ISO 9

The ISO international standard ISO 9 establishes a system for the transliteration into Latin characters of Cyrillic characters constituting the alphabets of many Slavic and non-Slavic languages.[1]

Published on February 23, 1995,[2] the major advantage ISO 9 has over other competing systems is its univocal system of one character for one character equivalents (by the use of diacritics), which faithfully represents the original spelling and allows for reverse transliteration, even if the language is unknown.

Earlier versions of the standard, ISO/R 9:1954, ISO/R 9:1968 and ISO 9:1986, were more closely based on the international scholarly system for linguistics (scientific transliteration), but have diverged in favour of unambiguous transliteration over phonemic representation. The edition of 1995 supersedes the edition of 1986.[1]

ISO 9:1995

[3] The standard features three mapping tables: the first covers contemporary Slavic languages, the second older Slavic orthographies (excluding letters from the first), and the third non-Slavic languages (including most letters from the first). Several Cyrillic characters included in ISO 9 are not available as pre-composed characters in Unicode, neither are some of the transliterations; combining diacritical marks have to be used in these cases. Unicode, on the other hand, includes some historic characters that are not dealt with in ISO 9.

Transliteration table

The following combined table shows characters for various Slavic, Iranian, Romance, Turkic, Uralic, Mongolic, Caucasian, Tungusic, Paleosiberian and other languages of the former USSR which are written in Cyrillic.

