the original word, stripped of its Greek or Latin -os or -us termination.

The early range of these natives, which geographers and historians place from today's southern Spain to today's southern France along the Mediterranean coast, is marked by instances of a readable script expressing a yet unknown language, dubbed "Iberian." Whether this was the native name or was given to them by the Greeks for their residence on the Ebro remains unknown. Credence in Polybius imposes certain limitations on etymologizing: if the language remains unknown, the meanings of the words, including Iber, must also remain unknown. In modern Basque, the word ibar[21] means "valley" or "watered meadow", while ibai[21] means "river", but there is no proof relating the etymology of the Ebro River with these Basque names.

Prehistory

Arte esquemático-Cigüeña
Schematic rock art from the Iberian Peninsula.
Iberia Late Bronze
Iberian Late Bronze Age since c. 1300 BC

Palaeolithic

The Iberian Peninsula has been inhabited for at least 1.2 million years as remains found in the sites in the Atapuerca Mountains demonstrate. Among these sites is the cave of Gran Dolina, where six hominin skeletons, dated between 780,000 and one million years ago, were found in 1994. Experts have debated whether these skeletons belong to the species Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis, or a new species called Homo antecessor.

Around 200,000 BP, during the Lower Paleolithic period, Neanderthals first entered the Iberian Peninsula. Around 70,000 BP, during the Middle Paleolithic period, the last glacial event began and the Neanderthal Mousterian culture was established. Around 37,000 BP, during the Upper Paleolithic, the Neanderthal Châtelperronian cultural period began. Emanating from Southern France, this culture extended into the north of the peninsula. It continued to exist until around 30,000 BP, when Neanderthal man faced extinction.

About 40,000 years ago, anatomically modern humans entered the Iberian Peninsula from Southern France.[22] Here, this genetically homogeneous population (characterized by the M173 mutation in the Y chromosome), developed the M343 mutation, giving rise to Haplogroup R1b, still the most common in modern Portuguese and Spanish males.[23] On the Iberian Peninsula, modern humans developed a series of different cultures, such as the Aurignacian, Gravettian, Solutrean and Magdalenian cultures, some of them characterized by the complex forms of the art of the Upper Paleolithic.

Neolithic

During the Neolithic expansion, various megalithic cultures developed in the Iberian Peninsula.[24] An open seas navigation culture from the east Mediterranean, called the Cardium culture, also extended its influence to the eastern coasts of the peninsula, possibly as early as the 5th millennium BC. These people may have had some relation to the subsequent development of the Iberian civilization.

Chalcolithic

In the Chalcolithic (c. 3000 BC), a series of complex cultures developed that would give rise to the peninsula's first civilizations and to extensive exchange networks reaching to the Baltic, Middle East and North Africa. Around 2800 – 2700 BC, the Beaker culture, which produced the Maritime Bell Beaker, probably originated in the vibrant copper-using communities of the Tagus estuary in Portugal and spread from there to many parts of western Europe.[25]

Bronze Age

Bronze Age cultures developed beginning c. 1800 BC,[26] when the civilization of Los Millares was followed by that of El Argar.[27][28] From this centre, bronze technology spread to other cultures like the Bronze of Levante, South-Western Iberian Bronze and Las Cogotas.

In the Late Bronze Age, the urban civilisation of Tartessos developed in the area of modern western Andalusia, characterized by Phoenician influence and using the Southwest Paleohispanic script for its Tartessian language, not related to the Iberian language.

Early in the first millennium BC, several waves of Pre-Celts and Celts migrated from Central Europe, thus partially changing the peninsula's ethnic landscape to Indo-European-speaking in its northern and western regions. In Northwestern Iberia (modern Northern Portugal, Asturias and Galicia), a Celtic culture developed, the Castro culture, with a large number of hill forts and some fortified cities.

Proto-history

By the Iron Age, starting in the 7th century BC, the Iberian Peninsula consisted of complex agrarian and urban civilizations, either Pre-Celtic or Celtic (such as the Lusitanians, Celtiberians, Gallaeci, Astures, Celtici and others), the cultures of the Iberians in the eastern and southern zones and the cultures of the Aquitanian in the western portion of the Pyrenees.

The seafaring Phoenicians, Greeks and Carthaginians successively settled along the Mediterranean coast and founded trading colonies there over a period of several centuries. Around 1100 BC, Phoenician merchants founded the trading colony of Gadir or Gades (modern day Cádiz) near Tartessos. In the 8th century BC, the first Greek colonies, such as Emporion (modern Empúries), were founded along the Mediterranean coast on the east, leaving the south coast to the Phoenicians. The Greeks coined the name Iberia, after the river Iber (Ebro). In the sixth century BC, the Carthaginians arrived in the peninsula while struggling with the Greeks for control of the Western Mediterranean. Their most important colony was Carthago Nova (modern-day Cartagena, Spain).

