Ian Horrocks

Ian Robert Horrocks FRS[4] is a Professor of Computer Science at the University of Oxford in the UK and a Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford.[6] His research[5][7][8] focuses on knowledge representation and reasoning, particularly ontology languages,[9] description logic and optimised tableaux decision procedures.[10][11][12]

Ian Horrocks
Ian Horrocks mg 7439
Ian Horrocks
Ian Robert Horrocks

11 March 1958 (age 60)[1]
Alma materUniversity of Manchester
Known for
Scientific career
ThesisOptimising tableaux decision procedures for description logics (1997)


Horrocks completed his Bachelor of Science, Master of Science (1995)[13] and Doctor of Philosophy (1997)[14] degrees in the School of Computer Science at the University of Manchester. After several years as a lecturer, senior lecturer, Reader then Professor in Manchester, he moved to the University of Oxford in 2008.


His work on tableau reasoning for very expressive description logics has formed the basis of most description logic reasoning systems in use today, including Racer, FaCT++,[15] HermiT[16][17][18] and Pellet.[19]

Professor Horrocks was jointly responsible for development of the OIL and DAML+OIL ontology languages, and he played a central role in the development of the Web Ontology Language OWL. These languages and associated tools have been used by the Open Biomedical Ontologies[20] Consortium, the National Cancer Institute in America, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization the World Wide Web Consortium[21] and a whole range of major corporations and government agencies.[4]

His research is partly funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC).[22]

Horrocks is the current Editor-in-chief of the Journal of Web Semantics[23] and has been program chair for the International Semantic Web Conference.

Awards and honours

Horrocks was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 2011[4] and the BCS Roger Needham Award in 2005.[3]


  1. ^ HORROCKS, Prof. Ian Robert. ukwhoswho.com. Who's Who. 2014 (online edition via Oxford University Press ed.). A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc. closed access publication – behind paywall (subscription required)
  2. ^ Grosof, B. N.; Horrocks, I.; Volz, R.; Decker, S. (2003). "Description logic programs". Proceedings of the twelfth international conference on World Wide Web - WWW '03. p. 48. doi:10.1145/775152.775160. ISBN 1581136803.
  3. ^ a b Professor Ian Horrocks, Roger Needham award winners, via the British Computer Society
  4. ^ a b c d Professor Ian Horrocks FRS at the Royal Society of London
  5. ^ a b Ian Horrocks publications indexed by Google Scholar
  6. ^ http://www.cs.ox.ac.uk/people/ian.horrocks/ Ian Horrocks homepage at the University of Oxford
  7. ^ Ian Horrocks at DBLP Bibliography Server Edit this at Wikidata
  8. ^ List of publications from Microsoft Academic
  9. ^ Horrocks, I.; Patel-Schneider, Peter; van Harmelen, Frank (2003). "From SHIQ and RDF to OWL: The making of a Web Ontology Language" (PDF). Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web. 1: 7–26. doi:10.1016/j.websem.2003.07.001.
  10. ^ Ian Horrocks's publications indexed by the Scopus bibliographic database. (subscription required)
  11. ^ Ian Horrocks author profile page at the ACM Digital Library
  12. ^ Atzenbeck, C. (2009). "Interview with Ian Horrocks". ACM SIGWEB Newsletter: 1. doi:10.1145/1592394.1592396.
  13. ^ Horrocks, Ian Robert (1995). A comparison of two terminological knowledge representation systems (MSc thesis). University of Manchester. Archived from the original on 2012-12-23.
  14. ^ Horrocks, Ian Robert (1997). Optimising tableaux decision procedures for description logics (PDF) (PhD thesis). University of Manchester.
  15. ^ Tsarkov, D.; Horrocks, I. (2006). "FaCT++ Description Logic Reasoner: System Description". Automated Reasoning (PDF). Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 4130. pp. 292–297. doi:10.1007/11814771_26. ISBN 978-3-540-37187-8.
  16. ^ "HermiT Reasoner: Home". Retrieved 2 July 2011.
  17. ^ B. Motik, R. Shearer and I. Horrocks (2009). "Hypertableau Reasoning for Description Logics" (PDF). Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research. 36: 165–228. doi:10.1613/jair.2811.
  18. ^ Motik, B.; Cuenca Grau, B.; Sattler, U. (2008). "Structured objects in owl: representation and reasoning". Proceedings of the 17th international conference on World Wide Web - WWW '08 (PDF). p. 555. doi:10.1145/1367497.1367573. ISBN 9781605580852.
  19. ^ Sirin, E.; Parsia, B.; Grau, B. C.; Kalyanpur, A.; Katz, Y. (2007). "Pellet: A practical OWL-DL reasoner" (PDF). Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web. 5 (2): 51–53. doi:10.1016/j.websem.2007.03.004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 June 2007.
  20. ^ Golbreich, C.; Horridge, M.; Horrocks, I.; Motik, B.; Shearer, R. (2007). "OBO and OWL: Leveraging Semantic Web Technologies for the Life Sciences". The Semantic Web (PDF). Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 4825. pp. 169–182. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-76298-0_13. ISBN 978-3-540-76297-3.
  21. ^ Ian Horrocks introduction on the www-webont-wg mailing list at the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
  22. ^ UK Government research grants awarded to Ian Horrocks, via Research Councils UK
  23. ^ Ian Horrocks appointed editor in chief of the Journal of Web Semantics, 1 July 2012
Alan Rector