ISO 9:1995
Cyrillic Latin
Char Char Unicode Description
А а A a
Ӓ ӓ Ä ä 00C4 00E4 a diaeresis
Ӓ̄ ӓ̄ Ạ̈ ạ̈ 00C4+0323 00E4+0323 a diaeresis and dot below
Ӑ ӑ Ă ă 0102 0103 a breve
А̄ а̄ Ā ā 0100 0101 a macron
Ӕ ӕ Æ æ 00C6 00E6 ae ligature
А́ а́ Á á 00C1 00E1 a acute
А̊ а̊ Å å 00C5 00E5 a ring
Б б B b
В в V v
Г г G g
Ѓ ѓ Ǵ ǵ 01F4 01F5 g acute
Ғ ғ Ġ ġ 0120 0121 g dot
Ҕ ҕ Ğ ğ 011E 011F g breve
Һ һ 1E24 1E25 h dot
Д д D d
Ђ ђ Đ đ 0110 0111 d macron
Е е E e
Ӗ ӗ Ĕ ĕ 0114 0115 e breve
Ё ё Ë ë 00CB 00EB e diaeresis
Є є Ê ê 00CA 00EA e circumflex
Ж ж Ž ž 017D 017E z caron
Җ җ Ž̦ ž̦ 017D+0326 017E+0326 z caron and comma below[4]
Ž̧ ž̧ 017D+0327 017E+0327 z caron and cedilla[4]
Ӝ ӝ Z+0304 z+0304 z macron
Ӂ ӂ Z+0306 z+0306 z breve
З з Z z
Ӟ ӟ Z+0308 z+0308 z diaeresis
Ӡ ӡ Ź ź 0179 017A z acute
Ѕ ѕ 1E90 1E91 z circumflex
И и I i
Ӣ ӣ Ī ī 012A 012B i macron
И́ и́ Í í 00CD 00ED i acute
Ӥ ӥ Î î 00CE 00EE i circumflex
Й й J j
І і Ì ì 00CC 00EC i grave
Ї ї Ï ï 00CF 00EF i diaeresis
І̄ і̄ Ǐ ǐ 01CF (012C) 01D0 (012D) i caron (or breve)
Ј ј ǰ J+030C 01F0 j caron
Ј̵ ј̵ J+0301 j+0301 j acute
К к K k
Ќ ќ 1E30 1E31 k acute
Ӄ ӄ 1E32 1E33 k dot below
Ҝ ҝ K+0302 k+0302 k circumflex
Ҡ ҡ Ǩ ǩ 01E8 01E9 k caron
Ҟ ҟ K+0304 k+0304 k macron
Қ қ K+0326 k+0326 k comma below[4]
Ķ ķ 0136 0137 k cedilla[4]
К̨ к̨ K+0300 k+0300 k grave
Ԛ ԛ Q q
Л л L l
Љ љ L+0302 l+0302 l circumflex
Ԡ ԡ L+0326 l+0326 l comma below[4]
Ļ ļ 013B 013C l cedilla[4]
М м M m
Н н N n
Њ њ N+0302 n+0302 n circumflex
Ң ң N+0326 n+0326 n comma below[4]
Ņ ņ 0145 0146 n cedilla[4]
Ӊ ӊ 1E46 1E47 n dot below
Ҥ ҥ 1E44 1E45 n dot
Ԋ ԋ Ǹ ǹ 01F8 01F9 n grave
Ԣ ԣ Ń ń 0143 0144 n acute
Ӈ ӈ Ň ň 0147 0148 n caron
Н̄ н̄ N+0304 n+0304 n macron
О о O o
Ӧ ӧ Ö ö 00D6 00F6 o diaeresis
Ө ө Ô ô 00D4 00F4 o circumflex
Ӫ ӫ Ő ő 0150 0151 o double acute
Ӧ̄ о̄̈ Ọ̈ ọ̈ 00D6+0323 00F6+0323 o diaeresis and dot below
Ҩ ҩ Ò ò 00D2 00F2 o grave
О́ о́ Ó ó 00D3 00F3 o acute
О̄ о̄ Ō ō 014C 014D o macron
Œ œ Œ œ 0152 0153 oe ligature
П п P p
Ҧ ҧ 1E54 1E55 p acute
Ԥ ԥ P+0300 p+0300 p grave
Р р R r
С с S s
Ҫ ҫ Ș ș 0218 0219 s comma below[4]
Ş ş 015E 015F s cedilla[4]
С̀ с̀ S+0300 s+0300 s grave
Т т T t
Ћ ћ Ć ć 0106 0107 c acute
Ԏ ԏ T+0300 t+0300 t grave
Т̌ т̌ Ť ť 0164 0165 t caron
Ҭ ҭ Ț ț 021A 021B t comma below[4]
Ţ ţ 0162 0163 t cedilla[4]
У у U u
Ӱ ӱ Ü ü 00DC 00FC u diaeresis
Ӯ ӯ Ū ū 016A 016B u macron
Ў ў Ŭ ŭ 016C 016D u breve
Ӳ ӳ Ű ű 0170 0171 u double acute
У́ у́ Ú ú 00DA 00FA u acute
Ӱ̄ ӱ̄ Ụ̈ ụ̈ 00DC+0323 00FC+0323 u diaeresis and dot below
Ү ү Ù ù 00D9 00F9 u grave
Ұ ұ U+0307 u+0307 u dot
Ӱ̄ ӱ̄ Ụ̄ ụ̄ 016A+0323 016B+0323 u macron and dot below
Ԝ ԝ W w
Ф ф F f
Х х H h
Ҳ ҳ H+0326 h+0326 h comma below[4]
1E28 1E29 h cedilla[4]
Ц ц C c
Ҵ ҵ C+0304 c+0304 c macron
Џ џ D+0302 d+0302 d circumflex
Ч ч Č č 010C 010D c caron
Ҷ ҷ C+0326 c+0326 c comma below[4]
Ç ç 00C7 00E7 c cedilla[4]
Ӌ ӌ C+0323 c+0323 c dot below
Ӵ ӵ C+0308 c+0308 c diaeresis
Ҹ ҹ Ĉ ĉ 0108 0109 c circumflex
Ч̀ ч̀ C+0300 c+0300 c grave
Ҽ ҽ C+0306 c+0306 c breve
Ҿ ҿ C̨̆ c̨̆ C+0328+0306 c+0328+0306 c ogonek[4] and breve
Ш ш Š š 0160 0161 s caron
Щ щ Ŝ ŝ 015C 015D s circumflex
Ъ ъ ʺ 02BA modifier letter double prime[5]
Ы ы Y y
Ӹ ӹ Ÿ ÿ 0178 00FF y diaeresis
Ы̄ ы̄ Ȳ ȳ 0232 0233 y macron
Ь ь ʹ 02B9 modifier letter prime[5]
Э э È è 00C8 00E8 e grave
Ә ә A+030B a+030B a double acute
Ӛ ӛ À à 00C0 00E0 a grave
Ю ю Û û 00DB 00FB u circumflex
Ю̄ ю̄ Û̄ û̄ 00DB+0304 00FB+0304 u circumflex with macron
Я я Â â 00C2 00E2 a circumflex
Ґ ґ G+0300 g+0300 g grave
Ѣ ѣ Ě ě 011A 011B e caron
Ѫ ѫ Ǎ ǎ 01CD 01CE a caron
Ѳ ѳ F+0300 f+0300 f grave
Ѵ ѵ 1EF2 1EF3 y grave
Ӏ 2021 double dagger
ʼ ` 0060 spacing grave
ˮ ¨ 00A8 spacing diaeresis

