ISO 690 is an ISO standard for bibliographic referencing in different kind of documents. It includes electronic documents, and specifies the elements to be included in references to published documents, and the order in which the elements of the reference should be stated. Punctuation and style (output mask) are not part of the standard; it is a standard for content more than for presentation.
ISO 690 covers references to published material in both print and non-print form. The latest version was published in 2010 and covers all kinds of information resources, including monographs, serials, contributions, patents, cartographic materials, electronic information resources (including computer software and databases), music, recorded sound, prints, photographs, graphic and audiovisual works, and moving images.
Even though ISO 690:2010(E) generally suggests to place the date of publication after place and publisher (referred to as "production information") it also hints to the Harvard system style (name-date system) and provides also various examples of its way of citation in the annex of ISO 690:2010(E).
Until 2010, ISO 690 appeared in two ISO documents:
Actual status of standard is ISO 690:2010. The material is copyrighted and not free for distribution. Basically, the application of older version of ISO standard is not a fault.
APA Style is a writing style and format for academic documents such as scholarly journal articles and books. It is commonly used for citing sources within the field of behavioral and social sciences. It is described in the style guide of the American Psychological Association (APA), which is titled the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. The guidelines were developed to aid reading comprehension in the social and behavioral sciences, for clarity of communication, and for "word choice that best reduces bias in language".APA Style is widely used, either entirely or with modifications, by hundreds of other scientific journals (including medical and other public health journals), in many textbooks, and in academia (for papers written in classes). Along with AMA style and CSE style, it is one of the major styles for such work.ASA style
ASA style is a widely accepted format for writing university research papers in the field of sociology. It specifies the arrangement and punctuation of footnotes and bibliographies. Standards for ASA style are specified in the ASA Style Guide, which is published by the American Sociological Association, the main scholarly organization for academic sociologists in the United States. The ASA Style Guide, published by the American Sociological Association, is designed to aid authors preparing manuscripts for ASA journals and publications.Bibliography
Bibliography (from Greek βιβλίον biblion, "book" and -γραφία -graphia, "writing"), as a discipline, is traditionally the academic study of books as physical, cultural objects; in this sense, it is also known as bibliology (from Greek -λογία, -logia). Carter and Barker (2010) describe bibliography as a twofold scholarly discipline—the organized listing of books (enumerative bibliography) and the systematic description of books as objects (descriptive bibliography).Citing Medicine
Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers is the style guide of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM). Its main focus is citation style and bibliographic style. The citation style of Citing Medicine is the current incarnation of the Vancouver system, per the References > Style and Format section of the ICMJE Recommendations (formerly called the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals). Citing Medicine style is the style used by MEDLINE and PubMed.The introduction section of Citing Medicine explains that "three major sources are utilized in compiling Citing Medicine: the MEDLARS Indexing Manual of the National Library of Medicine (NLM); pertinent NISO standards, primarily ANSI/NISO Z39.29-2005 Bibliographic References; and relevant standards from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), primarily ISO 690 Documentation - Bibliographic References."Documentation
Documentation is a set of documents provided on paper, or online, or on digital or analog media, such as audio tape or CDs. Examples are user guides, white papers, on-line help, quick-reference guides. It is becoming less common to see paper (hard-copy) documentation. Documentation is distributed via websites, software products, and other on-line applications.
Professionals educated in this field are termed documentalists. This field changed its name to information science in 1968, but some uses of the term documentation still exists and there have been efforts to reintroduce the term documentation as a field of study.IEEE style
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) style is a widely accepted format for writing research papers, commonly used in technical fields, particularly in computer science. IEEE style is based on the Chicago Style. In IEEE style, citations are numbered, but citation numbers are included in the text in square brackets rather than as superscripts. All bibliographical information is exclusively included in the list of references at the end of the document, next to the respective citation number.ISO 14971
ISO 14971 is an ISO standard for the application of risk management to medical devices. The ISO Technical Committee responsible for the maintenance of this standard is ISO TC 210 working with IEC/SC62A through Joint Working Group one (JWG1). This standard is the culmination of the work starting in ISO/IEC Guide 51, and ISO/IEC Guide 63. The latest significant revision was published in 2007 with a minor update published in 2009. In 2013, a technical report ISO/TR 24971 was published by ISO TC 210 to provide expert guidance on the application of this standard.