Alan L. Rector is a Professor of Medical Informatics in the School of Computer Science at the University of Manchester in the UK.

Department of Computer Science, University of Oxford

The Department of Computer Science is the computer science department of the University of Oxford, England, which is part of the university's Mathematical, Physical and Life Sciences Division. It was founded in 1957 as the Computing Laboratory. By 2014 the staff count was 52 members of academic staff and over 80 research staff. The 2015 QS World University Subject Rankings places Oxford 3rd in the world for Computer Science (after MIT & Stanford) and 1st in Europe with Cambridge in 7th. Oxford is also the top university for computer science in the UK and Europe according to Business Insider and was ranked 2nd for Computer Science and Information Systems (after Cambridge) in the 2016 Guardian University league tables.

Description logic

Description logics (DL) are a family of formal knowledge representation languages. Many DLs are more expressive than propositional logic but less expressive than first-order logic. In contrast to the latter, the core reasoning problems for DLs are (usually) decidable, and efficient decision procedures have been designed and implemented for these problems. There are general, spatial, temporal, spatiotemporal, and fuzzy descriptions logics, and each description logic features a different balance between DL expressivity and reasoning complexity by supporting different sets of mathematical constructors.DLs are used in artificial intelligence to describe and reason about the relevant concepts of an application domain (known as terminological knowledge). It is of particular importance in providing a logical formalism for ontologies and the Semantic Web: the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and its profile is based on DLs. The most notable application of DLs and OWL is in biomedical informatics where DL assists in the codification of biomedical knowledge.

George Boddy

Air Commodore George Michael Boddy, was a senior Royal Air Force officer in the 1980s and the Commandant Royal Observer Corps.


Horrocks may refer to

Ian Horrocks (RAF officer)

Air Commodore Ian Horrocks (died 10 June 2014) was a Royal Air Force helicopter pilot, a senior Royal Air Force officer in the 1970s and 1980s and a Commandant Royal Observer Corps. Horrocks was the Station Commander of RAF Shawbury from 1978 to 1980.Horrocks retired as an air commodore. He died on 10 June 2014.

Jack Broughton (RAF officer)

Air Commodore Jack Broughton, is a retired senior Royal Air Force officer. A navigator, he obtained senior rank in the 1970s and 1980s and was Commandant Royal Observer Corps from 1984 to 1986. Broughton was the Station Commander of RAF West Drayton from 1978 to 1980.

List of Fellows of the Royal Society G, H, I

About 8,000 Fellows have been elected to the Royal Society of London since its inception in 1660.

Below is a list of people who are or were Fellows or Foreign Members of the Royal Society.

The date of election to the Fellowship follows the name.

Dates in brackets relate to an award or event associated with the person.

The Society maintains complete online list. This list is complete up to and including 2018.

List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 2011

Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 2011.

March 11

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Ontology Inference Layer

OIL (Ontology Inference Layer or Ontology Interchange Language) can be regarded as an ontology infrastructure for the Semantic Web. OIL is based on concepts developed in Description Logic (DL) and frame-based systems and is compatible with RDFS.

OIL was developed by Dieter Fensel, Frank van Harmelen (Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam) and Ian Horrocks (University of Manchester) as part of the IST OntoKnowledge project.

Much of the work in OIL was subsequently incorporated into DAML+OIL and the Web Ontology Language (OWL).

Pat Hayes

Patrick John Hayes FAAAI (born 21 August 1944) is a British computer scientist who lives and works in the United States. As of March 2006, he is a Senior Research Scientist at the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition in Pensacola, Florida.

Roger Needham Award

The British Computer Society, in 2004, established an annual Roger Needham Award in honour of Roger Needham. It is a £5000 prize is presented to an individual for making "a distinguished research contribution in computer science by a UK-based researcher within ten years of their PhD." The award is funded by Microsoft Research. The winner of the prize has an opportunity to give a public lecture. A list of previous recipients follows.

