ISO 6438:1983, Documentation — African coded character set for bibliographic information interchange, is an ISO standard for an 8-bit character encoding for African languages. It has had little use (such as being available through UNIMARC). In practice it is now superseded by Unicode.
The Africa Alphabet (also International African Alphabet or IAI alphabet) was developed by the International Institute of African Languages and Cultures in 1928, with the help of some Africans led by Diedrich Hermann Westermann, who served as director of the organization from 1926 until 1939. Meanwhile, the aim of the International Institute of African Languages and Cultures, later known as International African Institute (IAI), was to enable people to write all the African languages for practical and scientific purposes without the need of diacritics. It is based on the International Phonetic Alphabet with a few differences, such as j and y, which instead have the same (consonant) sound values as in English.
This alphabet has influenced development of orthographies of many African languages (serving "as the basis for the transcription" of about 60, by one count), but not all, and discussions of harmonization of systems of transcription that led to, among other things, adoption of the African reference alphabet.
The African Alphabet was used, with the International Phonetic Alphabet, as a basis for the World Orthography.African reference alphabet
An African reference alphabet was first proposed in 1978 by a UNESCO-organized conference held in Niamey, Niger, and the proposed alphabet was revised in 1982. The conference recommended the use of single letters for a sound (that is, a phoneme) instead of using two or three-letter combinations, or letters with diacritical marks.
The African Reference Alphabet is clearly related to the Africa Alphabet and reflected practice based on the latter (including use of IPA characters). The Niamey conference also built on work of a previous UNESCO-organized meeting on harmonization of transcriptions of African languages, that was held in Bamako, Mali in 1966.List of International Organization for Standardization standards, 5000-7999
This is a list of published International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards and other deliverables. For a complete and up-to-date list of all the ISO standards, see the ISO catalogue.The standards are protected by copyright and most of them must be purchased. However, about 300 of the standards produced by ISO and IEC's Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC1) have been made freely and publicly available.Pan-Nigerian alphabet
The Pan-Nigerian alphabet is a set of 33 Latin letters standardized by the National Language Centre of Nigeria in the 1980s. It is intended to be sufficient to write all the languages of Nigeria without using digraphs.Standard Alphabet by Lepsius
The Standard Alphabet is a Latin-script alphabet developed by Karl Richard Lepsius. Lepsius initially used it to transcribe Egyptian hieroglyphs and extended it to write African languages, published in 1854 and 1855, and in a revised edition in 1863. The alphabet was comprehensive but was not used much as it contained a lot of diacritic marks and was difficult to read and typeset at that time. It was, however, influential in later projects such as Ellis's Paleotype, and diacritics such as the acute accent for palatalization, under-dot for retroflex, underline for Arabic emphatics, and the click letters continue in modern use.Writing systems of Africa
The writing systems of Africa refer to the current and historical practice of writing systems on the African continent, both indigenous and those introduced.
Today, the Latin script is commonly encountered across Africa, especially Sub-Saharan Africa. Arabic script is mainly used in North Africa and Ge'ez/Ethiopic script is dominant in the Horn of Africa. Regionally and in some localities, other scripts may be of significant importance.Ɨ
I-bar (majuscule: Ɨ, minuscule: ɨ), also called barred i, is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from I or i with the addition of a bar.
In the International Phonetic Alphabet, ɨ is used to represent a close central unrounded vowel. In American linguistic tradition, it is used to represent the weak vowel heard in the second syllable of roses when distinct from Rosa's. For related uses of the small capital barred i, see near-close central unrounded vowel.
The ISO 6438 (African coded character set for bibliographic information interchange) gives lowercase of Ɨ as ɪ, a small capital I, not ɨ.Ƴ
Ƴ (minuscule: ƴ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from Y with the addition of a hook. It is used in some African languages, such as Fula and Hausa, to represent a palatalized glottal stop, [ʔʲ].ɪ
Small capital I is an additional letter of the Latin alphabet similar in its dimensions to the letter "i" but with a shape based on ⟨I⟩, its capital form. Although ⟨ɪ⟩ is usually an allograph of the letter I, it is considered as an additional letter in the African reference alphabet and has been used as such in some publications in Kulango languages in Côte d'Ivoire in the 1990s. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, the lowercase small capital I /ɪ/ is used as the symbol for near-close near-front unrounded vowel.
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