ISO 639-1

ISO 639-1:2002, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 1: Alpha-2 code, is the first part of the ISO 639 series of international standards for language codes. Part 1 covers the registration of two-letter codes. There are 184 two-letter codes registered as of December 2018. The registered codes cover the world's major languages.

These codes are a useful international and formal shorthand for indicating languages.

Examples of ISO 639-1 codes
Code ISO 639-1 language name Endonym
English French German
en English anglais Englisch English
es Spanish espagnol Spanisch español
pt Portuguese portugais Portugiesisch português
zh Chinese chinois Chinesisch 中文, zhōngwén

Many multilingual web sites—such as Wikipedia—use these codes to prefix URLs of specific language versions of their web sites: for example, en.Wikipedia.org is the English version of Wikipedia. See also IETF language tag. (Two-letter country-specific top-level-domain code suffixes are often different from these language-tag prefixes).

ISO 639, the original standard for language codes, was approved in 1967. It was split into parts, and in 2002 ISO 639-1 became the new revision of the original standard. The last code added was ht, representing Haitian Creole on 2003-02-26. The use of the standard was encouraged by IETF language tags, introduced in RFC 1766 in March 1995, and continued by RFC 3066 from January 2001 and RFC 4646 from September 2006. The current version is RFC 5646 from September 2009. Infoterm (International Information Center for Terminology) is the registration authority for ISO 639-1 codes.

New ISO 639-1 codes are not added if an ISO 639-2 code exists, so systems that use ISO 639-1 and 639-2 codes, with 639-1 codes preferred, do not have to change existing codes.[1]

If an ISO 639-2 code that covers a group of languages is used, it might be overridden for some specific languages by a new ISO 639-1 code.

ISO 639-1 codes added after RFC publication in January 2001
ISO 639-1 ISO 639-2 Name Date added Previously covered by
io ido Ido 2002-01-15[2] art
wa wln Walloon 2002-01-29[3] roa
li lim Limburgish 2002-08-02[4] gem
ii iii Sichuan Yi 2002-10-14[5] sit
an arg Aragonese 2002-12-23[6] roa
ht hat Haitian Creole 2003-02-26[7] cpf

There is no specification on treatment of macrolanguages (see ISO 639-3).

Find a language
Enter an ISO 639-1 code to find the corresponding language article

See also

References

  1. ^ ISO 639 Joint Advisory Committee - Working principles for ISO 639 maintenance
  2. ^ "ISO639-1 Languages: Ido". Library of Congress.
  3. ^ "ISO639-1 Languages: Walloon". Library of Congress.
  4. ^ "ISO639-1 Languages: Limburgan". Library of Congress.
  5. ^ "ISO639-1 Languages: Sichuan Yi". Library of Congress.
  6. ^ "ISO639-1 Languages: Aragonese". Library of Congress.
  7. ^ "ISO639-1 Languages: Haitian". Library of Congress.

External links

Bailong River

The Bailong River (simplified Chinese: 白龙江; traditional Chinese: 白龍江; pinyin: Báilóng Jiāng; literally: 'White Dragon River') is a river 576km long river in the Yangtze River basin. From its source to confluence with the Jialing River, the Bailong is actually longer and is thus the main stem of the Jialing River system. The scenic Jiuzhaigou reserve is found along one of the Bailong's tributaries.

Børsvatnet

Børsvatnet (Norwegian) or Bođatjávricode: sme promoted to code: se (Northern Sami) is a lake in the municipality of Ballangen in Nordland county, Norway. The 11.6-square-kilometre (4.5 sq mi) lake is located about 3.5 kilometres (2.2 mi) southwest of the village of Ballangen.

Demesne

In the feudal system, the demesne ( di-MAYN) was all the land which was retained by a lord of the manor for his own use and occupation or support, under his own management, as distinguished from land sub-enfeoffed by him to others as sub-tenants. In England, royal demesne is the land held by the Crown, and ancient demesne is the legal term for the land held by the king at the time of the Domesday Book.