National adoptions

Date Region Name Descriptive name
1995-06-01 France NF ISO 9:1995-06-01 [6][7] Information et documentation - Translittération des caractères cyrilliques en caractères latins - Langues slaves et non slaves.
1995-09-29 Sweden SS-ISO 9 [8] -
1997 Romania SR ISO 9:1997 [9] Informare şi documentare. Transliterarea caracterelor chirilice în caractere latine. Limbi slave şi neslave
1997-12-11 Croatia HRN ISO 9:1997 [10] Informacije i dokumentacija -- Transliteracija ćiriličnih u latinične znakove za slavenske i neslavenske jezike (ISO 9:1995)
2000 Poland PN-ISO 9:2000 [11] Informacja i dokumentacja. Transliteracja znaków cyrylickich na znaki łacińskie — Języki słowiańskie i niesłowiańskie
2002 Lithuania LST ISO 9:2002 Informacija ir dokumentai. Kirilicos rašmenų transliteravimas lotyniškais rašmenimis. Slavų ir ne slavų kalbos
2002-07-01 Russia GOST 7.79-2000 System A Система стандартов по информации, библиотечному и издательскому делу. Правила транслитерации кирилловского письма латинским алфавитом
2002-10 Czechia ČSN ISO 9 (010185)[12] Informace a dokumentace - Transliterace cyrilice do latinky - slovanské a neslovanské jazyky
2005-03-01 Italy UNI ISO 9:2005[13] Informazione e documentazione - Traslitterazione dei caratteri cirillici in caratteri latini - Linguaggi slavi e non slavi
2005-11-01 Slovenia SIST ISO 9:2005[14] Informatika in dokumentacija – Transliteracija ciriličnih znakov v latinične znake – Slovanski in neslovanski jeziki
2011 Estonia EVS-ISO 9:2011[15] Informatsioon ja dokumentatsioon. Kirillitsa translitereerimine ladina keelde. Slaavi ja mitte-slaavi keeled
2013 GCC GSO ISO 9:2013 [16]

GCC: Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates

Sample text

The text is the chorus of the hymn of the Russian Federation:

Славься, Отечество наше свободное,
Братских народов союз вековой,
Предками данная мудрость народная!
Славься, страна! Мы гордимся тобой!
Slavʹsâ, Otečestvo naše svobodnoe,
Bratskih narodov soûz vekovoj,
Predkami dannaâ mudrostʹ narodnaâ!
Slavʹsâ, strana! My gordimsâ toboj!

ISO/R 9

ISO Recommendation No. 9, published 1954 and revised 1968, is an older version of the standard, with different transliteration for different Slavic languages, reflecting their phonemic differences. It is closer to the original international system of slavist scientific transliteration.

The languages covered are Bulgarian, Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Serbian and Macedonian. ISO 9:1995 is shown for comparison.

