ISO 8583

ISO 8583 is an international standard for financial transaction card originated interchange messaging. It is the International Organization for Standardization standard for systems that exchange electronic transactions initiated by cardholders using payment cards.

ISO 8583 defines a message format and a communication flow so that different systems can exchange these transaction requests and responses. The vast majority of transactions made when a customer uses a card to make a payment in a store (EFTPOS) use ISO 8583 at some point in the communication chain, as do transactions made at ATMs. In particular, both the MasterCard and Visa networks base their authorization communications on the ISO 8583 standard, as do many other institutions and networks.

Although ISO 8583 defines a common standard, it is not typically used directly by systems or networks. It defines many standard fields (data elements) which remain the same in all systems or networks, and leaves a few additional fields for passing network-specific details. These fields are used by each network to adapt the standard for its own use with custom fields and custom usages.


The ISO 8583 specification has three parts:

  • Part 1: Messages, data elements, and code values[1]
  • Part 2: Application and registration procedures for Institution Identification Codes (IIC)[2]
  • Part 3: Maintenance procedures for the aforementioned messages, data elements and code values[3]

Message format

A card-based transaction typically travels from a transaction-acquiring device, such as a point-of-sale terminal or an automated teller machine (ATM), through a series of networks, to a card issuing system for authorization against the card holder's account. The transaction data contains information derived from the card (e.g., the account number), the terminal (e.g., the merchant number), the transaction (e.g., the amount), together with other data which may be generated dynamically or added by intervening systems. Based on this information, the card issuing system will either authorize or decline the transaction and generate a response message which must be delivered back to the terminal within a predefined time period.

An ISO 8583 message is made of the following parts:

  • Message type indicator (MTI)
  • One or more bitmaps, indicating which data elements are present
  • Data elements, the actual information fields of the message

The placements of fields in different versions of the standard varies; for example, the currency elements of the 1987 and 1993 versions of the standard are no longer used in the 2003 version, which holds currency as a sub-element of any financial amount element. As of June 2017, however ISO 8583:2003 has yet to achieve wide acceptance. ISO 8583 messaging has no routing information, so is sometimes used with a TPDU header.

Cardholder-originated transactions include purchase, withdrawal, deposit, refund, reversal, balance inquiry, payments and inter-account transfers. ISO 8583 also defines system-to-system messages for secure key exchanges, reconciliation of totals, and other administrative purposes.

Message type indicator (MTI)

The message type indicator is a four-digit numeric field which indicates the overall function of the message. A message type indicator includes the ISO 8583 version, the Message Class, the Message Function and the Message Origin, as described below.

ISO 8583 version

The first digit of the MTI indicates the ISO 8583 version in which the message is encoded.

Code Meaning
0xxx ISO 8583:1987
1xxx ISO 8583:1993
2xxx ISO 8583:2003
3xxx Reserved by ISO
8xxx National use
9xxx Private use

Message class

Position two of the MTI specifies the overall purpose of the message.

Code Meaning Usage
x0xx Reserved by ISO
x1xx Authorization message Determine if funds are available, get an approval but do not post to account for reconciliation. Dual message system (DMS), awaits file exchange for posting to the account.
x2xx Financial messages Determine if funds are available, get an approval and post directly to the account. Single message system (SMS), no file exchange after this.
x3xx File actions message Used for hot-card, TMS and other exchanges
x4xx Reversal and chargeback messages Reversal (x4x0 or x4x1): Reverses the action of a previous authorization.
Chargeback (x4x2 or x4x3): Charges back a previously cleared financial message.
x5xx Reconciliation message Transmits settlement information message.
x6xx Administrative message Transmits administrative advice. Often used for failure messages (e.g. message reject or failure to apply).
x7xx Fee collection messages
x8xx Network management message Used for secure key exchange, logon, echo test and other network functions.
x9xx Reserved by ISO

Message function

Position three of the MTI specifies the message function which defines how the message should flow within the system. Requests are end-to-end messages (e.g., from acquirer to issuer and back with time-outs and automatic reversals in place), while advices are point-to-point messages (e.g., from terminal to acquirer, from acquirer to network, from network to issuer, with transmission guaranteed over each link, but not necessarily immediately).