This standard establishes the requirements for risk management to determine the safety of a medical device by the manufacturer during the product life cycle. Such activity is required by higher level regulation and other quality management system standards such as ISO 13485. Specifically, ISO 14971 is a nine-part standard which first establishes a framework for risk analysis, evaluation, control, and management, and also specifies a procedure for review and monitoring during production and post-production.In 2012, a European harmonized version of this standard was adopted by CEN as EN ISO 14971:2012. This version is harmonized with respect to the three European Directives associated with medical devices Active Implantable Medical Device Directive 90/385/EEC, Medical Devices Directive 93/42/EEC, and In-vitro Diagnostic Medical Device Directive 98/79/EC, through the three 'Zed' Annexes (ZA, ZB & ZC). This was done to address the presumed compliance with the 3 Directives that is obtained through notified body certification audits and regulatory submissions that claim compliance to this standard.EN ISO 14971:2012 applies only to manufacturers with devices intended for the European market; for the rest of the world, ISO 14971:2007 remains the standard recommended for medical device risk management purposes.International Standard Bibliographic Description
The International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD) is a set of rules produced by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) to create a bibliographic description in a standard, human-readable form, especially for use in a bibliography or a library catalog. A preliminary consolidated edition of the ISBD was published in 2007 and the consolidated edition was published in 2011, superseding earlier separate ISBDs for monographs, older monographic publications, cartographic materials, serials and other continuing resources, electronic resources, non-book materials, and printed music. IFLA's ISBD Review Group is responsible for maintaining the ISBD.
One of the original purposes of the ISBD was to provide a standard form of bibliographic description that could be used to exchange records internationally. This would support IFLA's Universal Bibliographic Control program.List of style guide abbreviations
This list of style guide abbreviations provides the meanings of the abbreviations that are commonly used as short ways to refer to major style guides. They are used especially by editors communicating with other editors in manuscript queries, proof queries, marginalia, emails, message boards, and so on.List of style guides
A style guide or style manual is a set of standards for the writing and design of documents, either for general use or for a specific publication, organization or field. The implementation of a style guide provides uniformity in style and formatting within a document and across multiple documents. A set of standards for a specific organization is often known as "house style". Style guides are common for general and specialized use, for the general reading and writing audience, and for students and scholars of various academic disciplines, medicine, journalism, the law, government, business, and industry.MHRA Style Guide
The MHRA Style Guide: A Handbook for Authors, Editors, and Writers of Theses (formerly the MHRA Style Book) is an academic style guide published by the Modern Humanities Research Association and most widely used in the arts and humanities in the United Kingdom, where the MHRA is based. It is available for sale both in the UK and in the United States.
