ISO 7637 Road vehicles -- Electrical disturbances from conduction and coupling is an international electromagnetic compatibility vehicle standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), that relates to 12 and 14 volt electrical systems. As of November 2018, four parts of ISO 7637 have been published, and one is in development (part 4):
There are several distinct electrical transient waveforms that are required from this testing to ISO 7637-2. These pulses or waveforms include very high rise or fall times often in the nanosecond and microseconds range. These transients are designed to simulate electrical occurrences in operational environments, including a load dump simulation. ISO 7637 is referenced by many vehicle manufacturer standards and individual waveforms are modified to meet specific requirements. ISO 7636 includes both immunity and emissions components of electromagnetic compatibility testing. This standard, including ISO 7637-2 places specific requirements on test equipment that can be used to replicate electrical occurrences.
Andhra Pradesh MedTech Zone Limited (popularly known as AMTZ) is an enterprise under the Government of Andhra Pradesh to promote medical device manufacturing in India. The goal of this progressive initiative would be to make Andhra Pradesh an internationally recognised manufacturing hub for medical devices, help in national agenda of import substitution, make Andhra Pradesh leader in medical technology exports, generate employment and contribute to volume generated cost reduction of medical devices for patients. A 270 acre-zone is allocated near Vizag steel plant and is dedicated for medical device manufacturing. The objective is to reduce the cost of manufacturing up to 40%, to simplify end-to-end operations for manufacturers, and to reduce import dependency.CAN bus
A Controller Area Network (CAN bus) is a robust vehicle bus standard designed to allow microcontrollers and devices to communicate with each other in applications without a host computer. It is a message-based protocol, designed originally for multiplex electrical wiring within automobiles to save on copper, but is also used in many other contexts.Electromagnetic compatibility
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is the branch of electrical engineering concerned with the unintentional generation, propagation and reception of electromagnetic energy which may cause unwanted effects such as electromagnetic interference (EMI) or even physical damage in operational equipment. Also, it is the ability of an equipment or system to function satisfactorily in its electromagnetic environment without introducing intolerable electromagnetic disturbances to anything in that environment. The goal of EMC is the correct operation of different equipment in a common electromagnetic environment.
EMC pursues three main classes of issue. Emission is the generation of electromagnetic energy, whether deliberate or accidental, by some source and its release into the environment. EMC studies the unwanted emissions and the countermeasures which may be taken in order to reduce unwanted emissions. The second class, susceptibility, is the tendency of electrical equipment, referred to as the victim, to malfunction or break down in the presence of unwanted emissions, which are known as Radio frequency interference (RFI). Immunity is the opposite of susceptibility, being the ability of equipment to function correctly in the presence of RFI, with the discipline of "hardening" equipment being known equally as susceptibility or immunity. A third class studied is coupling, which is the mechanism by which emitted interference reaches the victim.
Interference mitigation and hence electromagnetic compatibility may be achieved by addressing any or all of these issues, i.e., quieting the sources of interference, inhibiting coupling paths and/or hardening the potential victims. In practice, many of the engineering techniques used, such as grounding and shielding, apply to all three issues.List of International Organization for Standardization standards, 5000-7999
This is a list of published International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards and other deliverables. For a complete and up-to-date list of all the ISO standards, see the ISO catalogue.The standards are protected by copyright and most of them must be purchased. However, about 300 of the standards produced by ISO and IEC's Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC1) have been made freely and publicly available.List of common EMC test standards
The following list outlines a number of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) standards which are known at the time of writing to be either available or have been made available for public comment. These standards attempt to standardize product EMC performance, with respect to conducted or radiated radio interference from electrical or electronic equipment, imposition of other types of disturbance on the mains supply by such equipment, and the sensitivity of such equipment to received interference.
The legal status of these standards varies according to the jurisdiction. Standards called up by the European Union's EMC Directive effectively have the force of law in the EU.Load dump
Load dump means the disconnection of a powered load. It can cause 2 problems:
failure of supply to equipment or customers
large voltage spikes from the inductive generator(s)In automotive electronics, it refers to the disconnection of the vehicle battery from the alternator while the battery is being charged. Due to such a disconnection of the battery, other loads connected to the alternator see a surge in power line. The peak voltage of this surge may be as high as 120 V and the surge may take up to 400 ms to decay. It is typically clamped to 40 V in 12 V vehicles and about 60 V in 24 V systems.
ISO standards by standard number