Code Meaning Notes
xx0x Request Request from acquirer to issuer to carry out an action; issuer may accept or reject
xx1x Request response Issuer response to a request
xx2x Advice Advice that an action has taken place; receiver can only accept, not reject
xx3x Advice response Response to an advice
xx4x Notification Notification that an event has taken place; receiver can only accept, not reject
xx5x Notification acknowledgement Response to a notification
xx6x Instruction ISO 8583:2003
xx7x Instruction acknowledgement
xx8x Reserved for ISO use Some implementations (such as MasterCard) use for positive acknowledgment.[4]
xx9x Some implementations (such as MasterCard) use for negative acknowledgement.[5]

Message origin

Position four of the MTI defines the location of the message source within the payment chain.

Code Meaning
xxx0 Acquirer
xxx1 Acquirer repeat
xxx2 Issuer
xxx3 Issuer repeat
xxx4 Other
xxx5 Other repeat
xxx6 Reserved by ISO


Given an MTI value of 0110, the following example lists what each position indicates:

  • 0xxx → version of ISO 8583 (0 = 1987 version)
  • x1xx → class of the message (1 = authorization message)
  • xx1x → function of the message (1 = response)
  • xxx0 → who began the communication (0 = acquirer)

Therefore, MTI 0110 is an authorization response message sent by the acquirer.

Bearing each of the above four positions in mind, an MTI will completely specify what a message should do, and how it is to be transmitted around the network. Unfortunately, not all ISO 8583 implementations interpret the meaning of an MTI in the same way. However, a few MTIs are relatively standard:

MTI Meaning Usage
0100 Authorization Request Request from a point-of-sale terminal for authorization for a cardholder purchase
0110 Authorization Response Request response to a point-of-sale terminal for authorization for a cardholder purchase
0120 Authorization Advice When the point-of-sale device breaks down and you have to sign a voucher
0121 Authorization Advice Repeat If the advice times out
0130 Issuer Response to Authorization Advice Confirmation of receipt of authorization advice
0200 Acquirer Financial Request Request for funds, typically from an ATM or pinned point-of-sale device
0210 Issuer Response to Financial Request Issuer response to request for funds
0220 Acquirer Financial Advice e.g. Checkout at a hotel. Used to complete transaction initiated with authorization request
0221 Acquirer Financial Advice Repeat If the advice times out
0230 Issuer Response to Financial Advice Confirmation of receipt of financial advice
0320 Batch Upload File update/transfer advice
0330 Batch Upload Response File update/transfer advice response
0400 Acquirer Reversal Request Reverses a transaction
0510 Batch Settlement response Card acceptor reconciliation request response
0800 Network Management Request Hypercom terminals initialize request. Echo test, logon, logoff etc.
0810 Network Management Response Hypercom terminals initialize response. Echo test, logon, logoff etc.
0820 Network Management Advice Key change


In ISO 8583, a bitmap is a field or subfield within a message, which indicates whether other data elements or data element subfields are present elsewhere in the message.

A field is considered to be present only when the corresponding bit in the bitmap is set. For example, a hex with value 0x82 (decimal 130) is binary 1000 0010, which means fields 1 and 7 are present in the message and fields 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8 are not.

The bitmap may be represented as 8 bytes of binary data or as 16 hexadecimal characters (0-9, A-F) in the ASCII or EBCDIC character sets. A message will contain at least one bitmap, called the primary bitmap, which indicates which of data elements 1 to 64 are present. The presence of an optional secondary bitmap is also indicated by the first bit in the primary bitmap. If present, the secondary bitmap indicates whether data elements 65 to 128 are present. Similarly, a tertiary bitmap can be used to indicate the presence of fields 129 to 192, although these data elements are rarely used.