History

Roman rule

Conquista Hispania
Roman conquest: 220 BC - 19 BC

In 218 BC, during the Second Punic War against the Carthaginians, the first Roman troops invaded the Iberian Peninsula; however, it was not until the reign of Augustus that it was annexed after 200 years of war with the Celts and Iberians. The result was the creation of the province of Hispania. It was divided into Hispania Ulterior and Hispania Citerior during the late Roman Republic, and during the Roman Empire, it was divided into Hispania Tarraconensis in the northeast, Hispania Baetica in the south and Lusitania in the southwest.

Hispania supplied the Roman Empire with silver, food, olive oil, wine, and metal. The emperors Trajan, Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius, and Theodosius I, the philosopher Seneca the Younger, and the poets Martial and Lucan were born from families living on the Iberian Peninsula.

During their 600-year rule in the Iberian Peninsula, the Romans introduced the Latin language that influenced many of the languages that exist today in the Iberian peninsula.

Germanic kingdoms

Hispania 560 AD
Germanic and Byzantine rule c. 560

In the early fifth century, Germanic peoples invaded the peninsula, namely the Suebi, the Vandals (Silingi and Hasdingi) and their allies, the Alans. Only the kingdom of the Suebi (Quadi and Marcomanni) would endure after the arrival of another wave of Germanic invaders, the Visigoths, who conquered all of the Iberian Peninsula and expelled or partially integrated the Vandals and the Alans. The Visigoths eventually conquered the Suebi kingdom and its capital city, Bracara (modern day Braga), in 584–585. They would also conquer the province of the Byzantine Empire (552–624) of Spania in the south of the peninsula and the Balearic Islands.

Islamic Caliphate

Al Andalus & Christian Kingdoms
Islamic rule: al-Andalus c. 1000

In 711, a Muslim army invaded the Visigothic Kingdom in Hispania. Under Tariq ibn Ziyad, the Islamic army landed at Gibraltar and, in an eight-year campaign, occupied all except the northern kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula in the Umayyad conquest of Hispania. Al-Andalus (Arabic: الإندلس‎, tr. al-ʾAndalūs, possibly "Land of the Vandals"),[29][30] is the Arabic name given to what is today southern Spain by its Muslim Berber and Arab occupiers.

From the 8th–15th centuries, only the southern part of the Iberian Peninsula was part of the Islamic world. It became a center of culture and learning, especially during the Caliphate of Córdoba, which reached its height of its power under the rule of Abd-ar-Rahman III and his successor al-Hakam II.[31] The Muslims, who were initially Arabs and Berbers, included some local converts, the so-called Muladi.[32] The Muslims were referred to by the generic name, Moors[33] The Reconquista gained momentum on c. 718, when the Christian Asturians opposed the Moors.

Reconquest

Many of the ousted Gothic nobles took refuge in the unconquered north Kingdom of Asturias. From there, they aimed to reconquer their lands from the Moors; this war of reconquest is known as the Reconquista. Christian and Muslim kingdoms fought and allied among themselves. The fighting was characterised by raids into Islamic territory with the intent of destroying crops, orchards, and villages, and of killing and enslaving any Muslims they came across. Christian forces were usually better armoured than their Muslim counterparts, with noble and non-noble milites and cavallers wearing mail hauberks, separate mail coifs and metal helmets, and armed with maces, cavalry axes, sword and lances.[34]

Enrique of Transtamare kills his half-brother Pedro I, king of Leon and Castile
Henry II kills his predecessor as King of Castile and León, Peter the Cruel

During the Middle Ages, the peninsula housed many small states including the Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon, Kingdom of Navarre, Kingdom of León and the Kingdom of Portugal. The Muslims were driven out of Portugal by 1249. By the end of the 13th century, the Spanish Reconquista was largely completed.

The 14th century was a period of great internal changes in the Spanish kingdoms. After the death of Peter the Cruel of Castile (reigned 1350–69), the House of Trastámara succeeded to the throne in the person of Peter's half brother, Henry II (reigned 1369–79). In the kingdom of Aragón, following the death without heirs of John I (reigned 1387–96) and Martin I (reigned 1396–1410), a prince of the House of Trastámara, Ferdinand I (reigned 1412–16), succeeded to the Aragonese throne.[35]

During this period the Jews in Spain became very numerous and acquired great power;[36] they were not only the physicians, but also the treasurers of the kings. Don Jusaph de Ecija administered the revenues of Alfonso XI, and Samuel ha-Levi was chief favourite of Peter the Cruel. The Jews of Toledo then set on foot their migration in protest against the laws of Alfonso X (Las Siete Partidas), which prohibited the building of new synagogues.