The 3rd edition (updated 2013) can be downloaded free from the MHRA's official website.MLA Handbook
The MLA Handbook (8th ed., 2016), formerly the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (1977–2009) is a publication of the United States-based Modern Language Association. According to the organization, their MLA style "has been widely adopted for classroom instruction and used worldwide by scholars, journal publishers, and academic and commercial presses".The MLA Handbook began as an abridged student version of the MLA Style Manual. Both are academic style guides that have been widely used in the United States, Canada, and other countries, providing guidelines for writing and documentation of research in the humanities, such as English studies (including the English language, writing, and literature written in English); the study of other modern languages and literatures, including comparative literature; literary criticism; media studies; cultural studies; and related disciplines. Released in April 2016, the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook (like its previous editions) is addressed primarily to secondary-school and undergraduate college and university teachers and students.MLA announced in April 2016 MLA Handbook will henceforth be "the authoritative source for MLA style", and that the 2008 third edition of the MLA Style Manual would be the final edition of the larger work. The announcement also stated that the organization "is in the process of developing additional publications to address the professional needs of scholars."MLA Style Manual
The MLA Style Manual, titled the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing in its second (1998) and third edition (2008), was an academic style guide by the United States-based Modern Language Association of America (MLA) first published in 1985. MLA announced in April 2016 that the publication would be discontinued: the third edition would be the last and was to be “taken out of print”. The announcement also said that what began as an abridged version for students, the MLA Handbook, was to be thenceforth “the authoritative source for MLA style", and that the organization was "in the process of developing additional publications to address the professional needs of scholars."Microsoft Manual of Style
The Microsoft Manual of Style: Your Everyday Guide to Usage, Terminology, and Style for Professional Technical Communications (MSTP), in former editions the Microsoft Manual of Style for Technical Publications, is a style guide published by Microsoft. The fourth edition, ISBN 0-7356-4871-9, was published on January 15, 2012. Microsoft employees and partners can also access a Microsoft Compressed HTML Help (CHM) version of the MSTP.
In 2018, the book was replaced by a website, the Microsoft Writing Style Guide, joining other online guides like the Apple Style Guide and Google Developer Documentation Style Guide.Reference
Reference is a relation between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another object. The first object in this relation is said to refer to the second object. It is called a name for the second object. The second object, the one to which the first object refers, is called the referent of the first object. A name is usually a phrase or expression, or some other symbolic representation. Its referent may be anything – a material object, a person, an event, an activity, or an abstract concept.
References can take on many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is audible (onomatopoeia), visual (text), olfactory, or tactile, emotional state, relationship with other, spacetime coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric, a physical object or an energy projection. In some cases, methods are used that intentionally hide the reference from some observers, as in cryptography.
References feature in many spheres of human activity and knowledge, and the term adopts shades of meaning particular to the contexts in which it is used. Some of them are described in the sections below.The Cambridge Guide to English Usage
The Cambridge Guide to English Usage by Pam Peters is a usage dictionary, giving an up-to-date account of the debatable issues of English usage and written style. It is based on extensive, up-to-date corpus data rather than on the author's personal intuition or prejudice, and differentiates among US, UK, Canadian and Australian usages. British lexicographer Sidney Landau remarked:
The Cambridge Guide to English Usage is unique in the extent of its coverage of all the major varieties of English and in the degree to which it is based on corpus evidence, that is, on the analysis of vast collections of actual written and spoken language in each of the varieties under study.The Chicago Manual of Style
The Chicago Manual of Style (abbreviated in writing as CMOS or CMS, or sometimes as Chicago) is a style guide for American English published since 1906 by the University of Chicago Press. Its seventeen editions have prescribed writing and citation styles widely used in publishing. It is "one of the most widely used and respected style guides in the United States". The guide specifically focuses on American English and deals with aspects of editorial practice, including grammar and usage, as well as document preparation and formatting. It is available in print as a hardcover book, and by subscription as a searchable website as The Chicago Manual of Style Online. The online version provides some free resources, primarily aimed at teachers, students, and libraries.The Elements of Typographic Style
The Elements of Typographic Style is the authoritative book on typography and style by Canadian typographer, poet and translator Robert Bringhurst. Originally published in 1992 by Hartley & Marks Publishers, it was revised in 1996, 2001 (v2.4), 2002 (v2.5), 2004 (v3.0), 2005 (v3.1), 2008 (v3.2), and 2012 (v4.0). A history and guide to typography, it has been praised by Hermann Zapf, who said “I wish to see this book become the Typographers’ Bible.” Jonathan Hoefler and Tobias Frere-Jones consider it "the finest book ever written about typography," according to the FAQ section of their type foundry's website. Because of its status as a respected and frequently cited resource, typographers and designers often refer to it simply as Bringhurst.
The title alludes to The Elements of Style, the classic guide to writing by Strunk and White.
ISO standards by standard number