ISO/R 9:1954, ISO/R 9:1968 and ISO 9:1995
Cyrillic 1954 1968 1995 Note
А а A a A a A a
Б б B b B b B b
В в V v V v V v
Г г G g G g, H h G g h for Belarusian and Ukrainian, g else (see table below)
Ґ ґ Ġ ġ G g G̀ g̀ in Ukrainian
Д д D d D d D d
Ѓ ѓ Ǵ ǵ Ǵ ǵ Ǵ ǵ in Macedonian
Ђ ђ Đ đ Đ đ Đ đ in Serbian
Е е E e E e E e
Ё ё Ë ë Ë ë Ë ë in Russian and Belarusian
Є є Je je Je je Ê ê in Ukrainian
Ж ж Ž ž Ž ž (Zh zh) Ž ž see table below
З з Z z Z z Z z
Ѕ ѕ Dz dz Dz dz Ẑ ẑ in Macedonian
И и I i, Y y I i, Y y I i not in Belarusian, y for Ukrainian, i else (see table below)
I і I i I i, Ī ī Ì ì not in Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian, archaic in Russian (see table below)
Ї ї Ji ji Ï ï Ï ï in Ukrainian
Й й J j J j (Ĭ ĭ) J j not in Serbian and Macedonian (see table below)
Ј ј J j J j J̌ ǰ in Serbian and Macedonian
К к K k K k K k
Л л L l L l L l
Љ љ Lj lj Lj lj L̂ l̂ in Serbian and Macedonian
М м M m M m M m
Н н N n N n N n
Њ њ Nj nj Nj nj N̂ n̂ in Serbian and Macedonian
О о O o O o O o
П п P p P p P p
Р р R r R r R r
С с S s S s S s
Т т T t T t T t
Ќ ќ Ḱ ḱ Ḱ ḱ Ḱ ḱ in Macedonian
Ћ ћ Ć ć Ć ć Ć ć in Serbian
У у U u U u U u
Ў ў Ŭ ŭ Ŭ ŭ Ŭ ŭ in Belarusian
Ф ф F f F f F f
Х х H h Ch ch, H h (Kh kh) H h h for Serbian and Macedonian, ch else (see table below)
Ц ц C c C c (Ts ts) C c see table below
Ч ч Č č Č č (Ch ch) Č č see table below
Џ џ Dž dž Dž dž D̂ d̂ in Serbian and Macedonian
Ш ш Š š Š š (Sh sh) Š š see table below
Щ щ Šč šč, Št št Šč šč, Št št (Shch shch) Ŝ ŝ not in Belarusian, Serbian and Macedonian, št for Bulgarian, šč else (see table below)
Ъ ъ Ă ă, " Ă ă, ʺ ʺ not in Serbian and Macedonian, archaic in Belarusian and Ukrainian, ă for Bulgarian, ʺ else (see table below)
Ы ы Y y Y y Y y Russian and Belarusian
Ь ь ʹ ʹ ʹ not in Serbian and Macedonian
Ѣ ѣ Ě ě Ě ě Ě ě not in Serbian and Macedonian, archaic else
Э э Ė ė Ė ė È è in Russian and Belarusian
Ю ю Ju ju Ju ju (Yu yu) Û û not in Serbian and Macedonian (see table below)
Я я Ja ja Ja ja (Ya ya) Â â not in Serbian and Macedonian (see table below)
", ’ in Belarusian and Ukrainian, archaic in Russian, ’ in Macedonian
Ѫ ѫ Ȧ ȧ Ȧ ȧ, ʺ̣ Ǎ ǎ archaic in Bulgarian (see table below)
Ѳ ѳ Ḟ ḟ Ḟ ḟ F̀ f̀ archaic in Russian
Ѵ ѵ Ẏ ẏ Ẏ ẏ Ỳ ỳ archaic in Russian
Bulgarian
ъ and ѫ are not transliterated at the end of a word (where it occurred in the pre-1945 orthography).
Russian and Belarusian
ъ is not transliterated at the end of a word (where it occurred in the pre-1918 orthography).

Sub-standards

ISO/R 9:1968 permits some deviations from the main standard. In the table below, they are listed in the columns sub-standard 1 and sub-standard 2.

  • The first sub-standard defines some language-dependent transliterations for Russian (ru), Ukrainian (uk), Belarusian (be) and Bulgarian (bg).
  • The second sub-standard permits, in countries where tradition favours it, a set of alternative transliterations, but only as a group.
Cyrillic ISO/R 9:1968
variant 1 main variant 2
г h (uk, be) g
ж ž zh
и y (uk) i
і i (uk, be) ī
й j ĭ
х ch (uk, be, ru) h kh
ц c ts
ч č ch
ш š sh
щ št (bg) šč shch
ъ ă (bg) ʺ
ю ju yu
я ja ya
ѫ ȧ (bg) ʺ̣