After the accession of Henry of Trastámara to the throne, the populace, exasperated by the preponderance of Jewish influence, perpetrated a massacre of Jews at Toledo. In 1391, mobs went from town to town throughout Castile and Aragon, killing an estimated 50,000–100,000 Jews.[37][38][39][40][41][42][43] Women and children were sold as slaves to Muslims, and many synagogues were converted into churches. According to Hasdai Crescas, about 70 Jewish communities were destroyed.[44]

Iberian Kingdoms in 1400
Iberian Kingdoms in 1400

The last Muslim stronghold, Granada, was conquered by a combined Castilian and Aragonese force in 1492. As many as 100,000 Moors died or were enslaved in the military campaign, while 200,000 fled to North Africa.[45] Muslims and Jews throughout the period were variously tolerated or shown intolerance in different Christian kingdoms. After the fall of Granada, all Muslims and Jews were ordered to convert to Christianity or face expulsion—as many as 200,000 Jews were expelled from Spain.[46][47][48][49] Historian Henry Kamen estimates that some 25,000 Jews died en route from Spain.[50] The Jews were also expelled from Sicily and Sardinia, which were under Aragonese rule, and an estimated 37,000 to 100,000 Jews left.[51]

In 1497, King Manuel I of Portugal forced all Jews in his kingdom to convert or leave. That same year he expelled all Muslims that were not slaves,[52] and in 1502 the Catholic Monarchs followed suit, imposing the choice of conversion to Christianity or exile and loss of property. Many Jews and Muslims fled to North Africa and the Ottoman Empire, while others publicly converted to Christianity and became known respectively as Marranos (Spanish for pig) and Moriscos (after the old term Moors).[53] However, many of these continued to practice their religion in secret. The Moriscos revolted several times and were ultimately forcibly expelled from Spain in the early 17th century. From 1609–14, over 300,000 Moriscos were sent on ships to North Africa and other locations, and, of this figure, around 50,000 died resisting the expulsion, and 60,000 died on the journey.[54][55][56]

Carte historique des Royaumes d'Espagne et Portugal
Map of Spain and Portugal, Atlas historique, dated approximately 1705–1739, of H.A. Chatelain

Post-reconquest

The small states gradually amalgamated over time. Portugal was the exception, except for a brief period (1580–1640) during which the whole peninsula was united politically under the Iberian Union. After that point, the modern position was reached and the peninsula now consists of the countries of Spain and Portugal (excluding their islands—the Portuguese Azores and Madeira and the Spanish Canary Islands and Balearic Islands; and the Spanish exclaves of Ceuta and Melilla), Andorra, French Cerdagne and Gibraltar.

Geography and geology

The Iberian Peninsula is the westernmost of the three major southern European peninsulas—the Iberian, Italian, and Balkan.[57] It is bordered on the southeast and east by the Mediterranean Sea, and on the north, west, and southwest by the Atlantic Ocean. The Pyrenees mountains are situated along the northeast edge of the peninsula, where it adjoins the rest of Europe. Its southern tip is very close to the northwest coast of Africa, separated from it by the Strait of Gibraltar and the Mediterranean Sea.

The Iberian Peninsula extends from the southernmost extremity at Punta de Tarifa (36°00′15″N 5°36′37″W / 36.00417°N 5.61028°W) to the northernmost extremity at Punta de Estaca de Bares (43°47′38″N 7°41′17″W / 43.79389°N 7.68806°W) over a distance between lines of latitude of about 865 km (537 mi) based on a degree length of 111 km (69 mi) per degree, and from the westernmost extremity at Cabo da Roca (38°46′51″N 9°29′54″W / 38.78083°N 9.49833°W) to the easternmost extremity at Cap de Creus (42°19′09″N 3°19′19″E / 42.31917°N 3.32194°E) over a distance between lines of longitude at 40° N latitude of about 1,155 km (718 mi) based on an estimated degree length of about 90 km (56 mi) for that latitude. The irregular, roughly octagonal shape of the peninsula contained within this spherical quadrangle was compared to an ox-hide by the geographer Strabo.[58]

About three quarters of that rough octagon is the Meseta Central, a vast plateau ranging from 610 to 760 m in altitude.[59] It is located approximately in the centre, staggered slightly to the east and tilted slightly toward the west (the conventional centre of the Iberian Peninsula has long been considered Getafe just south of Madrid). It is ringed by mountains and contains the sources of most of the rivers, which find their way through gaps in the mountain barriers on all sides.

Coastline

The coastline of the Iberian Peninsula is 3,313 km (2,059 mi), 1,660 km (1,030 mi) on the Mediterranean side and 1,653 km (1,027 mi) on the Atlantic side.[60] The coast has been inundated over time, with sea levels having risen from a minimum of 115–120 m (377–394 ft) lower than today at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to its current level at 4,000 years BP.[61] The coastal shelf created by sedimentation during that time remains below the surface; however, it was never very extensive on the Atlantic side, as the continental shelf drops rather steeply into the depths. An estimated 700 km (430 mi) length of Atlantic shelf is only 10–65 km (6.2–40.4 mi) wide. At the 500 m (1,600 ft) isobath, on the edge, the shelf drops off to 1,000 m (3,300 ft).[62]

The submarine topography of the coastal waters of the Iberian Peninsula has been studied extensively in the process of drilling for oil. Ultimately, the shelf drops into the Bay of Biscay on the north (an abyss), the Iberian abyssal plain at 4,800 m (15,700 ft) on the west, and Tagus abyssal plain to the south. In the north, between the continental shelf and the abyss, is an extension called the Galicia Bank, a plateau that also contains the Porto, Vigo, and Vasco da Gama seamounts, which form the Galicia interior basin. The southern border of these features is marked by Nazaré Canyon, which splits the continental shelf and leads directly into the abyss.