Given a bitmap value of 22 10 00 11 02 C0 48 04,

0x22 = 0010 0010 (counting from the left, the third and seventh bits are 1, indicating that fields 3 and 7 are present)
0x10 = 0001 0000 (the first bit corresponds to field 9, so the fourth bit here indicates field 12 is present)
0x00 = 0000 0000 (no fields present)
0x11 = 0001 0001 (fields 28 and 32 are present)
0x02 = 0000 0010 (field 39 is present)
0xC0 = 1100 0000 (fields 41 and 42 are present)
0x48 = 0100 1000 (fields 50 and 53 are present)
0x04 = 0000 0100 (field 62 is present)
nth bit 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
1234567890 1234567890 1234567890 1234567890 1234567890 1234567890 1234
Bitmap 0010001000 0100000000 0000000100 0100000010 1100000001 0010000000 0100

Therefore, the given bitmap defines the following fields present in the message:
3, 7, 12, 28, 32, 39, 41, 42, 50, 53, 62

Data elements

Data elements are the individual fields carrying the transaction information. There are up to 128 data elements specified in the original ISO 8583:1987 standard, and up to 192 data elements in later releases. The 1993 revision added new definitions, deleted some, while leaving the message format itself unchanged.

While each data element has a specified meaning and format, the standard also includes some general purpose data elements and system- or country-specific data elements which vary enormously in use and form from implementation to implementation.

Each data element is described in a standard format which defines the permitted content of the field (numeric, binary, etc.) and the field length (variable or fixed), according to the following table:

Abbreviation Meaning
a Alpha, including blanks
n Numeric values only
x+n Numeric (amount) values, where the first byte is either 'C' to indicate a positive or Credit value, or 'D' to indicate a negative or Debit value, followed by the numeric value (using n digits)
s Special characters only
an Alphanumeric
as Alpha & special characters only
ns Numeric and special characters only
ans Alphabetic, numeric and special characters.
b Binary data
z Tracks 2 and 3 code set as defined in ISO/IEC 7813 and ISO/IEC 4909 respectively
. or .. or ... variable field length indicator, each . indicating a digit.
x or xx or xxx fixed length of field, or maximum length in the case of variable length fields.

Additionally, each field may be either fixed or variable length. If variable, the length of the field will be preceded by a length indicator.

Type Meaning
Fixed no field length used
LLVAR or (..xx) Where 0 < LL < 100, means two leading digits LL specify the field length of field VAR
LLLVAR or ( Where 0 < LLL < 1000, means three leading digits LLL specify the field length of field VAR
LL and LLL are hex or ASCII. A VAR field can be compressed or ASCII depending of the data element type. LL can be one or two bytes. For example, if compressed as one hex byte, '27x means there are 27 VAR bytes to follow. If ASCII, the two bytes '32x, '37x mean there are 27 bytes to follow. Three-digit field length LLL uses two bytes with a leading '0' nibble if compressed, or three bytes if ASCII. The format of a VAR data element depends on the data element type. If numeric it will be compressed, e.g. 87456 will be represented by three hex bytes '087456x. If ASCII then one byte for each digit or character is used, e.g. '38x, '37x, '34x, '35x, '36x.


Field Definition Meaning
n 6 Fixed length field of six digits
n.6 LVAR numeric field of up to 6 digits in length
a..11 LLVAR alpha field of up to 11 characters in length
b...999 LLLVAR binary field of up to 999 bits in length

ISO-defined data elements (ver 1987)

