ISO 8178

ISO 8178 is a collection of steady state test cycles used for defining emission standards for non-road engines in the European Union, United States, Japan and other countries. Test cycle ISO 8178 C1 is also referred to as "Non-Road Steady Cycle" and used extensively. The Non-road Transient Cycle is supplementing it in some modern emission standards.

It is defined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).


The ISO 8178 standard comes in 11 parts:

  • ISO 8178-1:2017 Part 1: Test-bed measurement systems of gaseous and particulate emissions
  • ISO 8178-2:2008 Part 2: Measurement of gaseous and particulate exhaust emissions under field conditions
  • ISO 8178-3:1994 Part 3: Definitions and methods of measurement of exhaust gas smoke under steady-state conditions
  • ISO 8178-4:2017 Part 4: Steady-state and transient test cycles for different engine applications
  • ISO 8178-5:2015 Part 5: Test fuels
  • ISO 8178-6:2000 Part 6: Report of measuring results and test
  • ISO 8178-7:2015 Part 7: Engine family determination
  • ISO 8178-8:2015 Part 8: Engine group determination
  • ISO 8178-9:2012 Part 9: Test cycles and test procedures for test bed measurement of exhaust gas smoke emissions from compression ignition engines operating under transient conditions
  • ISO 8178-10:2002 Part 10: Test cycles and test procedures for field measurement of exhaust gas smoke emissions from compression ignition engines operating under transient conditions
  • ISO 8178-11:2006 Part 11: Test-bed measurement of gaseous and particulate exhaust emissions from engines used in nonroad mobile machinery under transient test conditions (Withdrawn in 2014-08-13)

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Bharat Stage emission standards

Bharat stage emission standards {BSES} are emission standards instituted by the Government of India to regulate the output of air pollutants from internal combustion engines and Spark-ignition engines equipment, including motor vehicles. The standards and the timeline for implementation are set by the Central Pollution Control Board under the Ministry of Environment & Forests and climate change.The standards, based on European regulations were first introduced in 2000. Progressively stringent norms have been rolled out since then. All new vehicles manufactured after the implementation of the norms have to be compliant with the regulations. Since October 2010, Bharat Stage (BS) III norms have been enforced across the country. In 13 major cities, Bharat Stage IV emission norms have been in place since April 2010 and it has been enforced for entire country since April 2017. In 2016, the Indian government announced that the country would skip the BS-V norms altogether and adopt BS-VI norms by 2020. In its recent judgment, the Supreme Court has banned the sale and registration of motor vehicles conforming to the emission standard Bharat Stage-IV in the entire country from April 1, 2020.On November 15, 2017 The Petroleum Ministry of India in consultation with Public Oil Marketing Companies decided to bring forward the date of BS-VI grade auto fuels in NCT of Delhi with effect from April 1, 2018 instead of April 1, 2020. In fact, Petroleum Ministry OMCs were asked to examine the possibility of introduction of BS-VI auto fuels in the whole of NCR area from April 1, 2019. This huge step was taken due the heavy problem of air pollution faced by Delhi which became worse around this year. The decision was met with disarray by the automobile companies as they had planned the development according to roadmap for 2020.

The phasing out of 2-stroke engine for two wheelers, the cessation of production of Maruti 800 & introduction of electronic controls have been due to the regulations related to vehicular emissions.While the norms help in bringing down pollution levels, it invariably results in increased vehicle cost due to the improved technology & higher fuel prices. However, this increase in private cost is offset by savings in health costs for the public, as there is lesser amount of disease causing particulate matter and pollution in the air. Exposure to air pollution can lead to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, which is estimated to be the cause for 6.2 lakh early deaths in 2010, and the health cost of air pollution in India has been assessed at 3% of its GDP.


Horsepower (hp) is a unit of measurement of power, or the rate at which work is done. There are many different standards and types of horsepower. Two common definitions being used today are the mechanical horsepower (or imperial horsepower), which is about 745.7 watts, and the metric horsepower, which is approximately 735.5 watts.