Rivers

The major rivers flow through the wide valleys between the mountain systems. These are the Ebro, Douro, Tagus, Guadiana and Guadalquivir.[63][64] All rivers in the Iberian Peninsula are subject to seasonal variations in flow.

The Tagus is the longest river on the peninsula and, like the Douro, flows westwards with its lower course in Portugal. The Guadiana river bends southwards and forms the border between Spain and Portugal in the last stretch of its course.

Mountains

The terrain of the Iberian Peninsula is largely mountainous.[65] The major mountain systems are:

Geology

Geological units of the Iberian Peninsula EN
Major Geologic Units of the Iberian Peninsula

The Iberian Peninsula contains rocks of every geological period from the Ediacaran to the Recent, and almost every kind of rock is represented. World-class mineral deposits can also be found there. The core of the Iberian Peninsula consists of a Hercynian cratonic block known as the Iberian Massif. On the northeast, this is bounded by the Pyrenean fold belt, and on the southeast it is bounded by the Baetic System. These twofold chains are part of the Alpine belt. To the west, the peninsula is delimited by the continental boundary formed by the magma-poor opening of the Atlantic Ocean. The Hercynian Foldbelt is mostly buried by Mesozoic and Tertiary cover rocks to the east, but nevertheless outcrops through the Sistema Ibérico and the Catalan Mediterranean System.

Climate

The Iberian peninsula has two dominant climate types. One of these is the oceanic climate seen in the Atlantic coastal region resulting in evenly temperatures with relatively cool summers. However, most of Portugal and Spain have a mediterranean climate with various precipitation and temperatures depending on latitude and position versus the sea. There are also more localized semi-arid climates in central Spain, with temperatures resembling a more continental mediterranean climate. In other extreme cases highland alpine climates such as in Sierra Nevada and areas with extremely low precitipation and desert climates or semi-arid climates such as the Almería[69] area, Murcia area and southern Alicante area. In the Spanish interior the hottest temperatures in Europe are found, with Córdoba averaging around 37 °C (99 °F) in July.[70] The Spanish mediterranean coast usually averages around 30 °C (86 °F) in summer. In sharp contrast A Coruña at the northern tip of Galicia has a summer daytime high average at just below 23 °C (73 °F).[71] This cool and wet summer climate is replicated throughout most of the northern coastline. Winter temperatures are more consistent throughout the peninsula, although frosts are common in the Spanish interior, even though daytime highs are usually above the freezing point. In Portugal, the warmest winters of the country are found in the area of Algarve, very similar to the ones from Huelva in Spain, while most of the Portuguese Atlantic coast has fresh and humid winters, similar to Galicia.

Average temperatures for the six largest urban areas of the peninsula[72][73]
Location Coldest month April Warmest month October
Madrid 9.8 °C (49.6 °F)
2.7 °C (36.9 °F)
18.2 °C (64.8 °F)
7.7 °C (45.9 °F)
32.1 °C (89.8 °F)
19.0 °C (66.2 °F)
19.4 °C (66.9 °F)
10.7 °C (51.3 °F)
Barcelona 14.8 °C (58.6 °F)
8.8 °C (47.8 °F)
19.1 °C (66.4 °F)
12.5 °C (54.5 °F)
29.0 °C (84.2 °F)
23.1 °C (73.6 °F)
22.5 °C (72.5 °F)
16.5 °C (61.7 °F)
Valencia 16.4 °C (61.5 °F)
7.1 °C (44.8 °F)
20.8 °C (69.4 °F)
11.5 °C (52.7 °F)
30.2 °C (86.4 °F)
21.9 °C (71.4 °F)
24.4 °C (75.9 °F)
15.2 °C (59.4 °F)
Seville 16.0 °C (60.8 °F)
5.7 °C (42.3 °F)
23.4 °C (74.1 °F)
11.1 °C (52.0 °F)
36.0 °C (96.8 °F)
20.3 °C (68.5 °F)
26.0 °C (78.8 °F)
14.4 °C (57.9 °F)
Lisbon 14.8 °C (58.6 °F)
8.3 °C (46.9 °F)
19.8 °C (67.6 °F)
11.9 °C (53.4 °F)
28.3 °C (82.9 °F)
18.6 °C (65.5 °F)
22.5 °C (72.5 °F)
15.1 °C (59.2 °F)
Porto 13.8 °C (56.8 °F)
5.2 °C (41.4 °F)
18.1 °C (64.6 °F)
9.1 °C (48.4 °F)
25.7 °C (78.3 °F)
15.9 °C (60.6 °F)
20.7 °C (69.3 °F)
12.2 °C (54.0 °F)

Major modern countries

Political divisions of the Iberian Peninsula sorted by area:

Iberian Peninsula at Night - NASA Earth Observatory
Satellite image of Iberia at night
Country/
Territory
Mainland population[74] km2 sq mi % Share
Spain 43,731,572 approx.[75] 492,175 190,030 79% occupies most of the peninsula
Portugal 10,047,083 approx.[76] 89,015 34,369 15% occupies most of the west of the peninsula
France 3,191,059 33,563 12,959 6% French Cerdagne is on the south side of the Pyrenees mountain range, which runs along the border between Spain and France.[77][78][79] For example, the Segre river, which runs west and then south to meet the Ebro, has its source on the French side. The Pyrenees range is often considered the northeastern boundary of Iberian Peninsula, although the French coastline converges away from the rest of Europe north of the range.
Andorra 84,082 468 181 0.1% a northern edge of the peninsula in the south side of the Pyrenees range between Spain and France
Gibraltar (United Kingdom) 29,431 7 3 <0.1% a British overseas territory near the southernmost tip of the peninsula

Major urban areas

Urban Area Country Region Population
Madrid Spain Community of Madrid 6,321,398[80]
Barcelona Spain Catalonia 4,604,000[81]
Lisbon Portugal Lisbon 3,035,000[82]
Porto Portugal Northern Portugal 2,163,000[83]
Valencia Spain Valencian Community 1,564,145[84]

The main metropolitan areas of the Iberian Peninsula are Madrid, Barcelona, Lisbon, Valencia, Porto, Seville, Bilbao, Guimarães, Málaga, Braga, Central Asturias (Gijón-Oviedo-Avilés), Alicante-Elche, Murcia and Coimbra.

Major cities

List of cities in the Iberian Peninsula by population
City/Town Region & Country Population (2011–12) City/Town Region & Country Population (2011–12)
1 Madrid Madrid, Spain 3,233,527   11 Córdoba Andalusia, Spain 328,841
2 Barcelona Catalonia, Spain 1,620,943   12 Valladolid Castile and León, Spain 311,501
3 Valencia Valencia, Spain 809,267   13 Vigo Galicia, Spain 297,733
4 Seville Andalusia, Spain 702,355   14 Vila Nova de Gaia Norte, Portugal 288,749
5 Zaragoza Aragon, Spain 679,624   15 Gijón Asturias, Spain 277,554
6 Málaga Andalusia, Spain 567,433   16 L'Hospitalet Catalonia, Spain 257,057
7 Lisbon Lisboa, Portugal 547,631   17 A Coruña Galicia, Spain 246,146
8 Murcia Murcia, Spain 441,354   18 Vitoria-Gasteiz Basque Country, Spain 242,223
9 Bilbao Basque Country, Spain 351,629   19 Porto Norte, Portugal 237,591
10 Alicante Valencia, Spain 334,678   20 Granada Andalusia, Spain 237,540

Various other notable cities (populations given are for the cities proper not the metro areas or municipalities) are also present on the peninsula, such as: Elche (228,647) (part of the Alicante-Elche-Elda metro area), Oviedo (225,973), Badalona (220,977) and Terrassa (215 678) in Spain; and Braga (192,494), Amadora (175,558), Almada (174,030), Odivelas (144,549) and Coimbra (143,397) in Portugal.

Ecology

Forests

The woodlands of the Iberian Peninsula are distinct ecosystems. Although the various regions are each characterized by distinct vegetation, there are some similarities across the peninsula.

While the borders between these regions are not clearly defined, there is a mutual influence that makes it very hard to establish boundaries and some species find their optimal habitat in the intermediate areas.

East Atlantic flyway

The Iberian Peninsula in an important stopover on the East Atlantic flyway for birds migrating from northern Europe to Africa. For example, curlew sandpipers rest in the region of the Bay of Cádiz.[85]

In addition to the birds migrating through, some seven million wading birds from the north spend the winter in the estuaries and wetlands of the Iberian Peninsula, mainly at locations on the Atlantic coast. In Galicia are Ría de Arousa (a home of grey plover), Ria de Ortigueira, Ria de Corme and Ria de Laxe. In Portugal, the Aveiro Lagoon hosts Recurvirostra avosetta, the common ringed plover, grey plover and little stint. Ribatejo Province on the Tagus supports Recurvirostra arosetta, grey plover, dunlin, bar-tailed godwit and common redshank. In the Sado Estuary are dunlin, Eurasian curlew, grey plover and common redshank. The Algarve hosts red knot, common greenshank and turnstone. The Guadalquivir Marshes region of Andalusia and the Salinas de Cádiz are especially rich in wintering wading birds: Kentish plover, common ringed plover, sanderling, and black-tailed godwit in addition to the others. And finally, the Ebro delta is home to all the species mentioned above.[86]

Languages

With the sole exception of Basque, which is of unknown origin,[87] all modern Iberian languages descend from Vulgar Latin and belong to the Western Romance languages.[88] Throughout history (and pre-history), many different languages have been spoken in the Iberian Peninsula, contributing to the formation and differentiation of the contemporaneous languages of Iberia; however, most of them have become extinct or fallen into disuse. Basque is the only non-Indo-European surviving language in Iberia and Western Europe.[89]

In modern times, Spanish (cf. 30 to 40 million speakers), Portuguese (cf. around 10 million speakers), Catalan (cf. around 9 million speakers), Galician (cf. around 3 million speakers) and Basque (cf. around 1 million speakers)[90] are the most widely spoken languages in the Iberian Peninsula. Spanish and Portuguese have expanded beyond Iberia to the rest of world, becoming global languages.