Data field Type Usage
1 b 64 Second Bitmap
2 n ..19 Primary account number (PAN)
3 n 6 Processing code
4 n 12 Amount, transaction
5 n 12 Amount, settlement
6 n 12 Amount, cardholder billing
7 n 10 Transmission date & time
8 n 8 Amount, cardholder billing fee
9 n 8 Conversion rate, settlement
10 n 8 Conversion rate, cardholder billing
11 n 6 System trace audit number (STAN)
12 n 6 Local transaction time (hhmmss)
13 n 4 Local transaction date (MMDD)
14 n 4 Expiration date
15 n 4 Settlement date
16 n 4 Currency conversion date
17 n 4 Capture date
18 n 4 Merchant type, or merchant category code
19 n 3 Acquiring institution (country code)
20 n 3 PAN extended (country code)
21 n 3 Forwarding institution (country code)
22 n 3 Point of service entry mode
23 n 3 Application PAN sequence number
24 n 3 Function code (ISO 8583:1993), or network international identifier (NII)
25 n 2 Point of service condition code
26 n 2 Point of service capture code
27 n 1 Authorizing identification response length
28 x+n 8 Amount, transaction fee
29 x+n 8 Amount, settlement fee
30 x+n 8 Amount, transaction processing fee
31 x+n 8 Amount, settlement processing fee
32 n ..11 Acquiring institution identification code
33 n ..11 Forwarding institution identification code
34 ns ..28 Primary account number, extended
35 z ..37 Track 2 data
36 n ...104 Track 3 data
37 an 12 Retrieval reference number
38 an 6 Authorization identification response
39 an 2 Response code
40 an 3 Service restriction code
41 ans 8 Card acceptor terminal identification
42 ans 15 Card acceptor identification code
43 ans 40 Card acceptor name/location (1-23 street address, 24-36 city, 37-38 state, 39-40 country)
44 an ..25 Additional response data
45 an ..76 Track 1 data
46 an ...999 Additional data (ISO)
47 an ...999 Additional data (national)
48 an ...999 Additional data (private)
49 a or n 3 Currency code, transaction
50 a or n 3 Currency code, settlement
51 a or n 3 Currency code, cardholder billing
52 b 64 Personal identification number data
53 n 16 Security related control information
54 an ...120 Additional amounts
55 ans ...999 ICC data – EMV having multiple tags
56 ans ...999 Reserved (ISO)
57 ans ...999 Reserved (national)
58 ans ...999
59 ans ...999
60 ans ...999 Reserved (national) (e.g. settlement request: batch number, advice transactions: original transaction amount, batch upload: original MTI plus original RRN plus original STAN, etc)
61 ans ...999 Reserved (private) (e.g. CVV2/service code   transactions)
62 ans ...999 Reserved (private) (e.g. transactions: invoice number, key exchange transactions: TPK key, etc.)
63 ans ...999 Reserved (private)
64 b 64 Message authentication code (MAC)
65 b 1 Extended bitmap indicator
66 n 1 Settlement code
67 n 2 Extended payment code
68 n 3 Receiving institution country code
69 n 3 Settlement institution country code
70 n 3 Network management information code
71 n 4 Message number
72 n 4 Last message's number
73 n 6 Action date (YYMMDD)
74 n 10 Number of credits
75 n 10 Credits, reversal number
76 n 10 Number of debits
77 n 10 Debits, reversal number
78 n 10 Transfer number
79 n 10 Transfer, reversal number
80 n 10 Number of inquiries
81 n 10 Number of authorizations
82 n 12 Credits, processing fee amount
83 n 12 Credits, transaction fee amount
84 n 12 Debits, processing fee amount
85 n 12 Debits, transaction fee amount
86 n 16 Total amount of credits
87 n 16 Credits, reversal amount
88 n 16 Total amount of debits
89 n 16 Debits, reversal amount
90 n 42 Original data elements
91 an 1 File update code
92 an 2 File security code
93 an 5 Response indicator
94 an 7 Service indicator
95 an 42 Replacement amounts
96 b 64 Message security code
97 x+n 16 Net settlement amount
98 ans 25 Payee
99 n ..11 Settlement institution identification code
100 n ..11 Receiving institution identification code
101 ans ..17 File name
102 ans ..28 Account identification 1
103 ans ..28 Account identification 2
104 ans ...100 Transaction description
105 ans ...999 Reserved for ISO use
106 ans ...999
107 ans ...999
108 ans ...999
109 ans ...999
110 ans ...999
111 ans ...999
112 ans ...999 Reserved for national use
113 ans ...999
114 ans ...999
115 ans ...999
116 ans ...999
117 ans ...999
118 ans ...999
119 ans ...999
120 ans ...999 Reserved for private use
121 ans ...999
122 ans ...999
123 ans ...999
124 ans ...999
125 ans ...999
126 ans ...999
127 ans ...999
128 b 64 Message authentication code

Processing code

The following is a table specifying the message type and processing code for each transaction type.

Transaction Message type Processing code
Authorization 0100 00 a0 0x
Balance inquiry 31 a0 0x
Sale 0200 00 a0 0x
Cash 01 a0 0x
Void 02 a0 0x
Mobile topup 57 a0 0x

Response code

The following table shows response codes and their meanings.