2004 Jane Hillston on Tuning Systems: From Composition to Performance

2005 Ian Horrocks on Ontologies and the Semantic Web

2006 Andrew Fitzgibbon on Computer Vision & the Geometry of Nature

2007 Mark Handley on Evolving the Internet: Challenges, Opportunities and Consequences

2008 Wenfei Fan on A Revival of Data Dependencies for Improving Data Quality

2009 Byron Cook on Proving that programs eventually do something good

2010 Joël Ouaknine on Timing is Everything

2011 Maja Pantić on Machine Understanding of Human Behaviour

2012 Dino Distefano on Memory Safety Proofs for the Masses

2013 Boris Motik on Theory and Practice: The Yin and Yang of Intelligent Information Systems

2014 Natasa Przulj on Mining Biological Networks

2015 Niloy Mitra on Linking Form and Function, Computationally

2016 Sharon Goldwater on Language Learning in Humans and Machines: Making Connections to Make Progress

2017 Alastair Donaldson on Many-Core Programming: How to Go Really Fast Without Crashing

2018 Alexandra Silva

School of Computer Science, University of Manchester

The School of Computer Science at the University of Manchester is the longest established school of Computer Science in the United Kingdom and one of the largest. It is located in the Kilburn building (and the attached IT Building) on the Oxford Road and currently has over 800 students taking a wide range of undergraduate and postgraduate courses and 60 full-time academic staff.

Semantic Web Rule Language

The Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) is a proposed language for the Semantic Web that can be used to express rules as well as logic, combining OWL DL or OWL Lite with a subset of the Rule Markup Language (itself a subset of Datalog).The specification was submitted in May 2004 to the W3C by the National Research Council of Canada, Network Inference (since acquired by webMethods), and Stanford University in association with the Joint US/EU ad hoc Agent Markup Language Committee. The specification was based on an earlier proposal for an OWL rules language.SWRL has the full power of OWL DL, but at the price of decidability and practical implementations.

However, decidability can be regained by restricting the form of admissible rules, typically by imposing a suitable safety condition.

Rules are of the form of an implication between an antecedent (body) and consequent (head). The intended meaning can be read as: whenever the conditions specified in the antecedent hold, then the conditions specified in the consequent must also hold.

Semantic reasoner

A semantic reasoner, reasoning engine, rules engine, or simply a reasoner, is a piece of software able to infer logical consequences from a set of asserted facts or axioms. The notion of a semantic reasoner generalizes that of an inference engine, by providing a richer set of mechanisms to work with. The inference rules are commonly specified by means of an ontology language, and often a description logic language. Many reasoners use first-order predicate logic to perform reasoning; inference commonly proceeds by forward chaining and backward chaining. There are also examples of probabilistic reasoners, including Pei Wang's non-axiomatic reasoning system, and probabilistic logic networks.

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Web Ontology Language

The Web Ontology Language (OWL) is a family of knowledge representation languages for authoring ontologies. Ontologies are a formal way to describe taxonomies and classification networks, essentially defining the structure of knowledge for various domains: the nouns representing classes of objects and the verbs representing relations between the objects. Ontologies resemble class hierarchies in object-oriented programming but there are several critical differences. Class hierarchies are meant to represent structures used in source code that evolve fairly slowly (typically monthly revisions) whereas ontologies are meant to represent information on the Internet and are expected to be evolving almost constantly. Similarly, ontologies are typically far more flexible as they are meant to represent information on the Internet coming from all sorts of heterogeneous data sources. Class hierarchies on the other hand are meant to be fairly static and rely on far less diverse and more structured sources of data such as corporate databases.The OWL languages are characterized by formal semantics. They are built upon the World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C) XML standard for objects called the Resource Description Framework (RDF). OWL and RDF have attracted significant academic, medical and commercial interest.

In October 2007, a new W3C working group was started to extend OWL with several new features as proposed in the OWL 1.1 member submission. W3C announced the new version of OWL on 27 October 2009. This new version, called OWL 2, soon found its way into semantic editors such as Protégé and semantic reasoners such as Pellet, RacerPro, FaCT++ and HermiT.The OWL family contains many species, serializations, syntaxes and specifications with similar names. OWL and OWL2 are used to refer to the 2004 and 2009 specifications, respectively. Full species names will be used, including specification version (for example, OWL2 EL). When referring more generally, OWL Family will be used.

Why Hasn't Everything Already Disappeared?

Why Hasn't Everything Already Disappeared? is the eighth studio album by the American indie rock band Deerhunter. It was released on January 18, 2019 on 4AD. The album was co-produced by singer-songwriter Cate Le Bon, Ben H. Allen (who had previously worked with the band on Halcyon Digest and Fading Frontier), Ben Etter (who worked as a studio assistant on Fading Frontier) and the band itself. The first single, "Death in Midsummer", was released on October 30, 2018. The same day, a world tour in support of the album was announced, starting in November 4, 2018. The second single from the album, "Element", was released on December 6, 2018. The album leaked on December 12, 2018.

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