The term was adopted in the late 18th century by Scottish engineer James Watt to compare the output of steam engines with the power of draft horses. It was later expanded to include the output power of other types of piston engines, as well as turbines, electric motors and other machinery. The definition of the unit varied among geographical regions. Most countries now use the SI unit watt for measurement of power. With the implementation of the EU Directive 80/181/EEC on January 1, 2010, the use of horsepower in the EU is permitted only as a supplementary unit.

List of International Organization for Standardization standards, 8000-8999

This is a list of published International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards and other deliverables. For a complete and up-to-date list of all the ISO standards, see the ISO catalogue.The standards are protected by copyright and most of them must be purchased. However, about 300 of the standards produced by ISO and IEC's Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC1) have been made freely and publicly available.

List of Volkswagen Group diesel engines

List of Volkswagen Group diesel engines. The compression-ignition diesel engines listed below are currently used by various marques of automobiles and commercial vehicles of the German automotive concern, Volkswagen Group, and also in Volkswagen Marine and Volkswagen Industrial Motor applications. All listed engines operate on the four-stroke cycle, and unless stated otherwise, use a wet sump lubrication system, and are water-cooled.Since the Volkswagen Group is European, official internal combustion engine performance ratings are published using the International System of Units (commonly abbreviated "SI"), a modern form of the metric system of figures. Motor vehicle engines will have been tested by a Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN) accredited testing facility, to either the original 80/1269/EEC, or the later 1999/99/EC standards. The standard initial measuring unit for establishing the rated power output is the (kW); and in their official literature, the power rating may be published in either the kW, or the 'Pferdestärke' (PS, which is sometimes incorrectly referred to as 'metric horsepower'), or both, and may also include conversions to imperial units such as the horsepower (hp) or brake horsepower (bhp). (Conversions: one PS ≈ 735.5 watts (W), ≈ 0.98632 hp (SAE)). In case of conflict, the metric power figure of kilowatts (kW) will be stated as the primary figure of reference. For the turning force generated by the engine, the Newton metre (Nm) will be the reference figure of torque. Engines shall be listed in the following ascending order.

Number of cylinders,

Engine displacement (in litres),

Engine configuration, and

Rated power output (in kilowatts).As with the discontinued Volkswagen Group Diesel engines, whilst the Volkswagen Golf may have started the Diesel craze in Europe, every Diesel engine in each generation of the Volkswagen Golf has been offered in Industrial applications, and has since had impressive field results on par with an Isuzu, Kubota, or Yanmar Industrial Diesel engine in industrial applications, and has been as much of a workhorse as the latter Japanese choices.

The Diesel engines which Volkswagen Group previously manufactured and installed are in the list of discontinued Volkswagen Group diesel engines article.

SDI (engine)

The SDI engine is a design of naturally aspirated (NA) direct injection diesel engine developed and produced by Volkswagen Group for use in cars and vans, along with marine engine (Volkswagen Marine) and Volkswagen Industrial Motor applications.

The SDI brand name (derived from "Suction Diesel Injection" or "Suction Diesel Direct Injection", the latter a literal translation of the German: Saugdieseldirekteinspritzung) was adopted in order to differentiate between earlier and less efficient indirect injection engines, called SD or "Suction Diesel", which were also produced by Volkswagen Group.

SDI engines are only produced in inline or straight engine configurations; and as they originate from a German manufacture, are designated as either R4 or R5, taken from the German: Reihenmotor. They are available in various displacements (from 1.7 to 2.5 litres), in inline-four (R4 or I4) and inline-five (R5 or I5), in various states of tune, depending on intended application.

The SDI engine is generally utilised in applications where reliability and fuel economy are of primary concern. These engines lack any type of forced induction, hence the use of 'suction' in the title, and as such, their power output is lower when compared with a similar displacement turbocharged engine. For example, the 2.0 SDI engine fitted to the Volkswagen Golf Mk5 has a peak power output of 55 kilowatts (75 PS; 74 bhp); whereas the same engine in Turbocharged Direct Injection (TDI) form is rated at 103 kilowatts (140 PS; 138 bhp) or 125 kilowatts (170 PS; 168 bhp), depending on specifications.

United States emission standards

In the United States, emissions standards are managed nationally by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). State and local governments may apply for waivers to enact stricter regulations.

ISO standards by standard number

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