Code Meaning
00 Successful approval/completion or that VIP PIN verification is valid
01 Refer to card issuer
02 Refer to card issuer, special condition
03 Invalid merchant or service provider
04 Pickup
05 Do not honor
06 General error
07 Pickup card, special condition (other than lost/stolen card)
08 Honor with identification
09 Request in progress
10 Partial approval
11 VIP approval
12 Invalid transaction
13 Invalid amount (currency conversion field overflow) or amount exceeds maximum for card program
14 Invalid account number (no such number)
15 No such issuer
16 Insufficient funds
17 Customer cancellation
19 Re-enter transaction
20 Invalid response
21 No action taken (unable to back out prior transaction)
22 Suspected Malfunction
25 Unable to locate record in file, or account number is missing from the inquiry
28 File is temporarily unavailable
30 Format error
41 Merchant should retain card (card reported lost)
43 Merchant should retain card (card reported stolen)
51 Insufficient funds
52 No checking account
53 No savings account
54 Expired card
55 Incorrect PIN
57 Transaction not permitted to cardholder
58 Transaction not allowed at terminal
59 Suspected fraud
61 Activity amount limit exceeded
62 Restricted card (for example, in country exclusion table)
63 Security violation
65 Activity count limit exceeded
68 Response received too late
75 Allowable number of PIN-entry tries exceeded
76 Unable to locate previous message (no match on retrieval reference number)
77 Previous message located for a repeat or reversal, but repeat or reversal data are inconsistent with original message
78 ’Blocked, first used’—The transaction is from a new cardholder, and the card has not been properly unblocked.
80 Visa transactions: credit issuer unavailable. Private label and check acceptance: Invalid date
81 PIN cryptographic error found (error found by VIC security module during PIN decryption)
82 Negative CAM, dCVV, iCVV, or CVV results
83 Unable to verify PIN
85 No reason to decline a request for account number verification, address verification, CVV2 verification; or a credit voucher or merchandise return
91 Issuer unavailable or switch inoperative (STIP not applicable or available for this transaction)
92 Destination cannot be found for routing
93 Transaction cannot be completed, violation of law
94 Duplicate transmission
95 Reconcile error
96 System malfunction, System malfunction or certain field error conditions
B1 Surcharge amount not permitted on Visa cards (U.S. acquirers only)
N0 Force STIP
N3 Cash service not available
N4 Cashback request exceeds issuer limit
N7 Decline for CVV2 failure
P2 Invalid biller information
P5 PIN change/unblock request declined
P6 Unsafe PIN
Q1 Card authentication failed
R0 Stop payment order
R1 Revocation of authorization order
R3 Revocation of all authorizations order
XA Forward to issuer
XD Forward to issuer
Z3 Unable to go online

Point of service entry modes

The point of service entry mode value consists of 2 parts:

1. PAN entry mode, the first 2 digits

2. PIN entry capability, the third digit

The following table shows PAN entry modes and their meanings.

PAN Entry Mode Meaning
00 Unknown
01 Manual
02 Magnetic stripe
03 Bar code
04 OCR
05 Integrated circuit card (ICC). CVV can be checked.
07 Auto entry via contactless magnetic stripe.
80 Fallback from integrated circuit card (ICC) to magnetic stripe
90 Magnetic stripe as read from track 2. CVV can be checked.
91 Auto entry via contactless magnetic stripe
95 Integrated circuit card (ICC). CVV may not be checked.
99 Same as original transaction.

The following table shows PIN entry capabilities and their meanings.

PIN Entry Capability Meaning
0 Unknown
1 Terminal can accept PINs
2 Terminal cannot accept PINs

See also


  1. ^ ISO 8583-1:2003 Financial transaction card originated messages -- Interchange message specifications -- Part 1: Messagess, data elements and code values
  2. ^ ISO 8583-2:1998 Financial transaction card originated messages -- Interchange message specifications -- Part 2: Application and registration procedures for Institution Identification Codes (IIC)
  3. ^ ISO 8583-3:2003 Financial transaction card originated messages -- Interchange message specifications -- Part 3: Maintenance procedures for messages, data elements and code values
  4. ^ MasterCard Customer Interface Specification, 25 July 2017
  5. ^ MasterCard Customer Interface Specification, 25 July 2017
API testing

API testing is a type of software testing that involves testing application programming interfaces (APIs) directly and as part of integration testing to determine if they meet expectations for functionality, reliability, performance, and security. Since APIs lack a GUI, API testing is performed at the message layer. API testing is now considered critical for automating testing because APIs now serve as the primary interface to application logic and because GUI tests are difficult to maintain with the short release cycles and frequent changes commonly used with Agile software development and DevOps.

