Ian Stuart Donaldson (11 August 1957 – 24 September 1993), also known as Ian Stuart, was a white supremacist musician from Poulton-le-Fylde, Lancashire. He was best known as the frontman of Skrewdriver, an English punk rock band which, from 1982 onwards, he rebranded as a white power rock band. He raised money through white power concerts with his Blood and Honour network.
Donaldson attended Baines School in Poulton, where he met Sean McKay, Phil Walmsley, and John Grinton. They formed the cover band Tumbling Dice, who played songs by the Rolling Stones and other bands. In 1975, they formed Skrewdriver, a band that gained a reputation for attracting violence at their concerts.
After the original Skrewdriver lineup parted ways in 1979, Donaldson formed a new lineup and began to write songs for a white power audience. The new version of Skrewdriver openly promoted far-right groups such as the National Front and raised funds for them (and affiliated organisations) through the White Noise Records label. Skrewdriver became known for its involvement in the white nationalist movement and its associated music genre, Rock Against Communism. In 1987, Donaldson founded Blood and Honour, a neo-Nazi network that distributes white power music and organises concerts.
Donaldson also became leader of two other bands, the Klansmen (a rockabilly band) and White Diamond (a hard rock/heavy metal band), and he released several solo albums. Along with Skrewdriver guitarist Stigger (Stephen Calladine), he recorded the albums Patriotic Ballads volumes 1 and 2, which included covers of traditional folk songs such as "The Green Fields of France". Donaldson's voice also appeared in the song "The Invisible Empire" (whose title refers to the Ku Klux Klan) on the 1989 album See you in Valhalla by neo-Nazi rock band No Remorse.
Ian Stuart Donaldson
|Birth name||Ian Stuart Donaldson|
|Also known as||Ian Stuart|
|Born||11 August 1957|
Poulton-le-Fylde, Lancashire, England
|Origin||Blackpool, Lancashire, England|
|Died||24 September 1993 (aged 36)|
|Genres||White power rock|
Rock Against Communism
|Occupation(s)||Musician, singer, songwriter|
|Instruments||Vocals, electric guitar, acoustic guitar, piano|
|Associated acts||Skrewdriver, Stigger, Rough Justice, Tumbling Dice, The Klansmen, White Diamond|
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.In vertebrates, it is composed of blood cells suspended in blood plasma. Plasma, which constitutes 55% of blood fluid, is mostly water (92% by volume), and contains proteins, glucose, mineral ions, hormones, carbon dioxide (plasma being the main medium for excretory product transportation), and blood cells themselves. Albumin is the main protein in plasma, and it functions to regulate the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. The blood cells are mainly red blood cells (also called RBCs or erythrocytes), white blood cells (also called WBCs or leukocytes) and platelets (also called thrombocytes). The most abundant cells in vertebrate blood are red blood cells. These contain hemoglobin, an iron-containing protein, which facilitates oxygen transport by reversibly binding to this respiratory gas and greatly increasing its solubility in blood. In contrast, carbon dioxide is mostly transported extracellularly as bicarbonate ion transported in plasma.
Vertebrate blood is bright red when its hemoglobin is oxygenated and dark red when it is deoxygenated. Some animals, such as crustaceans and mollusks, use hemocyanin to carry oxygen, instead of hemoglobin. Insects and some mollusks use a fluid called hemolymph instead of blood, the difference being that hemolymph is not contained in a closed circulatory system. In most insects, this "blood" does not contain oxygen-carrying molecules such as hemoglobin because their bodies are small enough for their tracheal system to suffice for supplying oxygen.
Jawed vertebrates have an adaptive immune system, based largely on white blood cells. White blood cells help to resist infections and parasites. Platelets are important in the clotting of blood. Arthropods, using hemolymph, have hemocytes as part of their immune system.
Blood is circulated around the body through blood vessels by the pumping action of the heart. In animals with lungs, arterial blood carries oxygen from inhaled air to the tissues of the body, and venous blood carries carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism produced by cells, from the tissues to the lungs to be exhaled.
Medical terms related to blood often begin with hemo- or hemato- (also spelled haemo- and haemato-) from the Greek word αἷμα (haima) for "blood". In terms of anatomy and histology, blood is considered a specialized form of connective tissue, given its origin in the bones and the presence of potential molecular fibers in the form of fibrinogen.Nordic Thunder
Nordic Thunder was an American neo-nazi Rock Against Communism band formed in Delaware. On 30 September 1994, after a memorial festival for Ian Stuart Donaldson hosted by Resistance Records, the lead singer, Joe Rowan, was murdered by a group of black youth. Rowan subsequently became a martyr for the white power movement in America. Bands that have been influenced by Nordic Thunder include Excessive Force, which was formed in Toronto in July 1993.Skrewdriver
Skrewdriver were a British neo-Nazi, RAC band formed by Ian Stuart Donaldson in Poulton-le-Fylde, Lancashire in 1976. Originally a non-racist punk band that was very influential to later Oi! bands, Skrewdriver changed into a white supremacist rock band after reuniting in the 1980s. Their original line-up split in January 1979 and Donaldson reformed the band with different musicians in 1982. The new version of the band played a leading role in the Rock Against Communism movement.