Gautelisvatnet

Gautelisvatnet (Norwegian) or Guovdelisjávricode: sme promoted to code: se (Northern Sami) is a lake that is located on the border of Norway and Sweden, about 50 kilometres (31 mi) southeast of the town of Narvik. The Norwegian side lies in Narvik Municipality in Nordland county and the Swedish side lies in Gällivare Municipality in Norrbotten County. The 17.67-square-kilometre (6.82 sq mi) lake has a dam on the northern end and the water is used for hydropower. After the dam was built, the lake grew and merged with the lake Vannaksvatnet to the south. The lake Unna Guovdelisjávri lies just to the east of this lake.

Hartvikvatnet

Hartvikvatnet (Norwegian) or Árajávricode: sme promoted to code: se (Northern Sami) is a lake in Narvik Municipality in Nordland county, Norway. The 2.3-square-kilometre (0.89 sq mi) lake is located about 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) east of the village of Bjerkvik and just less than 20 kilometres (12 mi) with the border with Sweden. The Elvegårdsmoen military camp lies just west of the lake.

Havvannet

Havvannet (Norwegian) or Vuolit Áhpelanjávri (Northern Sami) is a lake in Måsøy Municipality in Finnmark county, Norway. The 3.69 square kilometres (1.42 sq mi) lake lies isolated in the mountains on the Porsanger Peninsula about 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) northeast of the village of Kokelv in Kvalsund Municipality. The lake sits at an elevation of 293-metre (961 ft) above sea level. The village of Slåtten lies about 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) northwest of the lake.

Hwandudaedo

Hwandudaedo ("ring-pommel sword") is the modern Korean term for the earliest type of Korean sword, appearing in the Proto–Three Kingdoms of Korea.

These swords were at first symbols of a ruler's power, but their availability increased in the 5th century, and it became a more widespread symbol of military or political rank. The frequency of finds declines in the 6th century.

The hwandudaedo was a large military swords made for battle, as it had a thick back and sharpened blade. This sword's name was given because of the round shape of the pommel (daedocode: kor promoted to code: ko 대도把頭). The swords were richly decorated, with inlay work and especially by elaborate pommel (sword) shapes.

Hwandudaedo subtypes are distinguished based on their decoration. They include Sohwandudaedo (no decoration on the pommel rings), Samyeophwandudaedo (pommel ring with three opened leaves), Samruhwandudaedo (three pommel rings forming a triangle), Yonghwandudaedo (pommel with dragon), Bonghwandudaedo (pommel with phoenix), Bonghwangmun (peacock pattern), Indongdangchomun, Samyeopmun, Wondudaedo, Gyududaedo, Samruhwandudaedo, Bangdudaedo, Duchudaedo.

ISO 639 macrolanguage

A macrolanguage is a book-keeping mechanism for the ISO 639 international standard for language codes. Macrolanguages are established to assist mapping between different sets of ISO language codes. Specifically, there may be a many-to-one correspondence between ISO 639-3, intended to identify all the thousands of languages of the world, and either of two other sets, ISO 639-1, established to identify languages in computer systems, and ISO 639-2, which encodes a few hundred languages for library cataloguing and bibliographic purposes. When such many-to-one ISO 639-2 codes are included in an ISO 639-3 context, they are called "macrolanguages" to distinguish them from the corresponding individual languages of ISO 639-3. According to the ISO,

Some existing code elements in ISO 639-2, and the corresponding code elements in ISO 639-1, are designated in those parts of ISO 639 as individual language code elements, yet are in a one-to-many relationship with individual language code elements in [ISO 639-3]. For purposes of [ISO 639-3], they are considered to be macrolanguage code elements.

ISO 639-3 is curated by SIL International, ISO 639-2 is curated by the Library of Congress (USA).