AS 2805

AS 2805 Electronic funds transfer - Requirements for interfaces is the Australian standard for financial messaging. It is near-exclusively used in Australia for the operation of card-based financial transactions among banks, automatic teller machines and EFTPOS devices.

It is closely related to ISO 8583, but pre-dates it by two years (1985 vs 1987).

Card security code

A card security code (CSC; also called card verification data [CVD], card verification number, card verification value [CVV], card verification value code, card verification code [CVC], verification code [V-code or V code], or signature panel code [SPC]) is a security feature for "card not present" payment card transactions instituted to reduce the incidence of credit card fraud.

The CSC is in addition to the bank card number which is embossed or printed on the card. The CSC is used as a security feature, in situations where a PIN cannot be used. The PIN is not printed or embedded on the card but is manually entered by the cardholder during point-of-sale (card present) transactions. Contactless card and chip cards may electronically generate their own code, such as iCVV or a dynamic CVV.

CSC was originally developed in the UK as an eleven character alphanumeric code by Equifax employee Michael Stone in 1995. After testing with the Littlewoods Home Shopping group and NatWest bank, the concept was adopted by APACS (the UK Association of Payment Clearing Services) and streamlined to the three-digit code known today. MasterCard started issuing CVC2 numbers in 1997 and Visa in the United States issued them by 2001. American Express started to use the CSC in 1999, in response to growing Internet transactions and card member complaints of spending interruptions when the security of a card has been brought into question.

In 2016, a new e-commerce technology called Motioncode was introduced, designed to automatically refresh the CVV code to a new one every hour or so.


Electronic funds transfer at point of sale (EFTPOS ) is an electronic payment system involving electronic funds transfers based on the use of payment cards, such as debit or credit cards, at payment terminals located at points of sale. EFTPOS technology originated in the United States in 1981 and was adopted by other countries. In Australia and New Zealand, it is also the brand name of a specific system used for such payments; these systems are mainly country specific and do not interconnect.

Debit and credit cards are embossed plastic cards complying with ISO/IEC 7810 ID-1 standard. The cards have an embossed bank card number conforming with the ISO/IEC 7812 numbering standard.

ISO 19092-2

ISO 19092 Financial Services - Biometrics - Part 2: Message syntax and cryptographic requirements is an ISO standard that describes the techniques, protocols, cryptographic requirements, and syntax for using biometrics as an identification and verification mechanism in a wide variety of security applications in the financial industry. This standard provides support for policy based matching decisions for remote authentication and allows biometrics to be used securely with the ISO 8583 retail transaction messaging standard. A secure review and audit event journal syntax is provided that allows many of the security controls specified in ISO 19092-1 to be implemented.


jPOS is a free and open source library/framework that provides a high-performance bridge between card messages generated at the point of sale or ATM terminals and internal systems along the entire financial messaging network. jPOS is an enabling technology that can be used to handle all card processing from messaging, to processing, through reporting.It can be used to implement financial interchanges based on the ISO 8583 standard and related protocols and currently supports versions 1987, 1993 and 2003 of the standard as well as multiple ANSX9.24 standards.

Magnetic stripe card

A magnetic stripe card is a type of card capable of storing data by modifying the magnetism of tiny iron-based magnetic particles on a band of magnetic material on the card. The magnetic stripe, sometimes called swipe card or magstripe, is read by swiping past a magnetic reading head. Magnetic stripe cards are commonly used in credit cards, identity cards, and transportation tickets. They may also contain an RFID tag, a transponder device and/or a microchip mostly used for business premises access control or electronic payment.

Magnetic recording on steel tape and wire was invented in Denmark around 1900 for recording audio. In the 1950s, magnetic recording of digital computer data on plastic tape coated with iron oxide was invented. In 1960, IBM used the magnetic tape idea to develop a reliable way of securing magnetic stripes to plastic cards, under a contract with the US government for a security system. A number of International Organization for Standardization standards, ISO/IEC 7810, ISO/IEC 7811, ISO/IEC 7812, ISO/IEC 7813, ISO 8583, and ISO/IEC 4909, now define the physical properties of the card, including size, flexibility, location of the magstripe, magnetic characteristics, and data formats. They also provide the standards for financial cards, including the allocation of card number ranges to different card issuing institutions.