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b "ISO 9:1995: Information and documentation -- Transliteration of Cyrillic characters into Latin characters -- Slavic and non-Slavic languages". International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 13 Apr 2012.
  2. ^ https://www.standard.no/en/webshop/productcatalog/productpresentation/?ProductID=124947
  3. ^ ГОСТ 7.79-2000: Система стандартов по информации, библиотечному и издательскому делу. Правила транслитерации кирилловского письма латинским алфавитом [GOST 7.79-2000: System of standards on information, librarianship and publishing. Rules of transliteration of Cyrillic script by Latin alphabet] (in Russian). Retrieved 13 Apr 2012. - authentic Russian version of ISO 9
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q The “informative” Annex A of ISO 9:1995 uses ISO 5426 0x52 hook to left which can be mapped to Unicode’s comma below U+0326 (while the ISO 5426 also has 0x50 cedilla which can be mapped to Unicode’s cedilla U+0327), it also uses ISO 5426 0x53 hook to right which can be mapped to Unicode’s ogonek U+0328. See for example Evertype.com’s ISO 5426 mapping to Unicode or Joan M. Aliprand’s Finalized Mapping between Characters of ISO 5426 and ISO/IEC 10646-1.
  5. ^ a b Evertype.com: ISO 5426 mapping to Unicode; Joan M. Aliprand: Finalized Mapping between Characters of ISO 5426 and ISO/IEC 10646-1; The Unicode Standard: Spacing Modifier Letters.
  6. ^ http://www.boutique.afnor.org/NEL5DetailNormeEnLigne.aspx?&CLE_ART=FA027018
  7. ^ https://www.din.de/en/wdc-beuth:din21:12351958
  8. ^ https://www.sis.se/en/produkter/standardization/information-sciences-publishing/writing-and-transliteration/ssiso9/
  9. ^ https://magazin.asro.ro/standarde/ics-ierarhic/1/01.140.10/106592874
  10. ^ http://31.45.242.218/HZN/Todb.nsf/wFrameset2?OpenFrameSet&Frame=Down&Src=%2FHZN%2FTodb.nsf%2F66011c0bda2bd4dfc1256cf300764c2d%2Fc1256c8f003565d5c1256d29003d9651%3FOpenDocument%26AutoFramed
  11. ^ http://sklep.pkn.pl/pn-iso-9-2000p.html
  12. ^ http://www.technicke-normy-csn.cz/010185-csn-iso-9_4_65539.html
  13. ^ http://store.uni.com/catalogo/index.php/uni-iso-9-2005.html
  14. ^ http://ecommerce.sist.si/catalog/project.aspx?id=71645861-60ea-4c82-857f-4a028c776b40
  15. ^ https://www.evs.ee/products/evs-iso-9-2011
  16. ^ https://www.gso.org.sa/store/bsmd/standards/GSO:642823/GSO%20ISO%209:2013?lang=en#

External links

Ae (Cyrillic)

Ae (Ӕ ӕ; italics: Ӕ ӕ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script, used exclusively in the Ossetian language to represent the mid central vowel /ə/. Its ISO 9 transliteration is ⟨æ⟩ but some transliteration schemes may render it as ⟨ä⟩.

Che with descender

Che with descender (Ҷ ҷ; italics: Ҷ ҷ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script. Its form is derived from the Cyrillic letter Che (Ч ч Ч ч). In the ISO 9 system of romanization, Che with descender is transliterated using the Latin letter C-cedilla (Ç ç).

Che with descender is used in the alphabets of the following languages:

Che with descender corresponds in other Cyrillic alphabets to the digraphs ⟨дж⟩ or ⟨чж⟩, or to the letters Che with vertical stroke (Ҹ ҹ), Dzhe (Џ џ), Khakassian Che (Ӌ ӌ), Zhe with breve (Ӂ ӂ), Zhe with diaeresis (Ӝ ӝ), or Zhje (Җ җ).

Cleanroom

A cleanroom or clean room is a facility ordinarily utilized as a part of specialized industrial production or scientific research, including the manufacture of pharmaceutical items and microprocessors. Cleanrooms are designed to maintain extremely low levels of particulates, such as dust, airborne organisms, or vaporized particles. Cleanrooms typically have an cleanliness level quantified by the number of particles per cubic meter at a predetermined molecule measure. The ambient outdoor air in a typical urban area contains 35,000,000 particles for each cubic meter in the size range 0.5 μm and bigger in measurement, equivalent to an ISO 9 cleanroom, while by comparison an ISO 1 cleanroom permits no particles in that size range and just 12 particles for each cubic meter of 0.3 μm and smaller.