The mapping often has the implication that it covers borderline cases where two language varieties may be considered strongly divergent dialects of the same language or very closely related languages (dialect continuums); it may also encompass situations when there are language varieties that are considered to be varieties of the same language on the grounds of ethnic, cultural, and political considerations, rather than linguistic reasons. However, this is not its primary function and the classification is not evenly applied.

For example, Chinese is a macrolanguage encompassing many languages that are not mutually intelligible, but the languages "Standard German", "Bavarian German", and other closely related languages do not form a macrolanguage, despite being more mutually intelligible. Other examples include Tajiki not being part of the Persian macrolanguage despite sharing much lexicon, and Urdu and Hindi not forming a macrolanguage despite forming a mutually intelligible dialect continuum. Even all dialects of Hindi are considered as separate languages. Basically, ISO 639-2 and ISO 639-3 use different criteria for dividing language varieties into languages, 639-2 uses shared writing systems and literature more whereas 639-3 focuses on mutual intelligibility and shared lexicon. The macrolanguages exist within the ISO 639-3 code set to make mapping between the two sets easier.

As of 25 January 2019, there are fifty-eight language codes in ISO 639-2 that are considered to be macrolanguages in ISO 639-3. The use of this category of macrolanguage was applied in Ethnologue, starting in the 16th edition.Some of the macrolanguages had no individual language (as defined by 639-3) in ISO 639-2, e.g. "ara" (Arabic), but ISO 639-3 recognizes different varieties of Arabic as separate languages under some circumstances. Others, like "nor" (Norwegian) had their two individual parts (nno Nynorsk, nob Bokmål) already in 639-2. That means some languages (e.g. "arb" Standard Arabic) that were considered by ISO 639-2 to be dialects of one language ("ara") are now in ISO 639-3 in certain contexts considered to be individual languages themselves. This is an attempt to deal with varieties that may be linguistically distinct from each other, but are treated by their speakers as forms of the same language, e.g. in cases of diglossia. For example,

Generic Arabic, 639-2

Standard Arabic, 639-3ISO 639-2 also includes codes for collections of languages; these are not the same as macrolanguages. These collections of languages are excluded from ISO 639-3, because they never refer to individual languages. Most such codes are included in ISO 639-5.

Inner-Sildvikvatnet

Inner-Sildvikvatnet (Norwegian) or Ruoidnajávricode: sme promoted to code: se (Northern Sami) (or unofficially: Indre Sildvikvatnet) is a lake in Narvik Municipality in Nordland county, Norway. The 2.29-square-kilometre (0.88 sq mi) lake lies south of the Rombaken fjord. The lake has a dam on the northern end and the water is used for hydroelectric power production.

Langvatnet (Ballangen)

Langvatnet (Norwegian) or Guovddelisjávrrecode: sme promoted to code: se (Northern Sami) is a lake in the municipality of Ballangen in Nordland county, Norway. The 14.36-square-kilometre (5.54 sq mi) lake is located northwest of the lake Sijdasjávrre and south of the lake Geitvatnet in the southeastern part of Ballangen, about 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) from the border with Sweden.

List of ISO 639-1 codes

ISO 639 is a standardized nomenclature used to classify languages. Each language is assigned a two-letter (639-1) and three-letter (639-2 and 639-3), lowercase abbreviation, amended in later versions of the nomenclature.

This table lists all of:

ISO 639-1: two-letter codes, one per language for ISO 639 macrolanguageAnd some of:

ISO 639-2/T: three-letter codes, for the same languages as 639-1

ISO 639-2/B: three-letter codes, mostly the same as 639-2/T, but with some codes derived from English names rather than native names of languages (in the following table, these differing codes are highlighted in boldface)

ISO 639-3: three-letter codes, the same as 639-2/T for languages, but with distinct codes for each variety of an ISO 639 macrolanguageNote: Colors on the leftmost column represent the language family mentioned in second column.