Mastercard Incorporated (stylized as MasterCard from 1979 to 2016 and mastercard from 2016 to 2019) is an American multinational financial services corporation headquartered in the Mastercard International Global Headquarters in Purchase, New York, United States. The Global Operations Headquarters is located in O'Fallon, Missouri, United States, a municipality of St. Charles County, Missouri. Throughout the world, its principal business is to process payments between the banks of merchants and the card issuing banks or credit unions of the purchasers who use the "Mastercard" brand debit, credit and prepaid to make purchases. Mastercard Worldwide has been a publicly traded company since 2006. Prior to its initial public offering, Mastercard Worldwide was a cooperative owned by the more than 25,000 financial institutions that issue its branded cards.

Mastercard, originally known as "Interbank" from 1966 to 1969 and "Master Charge" from 1969 to 1979, was created by an alliance of several regional bankcard associations in response to the BankAmericard issued by Bank of America, which later became the Visa credit card issued by Visa Inc.

Merchant category code

A Merchant Category Code (MCC) is a four-digit number listed in ISO 18245 for retail financial services. MCC is used to classify the business by the type of goods or services it provides. MCCs are assigned by merchant type (e.g. one for hotels, one for office supply stores, etc.) or by merchant name (e.g. 3000 for United Airlines).

An MCC is assigned to a merchant by the card company when the business first starts accepting cards as a form of payment.

The code reflects the primary category in which the merchant does business and may be used:

to determine the interchange fee paid by the merchant, with riskier lines of business paying higher fees.

by credit card companies to offer cash back rewards or reward points, for spending in specific categories.

by card networks to define rules and restrictions for card transactions (for example, Automated Fuel Dispensers (MCC 5542) have specific rules for authorization and clearing messages).

in the United States, to determine whether a payment is primarily for “services”, which needs to be reported by the payor to the Internal Revenue Service for tax purposes, or for “merchandise”, which does not.


In computing, a nibble (occasionally nybble or nyble to match the spelling of byte) is a four-bit aggregation, or half an octet. It is also known as half-byte or tetrade.

In a networking or telecommunication context, the nibble is often called a semi-octet, quadbit, or quartet.

A nibble has sixteen (24) possible values. A nibble can be represented by a single hexadecimal digit and called a hex digit.A full byte (octet) is represented by two hexadecimal digits; therefore, it is common to display a byte of information as two nibbles. Sometimes the set of all 256 byte values is represented as a 16×16 table, which gives easily readable hexadecimal codes for each value.

Four-bit computer architectures use groups of four bits as their fundamental unit. Such architectures were used in early microprocessors, pocket calculators and pocket computers. They continue to be used in some microcontrollers.

Payment card

Payment cards are part of a payment system issued by financial institutions, such as a bank, to a customer that enables its owner (the cardholder) to access the funds in the customer's designated bank accounts, or through a credit account and make payments by electronic funds transfer and access automated teller machines (ATMs). Such cards are known by a variety of names including bank cards, ATM cards, MAC (money access cards), client cards, key cards or cash cards.

There are a number of types of payment cards, the most common being credit cards and debit cards. Most commonly, a payment card is electronically linked to an account or accounts belonging to the cardholder. These accounts may be deposit accounts or loan or credit accounts, and the card is a means of authenticating the cardholder. However, stored-value cards store money on the card itself and are not necessarily linked to an account at a financial institution.

It can also be a smart card that contains a unique card number and some security information such as an expiration date or CVVC (CVV) or with a magnetic strip on the back enabling various machines to read and access information. Depending on the issuing bank and the preferences of the client, this may allow the card to be used as an ATM card, enabling transactions at automatic teller machines; or as a debit card, linked to the client's bank account and able to be used for making purchases at the point of sale; or as a credit card attached to a revolving credit line supplied by the bank.

Most payment cards, such as debit and credit cards can also function as ATM cards, although ATM-only cards are also available. Charge and proprietary cards cannot be used as ATM cards. The use of a credit card to withdraw cash at an ATM is treated differently to a POS transaction, usually attracting interest charges from the date of the cash withdrawal. Interbank networks allow the use of ATM cards at ATMs of private operators and financial institutions other than those of the institution that issued the cards.