Economy

Major industries include mining, tourism, small farms, and fishing. Because the coast is so long, fishing is popular, especially sardines, tuna and anchovies. Most of the mining occurs in the Pyrenees mountains. Commodities mined include: iron, gold, coal, lead, silver, zinc, and salt.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ In the local languages:
    • Spanish, Portuguese, Galician and Asturian: Península Ibérica (mostly rendered in lowercase in Spanish: península ibérica)
      • Spanish: [peˈninsula iˈβeɾika] (the same in Asturian)
      • Portuguese: [pɨˈnĩsulɐ iˈβɛɾikɐ]
      • Galician: [peˈninsʊlɐ iˈβɛɾikɐ]
    • Catalan: Península Ibèrica
      • Eastern Catalan: [pəˈninsulə iˈβɛɾikə]
    • Aragonese and Occitan: Peninsula Iberica
      • Aragonese: [peninˈsula iβeˈɾika]
      • Occitan: [peninˈsylɔ iβeˈɾikɔ; -beˈʀi-]
    • French: Péninsule Ibérique [penɛ̃syl ibeʁik]
    • Mirandese: Península Eibérica [p?ˈnĩsulɐ ejˈβɛɾikɐ]
    • Basque: Iberiar penintsula [iβeɾiar penints̺ula]
  2. ^ In the local languages:
    • Spanish, Aragonese, Asturian and Galician: Iberia
      • Spanish: [iˈβeɾja] (the same in Aragonese and Asturian)
      • Galician: [iˈβɛɾjɐ]
    • Portuguese and Mirandese: Ibéria
      • Portuguese: [iˈβɛɾiɐ]
      • Mirandese: [iˈβɛɾiɐ]
    • Catalan and Occitan: Ibèria
      • Eastern Catalan: [iˈβɛɾiə]
      • Occitan: [iˈβɛɾiɔ; -ˈbɛʀi-]
    • French: Ibérie [ibeʁi]
    • Basque: Iberia [iβeɾia]

References

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  8. ^ Herodotus (1827). The nine books of the History of Herodotus, tr. from the text of T. Gaisford, with notes and a summary by P.E. Laurent. p. 75.
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  70. ^ "Standard climate values for Córdoba". Aemet.es. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
  71. ^ "Standard climate values for A Coruña". Aemet.es. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
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  75. ^ Census data , "Official Spanish census"
  76. ^ Census data , "Portuguese census department"
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  82. ^ http://www.demographia.com/db-worldua.pdf Demographia: World Urban Areas
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  84. ^ "Urban Audit - CityProfiles". Archived from the original on 26 June 2008. Retrieved 9 April 2009.
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  87. ^ "El misterioso origen del euskera, el idioma más antiguo de Europa". Semana (in Spanish). 18 September 2017. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
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External links

Albarrana tower

An Albarrana tower (from the Arabic word barrani = exterior) is a defensive tower detached from the curtain wall and connected to it by a bridge or an arcade.They were built by Muslims when they occupied the Iberian Peninsula between the 8th and the 15th centuries, especially from the 12th century during the Almohad dynasty and mainly in the south of Spain and Portugal where the Islamic influence was the longest. In Spanish, they are called torre albarrana.The towers of typical appearance, with a square section, were built several meters in front of the curtain wall. They were accessible by a bridge walkway from the curtain wall. More often, the bridge had a removable wooden section allowing the tower to be isolated from the wall if the tower is occupied by attacking forces. The earliest Albarrana towers were often pentagonal or octagonal in plan (e.g. Badajoz, Tarifa, Seville) but a more rectangular plan became the norm. In France and the north of Europe, flanking towers remained a part of the wall. Even the keep were sometimes built as a part of the wall instead of inside the yard at the center of the castle. They were philippian towers.The main albarrana towers are :

Torre de Espantaperros in Badajoz, Spain. Probably the first albarrana tower, built by Abu Yaqub Yusuf in 1170. Its plan is octagonal.

Torre del Oro, Torre de la Plata in Sevilla

Torre de la Malmuerta in Cordoba

Town of Talavera de la Reina near Toledo with several albarrana towers

Òdena castle near Barcelona

Castle of Paderne in Portugal

2 albarrana towers in the Santa Catalina castle in Jaén

Castle of Loulé in PortugalAlbarrana towers are almost uniquely confined in the Iberian Peninsula. In the other parts of the medieval Muslim world this defensive feature seems not to be used.