Ka with descender

Ka with descender (Қ қ; italics: Қ қ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script used in a number of non-Slavic languages spoken on the territory of the former Soviet Union, including:

the Turkic languages Kazakh, Uighur, Uzbek and several smaller languages (Karakalpak, Shor and Tofa), where it represents the voiceless uvular plosive /q/.

Iranian languages such as Tajik and Ossetic (before 1924; now superseded by the digraph ⟨Къ⟩). Since /q/ is represented by the letter ق qāf in the Arabic alphabet, Қ is sometimes referred to as "Cyrillic Qaf".

Eastern varieties of the Khanty language, where it also represents /q/.

the Abkhaz language where it represents the voiceless velar plosive /k/. (The Cyrillic letter Ka (К к) is used to represent /kʼ/.) It was introduced in 1905 for the spelling of Abkhaz. From 1928 to 1938, Abkhaz was spelled with the Latin alphabet, and the corresponding letter was the Latin letter K with descender (Ⱪ ⱪ).Its ISO 9 transliteration is ⟨ķ⟩ (⟨k⟩ with cedilla), and is so transliterated for Abkhaz, while the common Kazakh and Uzbek romanization is ⟨q⟩.

List of ISO romanizations

List of ISO standards for transliterations and transcriptions (or romanizations):

ISO 9 — Cyrillic

ISO 233 — Arabic

ISO 259 — Hebrew

ISO 843 — Greek

ISO 3602 — Japanese (1989, last reviewed 2013)

ISO 7098 — Chinese

ISO 9984 — Georgian

ISO 9985 — Armenian

ISO 11940 — Thai

ISO 11940-2 — Thai (simplified)

ISO 11941 — Korean (different systems for North and South Korea – withdrawn in 2013)

ISO 15919 — Indic scripts

O-hook

O-hook (Ҩ ҩ; italics: Ҩ ҩ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script. In the Unicode text-encoding standard, this letter is called "Abkhasian Ha". Its form bears some similarities to the Greek letter Theta (Θ θ/ϑ). In English, O-hook is commonly romanized using the Latin letter O with dot below (Ọ ọ) but its ISO 9 transliteration is the Latin letter O with grave accent (Ò ò).

O-hook is used in the alphabet of the Abkhaz language where it represents the labial-palatal approximant /ɥ/, the sound of ⟨u⟩ in French "huit". It is placed between O and Π in the alphabet.

Romanization of Belarusian

Romanization or Latinization of Belarusian is any system for transliterating written Belarusian from Cyrillic to the Latin.

Some of the standard systems for romanizing Belarusian:

BGN/PCGN romanization of Belarusian, 1979 (United States Board on Geographic Names and Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use), which is the USA and Great Britain prevailing system for romanising of geographical information

British Standard 2979 : 1958

Scientific transliteration, or the International Scholarly System for linguistics

ALA-LC romanization, 1997 (American Library Association and Library of Congress)

ISO 9:1995, which is also Belarusian state standard GOST 7.79–2000 for non-geographical information

Instruction on transliteration of Belarusian geographical names with letters of Latin script, which is Belarusian state standard for geographical information, adopted by State Committee on land resources, geodetics and cartography of Belarus, 2000 and recommended for use by the Working Group on Romanization Systems of the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN). It was significantly revised in 2007.See also: Belarusian Latin alphabet.

Romanization of Bulgarian

Romanization of Bulgarian is the practice of transliteration of text in Bulgarian from its conventional Cyrillic orthography into the Latin alphabet. Romanization can be used for various purposes, such as rendering of proper names and place names in foreign-language contexts, or for informal writing of Bulgarian in environments where Cyrillic is not easily available. Official use of romanization by Bulgarian authorities is found, for instance, in identity documents and in road signage. Several different standards of transliteration exist, one of which was chosen and made mandatory for common use by the Bulgarian authorities in a law of 2009.

Romanization of Macedonian

The Romanization of Macedonian is the transliteration of text in the Macedonian language from the Macedonian Cyrillic alphabet into the Latin alphabet. Romanization can be used for various purposes, such as rendering of proper names in foreign contexts, or for informal writing of Macedonian in environments where Cyrillic is not easily available. Official use of Romanization by Macedonian authorities is found, for instance, on road signage and in passports. Several different codified standards of transliteration currently exist and there is widespread variability in practice.