Lossivatnet

Lossivatnet (Norwegian) or Loasejávricode: sme promoted to code: se (Northern Sami) is a lake in Narvik Municipality in Nordland county, Norway. The 6.64-square-kilometre (2.56 sq mi) lake lies just west of the mountain Storsteinfjellet and about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) east of the village of Elvegård. The water is used for hydroelectric power production.

Luba-Katanga language

Luba-Katanga, also known as Luba-Shaba and Kiluba, is one of the two major Bantu languages spoken in the Democratic Republic of the Congo called "Luba". (See Luba-Kasai.) It is spoken mostly in the south-east area of the country by the Luba people.Kiluba is spoken in the area around Kabongo, Kamina, Luena, Lubudi, Malemba Nkulu, Mulongo, and Kaniama, mostly in Katanga. Some 500 years ago or more, the Luba Kasai left Katanga and settled in the Kasai; since then, Luba Kasai (Chiluba) has evolved until it is no longer mutually intelligible with Luba Katanga.

Store Måsvann

Store Måsvann or Store Måsvannet (Northern Sami: Stuorra Sopmir) is a lake in Lebesby Municipality in Finnmark county, Norway. The 14.89-square-kilometre (5.75 sq mi) lake lies about 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) southeast of the Laksefjorden, about half-way between Kunes and Ifjord.

Storvatnet (Ballangen)

Storvatnet (Norwegian) or Ránujávricode: sme promoted to code: se (Northern Sami) is a lake in the municipality of Ballangen in Nordland county, Norway. The 9.76-square-kilometre (3.77 sq mi) lake is located about 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) east of the village of Ballangen.

Sundvatnet

Sundvatnet (Norwegian) or Sopmirjávri (Northern Sami) is a lake in Deatnu-Tana Municipality in Finnmark county, Norway. The 5.54-square-kilometre (2.14 sq mi) lake lies about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) northwest of the village of Rustefjelbma. The Tanafjorden lies less than 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) west of the lake.

Tanoli

The Tanoli (Hindko/Urdu: تنولی‎, تناولی; Hindustani: تنوليcode: hin promoted to code: hi ) are a tribe living mostly in the Hazara area of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. They form the majority of the population of Lassan Nawab union council. The Tanoli describe themselves either as Pashtuns from the Ghazni area or as Barlas Turks. The Tanoli submitted to British colonial rule in the 1840s.

Trimbakeshwar Range

Trimbakeshwar Range is a mountain range in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra entirely situated in Nashik District. The range lies 30 km southwest to the district headquarters Nashik. The saddle shaped depression of the Brahmagiri mountain protects Trimbak, a town considered holy by Hindus Devotees throng to this town to pay visit to the sacred Trimbakeshwar Shiva Temple. The northern face of the range is the birthplace of India's 2nd longest river Godavari.The southern face of these hills are covered with dense forests and thus form a catchment area for the Upper Vaitarna Reservoir, the most important and reliable source of potable water supply to the metropolitan city of Mumbai.

Trimbakeshwar range also contain the Anjaneri hills though a minority of authors consider the latter to be a distinct range and often prefer to use the synonym Trimbak-Anjaneri to avoid disambiguation.

Twi

Twi (Akan: [tɕᶣi]; also known as Akan Kasa) is a dialect of the Akan language spoken in southern and central Ghana by several million people, mainly of the Akan tribe, the biggest of the about 17 major tribes in Ghana and forms some 70% of the Ghanaian population as a first and second language. Twi is a common name for two former literary dialects of the Akan language; Asante (Ashanti) and Akuapem, which are mutually intelligible. There are about 9 million Twi speakers, mainly originating from the Ashanti Region and about a total of 17–18 million Ghanaians as either first or second languages. Akuapem Twi was the first Akan dialect to be used for Bible translation, and became the prestige dialect as a result. It is also spoken by the Southeastern people of Cote D'Ivoire.

ISO standards by standard number
1–9999
10000–19999
20000+

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