All ATM machines, at a minimum, will permit cash withdrawals of customers of the machine's owner (if a bank-operated machine) and for cards that are affiliated with any ATM network the machine is also affiliated. They will report the amount of the withdrawal and any fees charged by the machine on the receipt. Most banks and credit unions will permit routine account-related banking transactions at the bank's own ATM, including deposits, checking the balance of an account, and transferring money between accounts. Some may provide additional services, such as selling postage stamps.

For other types of transactions through telephone or online banking, this may be performed with an ATM card without in-person authentication. This includes account balance inquiries, electronic bill payments, or in some cases, online purchases (see Interac Online).

ATM cards can also be used on improvised ATMs such as "mini ATMs", merchants' card terminals that deliver ATM features without any cash drawer. These terminals can also be used as cashless scrip ATMs by cashing the receipts they issue at the merchant's point of sale.

Payment gateway

A payment gateway is a merchant service provided by an e-commerce application service provider that authorizes credit card or direct payments processing for e-businesses, online retailers, bricks and clicks, or traditional brick and mortar. The payment gateway may be provided by a bank to its customers, but can be provided by a specialised financial service provider as a separate service, such as a payment service provider.

A payment gateway facilitates a payment transaction by the transfer of information between a payment portal (such as a website, mobile phone or interactive voice response service) and the front end processor or acquiring bank.


RRN can refer to:

Relative record number

Resident registration number

Retrieval Reference Number, a key to uniquely identify a card transaction based on the ISO 8583 standard.

Route reestablishment notification

Run River North, a indie folk-rock band from Los Angeles, California.

Rural Reconstruction Nepal, a social development NGO in Nepal.

Registration authority

Registration authorities exist for many standards organizations, such as ANNA (Association of National Numbering Agencies for ISIN), the Object Management Group, W3C, IEEE and others. In general, registration authorities all perform a similar function, in promoting the use of a particular standard through facilitating its use. This may be by applying the standard, where appropriate, or by verifying that a particular application satisfies the standard's tenants. Maintenance agencies, in contrast, may change an element in a standard based on set rules – such as the creation or change of a currency code when a currency is created or revalued (i.e. TRL to TRY for Turkish lira). The Object Management Group has an additional concept of certified provider, which is deemed an entity permitted to perform some functions on behalf of the registration authority, under specific processes and procedures documented within the standard for such a role.

An ISO registration authority (RAs) is not authorized to update standards but provides a registration function to facilitate implementation of an International Standard (e.g. ISBN number for books). Frequently, facilitating the implementation of an ISO standard’s requirements is best suited, by its nature, to one entity, an RA. This, de facto, creates a monopoly situation and this is why care needs to be taken with respect to the functions carried out and the fees charged to avoid an abuse of such a situation. In most cases, there is a formal legal contract in place between the standards body, such as the ISO General Secretariat, and the selected registration authority.

ISO registration authorities differ from a maintenance agency. Maintenance agencies are authorized to update particular elements in an International Standard and as a matter of policy, the secretariats of MAs are assigned to bodies forming part of the ISO system (member bodies or organizations to which a member body delegates certain tasks in its country). The membership of MAs and their operating procedures are subject to approval by the Technical Management Board.

While registration authorities for a particular standard typically do not change, the position is not formally guaranteed and is subject to review and reassignment to a different firm or organization. In some cases, the concept of a registration authority may not exist for a standard at all.

By further example, the equivalent registration authority organization for Internet standards is the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.

Semantic service-oriented architecture

A Semantic Service Oriented Architecture (SSOA) is an architecture that allows for scalable and controlled Enterprise Application Integration solutions. SSOA describes a sophisticated approach to enterprise-scale IT infrastructure. It leverages rich, machine-interpretable descriptions of data, services, and processes to enable software agents to autonomously interact to perform critical mission functions. SSOA is technically founded on three notions:

The principles of Service-oriented architecture (SOA);

Standards Based Design (SBD); and

Semantics-based computing.SSOA combines and implements these computer science concepts into a robust, extensible architecture capable of enabling complex, powerful functions.

ISO standards by standard number

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