Possibly the only example of a true Albarrana tower in England can be found at Pontefract Castle. The castle now lies in ruins, but one Albarrana tower called Swillington Tower is visible on the models of the castle and the remains of the tower itself can be seen to the north of the castle.

Alcazaba

An alcazaba (Spanish: [alkaˈθaβa], Galician: [alkaˈθaβɐ]), alcáçova (Portuguese: [ɐɫˈkasuvɐ]) or alcassaba (Catalan: [əlkəˈsaβə]) is a Moorish fortification in Spain and Portugal. The word derives from the Arabic word القصبة (al-qasbah), a walled-fortification in a city.

Alcázar

An alcázar (English: ; see below) is a type of Moorish castle or palace in Spain and Portugal built during Muslim rule, although some were founded by Christians and others were built on earlier Roman or Visigothic fortifications. Most of the alcázars were built between the 8th and 15th centuries. Many cities in Spain have an alcázar. The term is sometimes used as a synonym for "castillo" or castle; palaces or forts built by Christian rulers were also often called alcázars.

Bastetani

The Bastetani or Bastuli were an ancient Iberian (pre-Roman) people of the Iberian peninsula (the Roman Hispania). They are believed to have spoken the Iberian language.Their territory extended through present-day the south part of Albacete, Almería, Granada, the eastern part of Málaga, and the southeastern part of Jaén, as well as the western part of the Murcia Region in the southeastern region of the Iberian Peninsula. Their main towns were from Baria, present-day Villaricos, to Bailo (Cádiz), as well as Malaka, Abdera, Sexi and Carteia.

Bletonesii

The Bletonesii were one of the pre-Roman Celtic peoples of the Iberian Peninsula (the Roman Hispania, modern Spain and Portugal), dwelling around the city of Bletisa or Bletisama, located in modern Ledesma in the province of Salamanca, Spain. They were punished by the Romans for practicing human sacrifice. If the placement in Bletisa is correct, they lived near (or they were part of) the Vettones.

Celtiberians

The Celtiberians were a group of Celts or Celticized peoples inhabiting the central-eastern Iberian Peninsula during the final centuries BC. They were explicitly mentioned as being Celts by several classic authors (e.g. Strabo). These tribes spoke the Celtiberian language and wrote it by adapting the Iberian alphabet. The numerous inscriptions that have been discovered, some of them extensive, have allowed scholars to classify the Celtiberian language as a Celtic language, one of the Hispano-Celtic (also known as Iberian Celtic) languages that were spoken in pre-Roman and early Roman Iberia. Archaeologically, many elements link Celtiberians with Celts in Central Europe, but also show large differences with both the Hallstatt culture and La Tène culture.

There is no complete agreement on the exact definition of Celtiberians among classical authors, nor modern scholars. The Ebro river clearly divides the Celtiberian areas from non-Indo-European speaking peoples. In other directions, the demarcation is less clear. Most scholars include the Arevaci, Pellendones, Belli, Titti and Lusones as Celtiberian tribes, and occasionally the Berones, Vaccaei, Carpetani, Olcades or Lobetani.

Edetani

The Edetani were an ancient Iberian (Pre-Roman) people of the Iberian peninsula (the Roman Hispania). They are believed to have spoken a form of the Iberian language.

Forests of the Iberian Peninsula

The woodlands of the Iberian Peninsula are distinct ecosystems on the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal). Although the various regions are each characterized by distinct vegetation, the borders between these regions are not clearly defined, and there are some similarities across the peninsula.

Germani (Oretania)

The Germani were an obscure pre-Roman ancient people of the Iberian Peninsula which settled around the 4th century BC in western Oretania, an ancient region corresponding to the south of Ciudad Real and the eastern tip of Badajoz provinces.

Hispania

Hispania (; Latin: [hɪsˈpaːnia]) was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula and its provinces. Under the Republic, Hispania was divided into two provinces: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. During the Principate, Hispania Ulterior was divided into two new provinces, Baetica and Lusitania, while Hispania Citerior was renamed Hispania Tarraconensis. Subsequently, the western part of Tarraconensis was split off, first as Hispania Nova, later renamed "Callaecia" (or Gallaecia, whence modern Galicia). From Diocletian's Tetrarchy (AD 284) onwards, the south of remaining Tarraconensis was again split off as Carthaginensis, and probably then too the Balearic Islands and all the resulting provinces formed one civil diocese under the vicarius for the Hispaniae (that is, the Celtic provinces). The name, Hispania, was also used in the period of Visigothic rule.

The modern placenames Spain and Hispaniola are both derived from Hispania.

Iberians

The Iberians (Latin: Hibērī, from Greek: Ίβηρες, Iberes) were a set of people that Greek and Roman sources (among others, Hecataeus of Miletus, Avienus, Herodotus and Strabo) identified with that name in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian peninsula, at least from the 6th century BC. The Roman sources also use the term Hispani to refer to the Iberians.