Romanization of Russian

Romanization of Russian is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic script into the Latin script.

As well as its primary use for citing Russian names and words in languages which use a Latin alphabet, romanization is also essential for computer users to input Russian text who either do not have a keyboard or word processor set up for inputting Cyrillic, or else are not capable of typing rapidly using a native Russian keyboard layout (JCUKEN). In the latter case, they would type using a system of transliteration fitted for their keyboard layout, such as for English QWERTY keyboards, and then use an automated tool to convert the text into Cyrillic.

Romanization of Ukrainian

The romanization or Latinization of Ukrainian is the representation of the Ukrainian language using Latin letters. Ukrainian is natively written in its own Ukrainian alphabet, which is based on the Cyrillic script.

Romanization may be employed to represent Ukrainian text or pronunciation for non-Ukrainian readers, on computer systems that cannot reproduce Cyrillic characters, or for typists who are not familiar with the Ukrainian keyboard layout. Methods of romanization include transliteration, representing written text, and transcription, representing the spoken word.

In contrast to romanization, there have been several historical proposals for a native Ukrainian Latin alphabet, usually based on those used by West Slavic languages, but none has caught on.

Schwa with diaeresis

Schwa with diaeresis (Ӛ ӛ; italics: Ӛ ӛ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script. It is currently unique to the Khanty language. Ӛ is romanized with a Latin schwa and combining marks ⟨Ə̈ ə̈⟩ or ⟨À à⟩ in ISO-9.

Scientific transliteration of Cyrillic

Scientific transliteration, variously called academic, linguistic, international, or scholarly transliteration, is an international system for transliteration of text from the Cyrillic script to the Latin script (romanization). This system is most often seen in linguistics publications on Slavic languages.

U with double acute (Cyrillic)

U with double acute (Ӳ ӳ; italics: Ӳ ӳ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script, derived from the Cyrillic letter U (У у У у).

U with double acute is used in the alphabet of the Chuvash language, where it represents the close front rounded vowel /y/, the pronunciation of the Latin letter U with umlaut (Ü ü) in German. It is placed between ⟨У⟩ and ⟨Ф⟩ in the Chuvash alphabet. It is usually romanized as ⟨Ü⟩ but its ISO 9 transliteration is ⟨Ű⟩.

Ze with diaeresis

Ze with diaeresis (Ӟ ӟ; italics: Ӟ ӟ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script. It is used only in the Udmurt language, where it represents the voiced alveolo-palatal affricate /d͡ʑ/. It is usually romanized as ⟨đ⟩ but its ISO 9 transliteration is ⟨z̈⟩.

Ì

Ì is used in the ISO 9:1995 system of Ukrainian transliteration as the Cyrillic letter І.

In the Pinyin system of Chinese romanization, ì is an i with a falling tone.

This appears in Alcozauca Mixtec, Italian, Portuguese, Sardinian, Taos, Vietnamese, Welsh, Scottish Gaelic and also in the constructed language Na'vi.

Û

Û, û (u-circumflex) is a letter of the Latin script.

Ķ

Ķ, ķ (k-cedilla) is the 17th letter of the Latvian language.

In ISO 9, Ķ is the official Latin transliteration of the cyrillic letter Қ.

Ž

The grapheme Ž (minuscule: ž) is formed from Latin Z with the addition of caron (Czech: háček, Slovak: mäkčeň, Slovene: strešica, Serbo-Croatian: kvačica). It is used in various contexts, usually denoting the voiced postalveolar fricative, a sound similar to English g in mirage, or Portuguese and French j. In the International Phonetic Alphabet this sound is denoted with [ʒ], but the lowercase ž is used in the Americanist phonetic notation, as well as in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet. In addition, ž is used as the romanisation of Cyrillic ж in ISO 9 and scientific transliteration.

For use in computer systems, Ž and ž are at Unicode codepoints U+017D and U+017E, respectively. On Windows computers, it can be typed with Alt+0142 and Alt+0158, respectively.

Ž is the final letter of most alphabets that contain it, exceptions including Estonian and Turkmen.

ISO standards by standard number
1–9999
10000–19999
20000+
By publisher (for several languages)
By language or writing system

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