ISO 843

ISO 843 is a system for the transliteration and/or transcription of Greek characters into Latin characters.[1]

1997 edition


Greek Latin Unicode Notes
Hex Dec
Α α A a
Ά ά Á á 00C1 00E1 193 225
Β β V v
Γ γ G g
Δ δ D d
Ε ε E e
Έ έ É é 00C9 00E9 201 233
Ζ ζ Z z
Η η Ī or ī or 012A 012B 298 299
Ή ή Ī́ or ͯ ī́ or í¯ Ī+0301 ī+0301 Ī+769 ī+769 combining acute accent
Θ θ TH
Ι ι I i
Ί ί Í í 00CD 00ED 205 237
Ϊ ϊ Ï ï 00CF 00EF 207 239
ΐ 1E2F 7727
Κ κ K k
Λ λ L l
Μ μ M m
Ν ν N n
Ξ ξ X x
Ο ο O o
Ό ό Ó ó 00D3 00F3 211 243
Π π P p
Ρ ρ R r
Σ σ, ς S s
Τ τ T t
Υ υ Y y
Ύ ύ Ý ý 00DD 00FD 221 253
Ϋ ϋ Ÿ ÿ 0178 00FF 376 255
ΰ ÿ́ ÿ+0301 ÿ+769 combining acute accent
Φ φ F f
Χ χ CH
Ψ ψ PS
Ω ω Ō or ō or 014C 014D 332 333
Ώ ώ or Ó¯ or ó¯ 1E52 1E53 7762 7763


  • double vowels αυ are transliterated as au
  • double vowels ευ are transliterated as eu
  • double vowels ου are transliterated as ou


ISO 843 also includes a system for transcription.

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ ISO 843:1997, International Organization for Standardization

External links

  • Transliteration of Non-Roman Scripts -A collection of writing systems and transliteration tables, by Thomas T. Pedersen. PDF reference charts include ISO 843.
  • Lingua::Translit Perl module covering a variety of writing systems. Transliteration according to several standards including ISO 843 and DIN 31634 for Greek.
Greek alphabet

The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late ninth or early eighth century BC. It is derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet, and was the first alphabetic script to have distinct letters for vowels as well as consonants. In Archaic and early Classical times, the Greek alphabet existed in many different local variants, but, by the end of the fourth century BC, the Eucleidean alphabet, with twenty-four letters, ordered from alpha to omega, had become standard and it is this version that is still used to write Greek today. These twenty-four letters are: Α α, Β β, Γ γ, Δ δ, Ε ε, Ζ ζ, Η η, Θ θ, Ι ι, Κ κ, Λ λ, Μ μ, Ν ν, Ξ ξ, Ο ο, Π π, Ρ ρ, Σ σ/ς, Τ τ, Υ υ, Φ φ, Χ χ, Ψ ψ, and Ω ω.

The Greek alphabet is the ancestor of the Latin and Cyrillic scripts. Like Latin and Cyrillic, Greek originally had only a single form of each letter; it developed the letter case distinction between uppercase and lowercase forms in parallel with Latin during the modern era. Sound values and conventional transcriptions for some of the letters differ between Ancient and Modern Greek usage, because the pronunciation of Greek has changed significantly between the fifth century BC and today. Modern and Ancient Greek also use different diacritics. Apart from its use in writing the Greek language, in both its ancient and its modern forms, the Greek alphabet today also serves as a source of technical symbols and labels in many domains of mathematics, science and other fields.

List of ISO romanizations

List of ISO standards for transliterations and transcriptions (or romanizations):

ISO 9 — Cyrillic

ISO 233 — Arabic

ISO 259 — Hebrew

ISO 843 — Greek

ISO 3602 — Japanese (1989, last reviewed 2013)

ISO 7098 — Chinese

ISO 9984 — Georgian

ISO 9985 — Armenian

ISO 11940 — Thai

ISO 11940-2 — Thai (simplified)

ISO 11941 — Korean (different systems for North and South Korea – withdrawn in 2013)

ISO 15919 — Indic scripts

List of International Organization for Standardization standards, 1-4999

This is a list of published International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards and other deliverables. For a complete and up-to-date list of all the ISO standards, see the ISO catalogue.The standards are protected by copyright and most of them must be purchased. However, about 300 of the standards produced by ISO and IEC's Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC1) have been made freely and publicly available.


Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so. Methods of romanization include transliteration, for representing written text, and transcription, for representing the spoken word, and combinations of both. Transcription methods can be subdivided into phonemic transcription, which records the phonemes or units of semantic meaning in speech, and more strict phonetic transcription, which records speech sounds with precision.

Romanization of Greek

Romanization of Greek is the transliteration (letter-mapping) or transcription (sound-mapping) of text from the Greek alphabet into the Latin alphabet. The conventions for writing and romanizing Ancient Greek and Modern Greek differ markedly, which can create confusion. The sound of the English letter B (/b/) was written as β in ancient Greek but is now written as the digraph μπ, while the modern β sounds like the English letter V (/v/) instead. The Greek name Ἰωάννης became Johannes in Latin and then John in English, but in Greek itself has instead become Γιάννης; this might be written as Yannis, Jani, Ioannis, Yiannis, or Giannis, but not Giannes or Giannēs as it would have been in ancient Greek. The masculine Greek word Ἅγιος or Άγιος might variously appear as Hagiοs, Agios, Aghios, or Ayios, or simply be translated as "Holy" or "Saint" in English forms of Greek placenames.Traditional English renderings of Greek names originated from Roman systems established in antiquity. The Roman alphabet itself was a form of the Cumaean alphabet derived from the Euboean script that valued Χ as /ks/ and Η as /h/ and used variant forms of Λ and Σ that became L and S. When this script was used to write the classical Greek alphabet, ⟨κ⟩ was replaced with ⟨c⟩, ⟨αι⟩ and ⟨οι⟩ became ⟨æ⟩ and ⟨œ⟩, and ⟨ει⟩ and ⟨ου⟩ were simplified to ⟨i⟩ (more rarely—corresponding to an earlier pronunciation—⟨e⟩) and ⟨u⟩. Aspirated consonants like ⟨θ⟩, ⟨φ⟩, initial-⟨ρ⟩, and ⟨χ⟩ simply wrote out the sound: ⟨th⟩, ⟨ph⟩, ⟨rh⟩, and ⟨ch⟩. Because English orthography has changed so much from the original Greek, modern scholarly transliteration now usually renders ⟨κ⟩ as ⟨k⟩ and the diphthongs ⟨αι, οι, ει, ου⟩ as ⟨ai, oi, ei, ou⟩. Modern scholars also increasingly render ⟨χ⟩ as ⟨kh⟩.The sounds of Modern Greek have diverged from both those of Ancient Greek and their descendant letters in English and other languages. This led to a variety of romanizations for names and placenames in the 19th and 20th century. The Hellenic Organization for Standardization (ELOT) issued its system in cooperation with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1983. This system was adopted (with minor modifications) by the United Nations' Fifth Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names at Montreal in 1987, by the United Kingdom's Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use (PCGN) and by the United States' Board on Geographic Names (BGN) in 1996, and by the ISO itself in 1997. Romanization of names for official purposes (as with passports and identity cards) were required to use the ELOT system within Greece until 2011, when a legal decision permitted Greeks to use irregular forms (such as "Demetrios" for Δημήτριος) provided that official identification and documents also list the standard forms (as, for example, "Demetrios OR Dimitrios"). Other romanization systems still encountered are the BGN/PCGN's earlier 1962 system and the system employed by the American Library Association and the United States' Library of Congress."Greeklish" has also spread within Greece itself, owing to the rapid spread of digital telephony from cultures using the Latin alphabet. Since Greek typefaces and fonts are not always supported or robust, Greek email and chatting has adopted a variety of formats for rendering Greek and Greek shorthand using Latin letters. Examples include "8elo" and "thelw" for θέλω, "3ava" for ξανά, and "yuxi" for ψυχή.

ISO standards by standard number

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