The term Iberian, as used by the ancient authors, had two distinct meanings. One, more general, referred to all the populations of the Iberian peninsula without regard to ethnic differences (Pre-Indo-European, Celts and non-Celtic Indo-Europeans). The other, more restricted ethnic sense, refers to the people living in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian Peninsula, which by the 6th century BC had absorbed cultural influences from the Phoenicians and the Greeks. This pre-Indo-European cultural group spoke the Iberian language from the 7th to the 1st century BC.

Other peoples possibly related to the Iberians are the Vascones, though more related to the Aquitani than to the Iberians. The rest of the peninsula, in the northern, central, northwestern, western and southwestern areas, was inhabited by Celts or Celtiberians groups and the possibly Pre-Celtic or Proto-Celtic Indo-European Lusitanians, Vettones, and the Turdetani.

List of the Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula

This is a list of the Pre-Roman people of the Iberian peninsula (the Roman Hispania, i. e., modern Portugal, Spain and Andorra). Some closely fit the concept of a people, ethnic group or tribe. Others are confederations or even unions of tribes.

Lusones

The Lusones (Greek: Lousones) were an ancient Celtiberian (Pre-Roman) people of the Iberian Peninsula (the Roman Hispania), who lived in the high Tajuña River valley, northeast of Guadalajara. They were eliminated by the Romans as a significant threat in the end of the 2nd century BC.

Plentauri

The Plentauri or Pleutauri (Greek: Pleutauroi) was a small, pre-Roman mountain people of the Iberian peninsula mentioned briefly by Strabo and Ptolemy who placed them in the Ebro sources area close to the Cantabrian range, roughly corresponding today to northwestern La Rioja.

Reconquista

The Reconquista (Spanish and Portuguese for "reconquest") is a name used in English to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1491. The completed conquest of Granada was the context of the Spanish voyages of discovery and conquest (Columbus got royal support in Granada in 1492, months after its conquest), and the Americas—the "New World"—ushered in the era of the Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires.

Traditional historiography has marked the beginning of the Reconquista with the Battle of Covadonga (718 or 722), the first known victory in Iberia by Christian military forces since the 711 military intervention in Iberia of combined Arab-Berber forces. In that small battle, a group led by the nobleman Pelagius defeated a Muslim patrol in the mountains of northern Iberia and established the independent Christian Kingdom of Asturias. The taifas of al-Andalus tried to prevent the Christian threats from the north by paying them parias (a form of tribute). After a Muslim resurgence in the 12th century the great Moorish strongholds in the south fell to Christian forces in the 13th century—Córdoba in 1236 and Seville in 1248—leaving only the Muslim enclave of Granada as a tributary state in the south.

After 1491, the entire peninsula was controlled by Christian rulers. The conquest was followed by the Alhambra Decree (1492) which expelled Jews who would not convert to Christianity from Castile and Aragon, and a series of edicts (1499–1526) which forced the conversions of the Muslims in Spain, although later a significant part of them was expelled from the Iberian Peninsula.The concept of Reconquista, consolidated in Spanish historiography in the second half of the 19th century, was associated with the development of a Spanish national identity, emphasizing nationalistic and romantic, and occasionally, colonialist, aspects.

Rock art of the Iberian Mediterranean Basin

The group of over 700 sites of prehistoric Rock art of the Iberian Mediterranean Basin, also known as Levantine art, were collectively declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1998. The sites are in the eastern part of Spain and contain rock art dating to the Upper Paleolithic or (more likely) Mesolithic periods of the Stone Age. The art consists of small painted figures of humans and animals, which are the most advanced and widespread surviving from this period, certainly in Europe, and arguably in the world, at least in the earlier works. It is notable for the number of places included, the largest concentration of such art in Europe. Its name refers to the Mediterranean Basin; however, while some sites are located near the sea, many of them are inland in Aragon and Castilla–La Mancha; it is also often referred to as Levantine Art (meaning "from Eastern Spain", not the Levant region).

Timeline of the Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula

This is a timeline of notable events during the period of Muslim presence in Iberia, starting with the Umayyad conquest in the 8th century.

Umayyad conquest of Hispania

The Umayyad conquest of Hispania was the initial expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate over Hispania, largely extending from 711 to 788. The conquest resulted in the destruction of the Visigothic Kingdom and the establishment of the independent Emirate of Córdoba under Abd ar-Rahman I, who completed the unification of Muslim-ruled Iberia, or al-Andalus (756–788). The conquest marks the westernmost expansion of both the Umayyad Caliphate and Muslim rule into Europe.

During the caliphate of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I, forces led by Tariq ibn Ziyad disembarked in early 711 in Gibraltar at the head of an army consisting of Berbers (north-western Africa).

He campaigned his way northward after the decisive Battle of Guadalete against the usurper Roderic, after which he was reinforced by an Arab force led by his superior wali Musa ibn Nusair. By 717, the combined Arab-Berber force had crossed the Pyrenees into Septimania and Provence (734).

Vettones

The Vettones (Greek: Ouettones) were a pre-Roman people of the Iberian Peninsula of possibly Celtic ethnicity.

Mountain systems of the Iberian Peninsula

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