ISO 6346

ISO 6346 is an international standard covering the coding, identification and marking of intermodal (shipping) containers used within containerized intermodal freight transport.[1] The standard establishes a visual identification system for every container that includes a unique serial number (with check digit), the owner, a country code, a size, type and equipment category as well as any operational marks. The standard is managed by the International Container Bureau (BIC).

ISO 6346
Freight containers -- Coding, identification and marking
Latest version3
6346:1995
Preview version1984
OrganizationInternational Organization for Standardization
AbbreviationISO 6346:1995
Containers ContainerCare Copenhagen
ISO-code and dimension/load table at several newly washed containers

Identification System

Example of an ISO 6346 compliant container number:

Example of an ISO 6346 compliant container number

Example of an ISO 6346 compliant container number
Container identificatie
BIC code on the end of a shipping container

The illustrated example is a code for a container owned by Hapag-Lloyd AG.[2]

Owner Code

The owner code consists of three capital letters of the Latin alphabet to indicate the owner or principal operator of the container. Such code needs to be registered at the Bureau International des Conteneurs in Paris to ensure uniqueness worldwide. An owner can apply for more than one code, as normally the first 2 letters are used as the owner code and the third is used to indicate pool (e.g. HLA, HLB, HLX are some Hapag-Lloyd codes to indicate whether container is standard, reefer...)

Equipment Category Identifier

The equipment category identifier consists of one of the following capital letters of the Latin alphabet:

  • U for all freight containers
  • J for detachable freight container-related equipment
  • Z for trailers and chassis

Presently, all official BIC container codes end in “U”. However, the Association of American Railroads recognizes similar codes for their containers and trailers traveling by rail in North America, however these are not recognized by the BIC and lack check digits.

Under the ISO code, then, only U, J, and Z are in use. The refrigerated (reefer) container is identified by means of the size type code.

Serial Number

The serial number consists of 6 numeric digits, assigned by the owner or operator, uniquely identifying the container within that owner/operator's fleet.

Check Digit

The check digit consists of one numeric digit providing a means of validating the recording and transmission accuracies of the owner code and serial number.

To compute the check digit, the letters have to be converted to numbers. This is done in three steps:

Calculation Step 1

An equivalent numerical value is assigned to each letter of the alphabet, beginning with 10 for the letter A (11 and multiples thereof are omitted):

A B C D E F G H I J K L M
10 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 23 24
N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 34 35 36 37 38

The individual digits of the serial number keep their numeric value.

Calculation Step 2

Each of the numbers calculated in step 1 is multiplied by 2position, where position is the exponent to base 2. Position starts at 0, from left to right.

The following table shows the multiplication factors:

1. nbr 2. nbr 3. nbr 4. nbr 5. nbr 6. nbr 7. nbr 8. nbr 9. nbr 10. nbr
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512

Calculation Step 3

  1. Sum up all results of Step above
  2. Divide them by 11
  3. Round the result down towards zero i.e. make the result a whole number (integer)
  4. Multiply the integer value by 11
  5. Subtract result of (iv) from result of (i): This is the check digit.

If the final difference is 10, then the check digit becomes 0. To ensure that this does not happen, the standard recommends that serial numbers should not be used which produce a final difference of 10; however, there are containers in the market which do not follow this recommendation, so handling this case has to be included if a check digit calculator is programmed.

Notice that step (ii) to (v) is a calculation of the remainder found after division of (i) by 11. Most programming languages have a modulo operator for this. Attention should be paid on how it is working in the language chosen; i. e. if it is giving back the decimal rest or the integer rest in order to get proper results. 11 is used as divisor because a container number has 11 letters and digits in total. In step 1 the numbers 11, 22 and 33 are left out as they are multiples of the divisor.

Example

C S Q U 3 0 5 4 3 8 Calc.
13 30 28 32 3 0 5 4 3 8
× 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512
13 60 112 256 48 0 320 512 768 4096 6185 [a]
b) Division by 11: 562.272...
c) Erase decimal digits: 562
d) Multiply by 11: 6182
a) minus d) = Check Digit: 3

Practical Problems

In day-to-day business it happens that containers do appear which do not follow the ISO 6346 identification at all; however, they are fully CSC safety approved containers. Usually these are "shippers owned" containers, which means that they are not owned by the carrier but supplied by the cargo owners (shippers). They may have no registered owner code and no category identifier and have no check digit. It is advisable to follow ISO 6346 as the absence of a compliant identification code causes problems for both carriers and container terminals to correctly identify the equipment and properly deliver the cargo, because computer systems require ISO 6346 conformant naming and as such missing prefixes are invented. For example, YYYY at the carrier and XXXX at the terminal causes the equipment to mismatch. Moreover, since ISO 6346 identification has become a requirement in international Customs conventions (Customs Conventions on Containers and Istanbul Convention), many Customs Administrations have begun validating that containers are marked as per the standard.

Size and Type Codes

The codes are compiled of the following elements:

  • First character, representing the length (coded)
  • Second character, representing the width and height (coded)
  • Third and fourth character indicating the type of the container

The following is an overview of the most common codes:

ISO Type Group ISO Size Type
Code Description Code Description
20GP GENERAL PURPOSE CONT. 20G0 GENERAL PURPOSE CONT.
20G1 GENERAL PURPOSE CONT.
20HR ISOLADO CONTAINE REEFER 20H0 INSULATED CONTAINER
20PF FLAT (FIXED ENDS) 20P1 FLAT (FIXED ENDS)
20TD TANK CONTAINER 20T3 TANK CONTAINER
20T4 TANK CONTAINER
20T5 TANK CONTAINER
20T6 TANK CONTAINER
20TG TANK CONTAINER 20T7 TANK CONTAINER
20T8 TANK CONTAINER
20TN TANK CONTAINER 20T0 TANK CONTAINER
20T1 TANK CONTAINER
20T2 TANK CONTAINER
22BU BULK CONTAINER 22B0 BULK CONTAINER
22GP GENERAL PURPOSE CONT. 22G0 GENERAL PURPOSE CONT.
22G1 GENERAL PURPOSE CONT.
22HR INSULATED CONTAINER 22H0 INSULATED CONTAINER
22PC FLAT (COLLAPSIBLE) 22P3 FLAT (COLLAPSIBLE)
22P8 FLAT (COLL.FLUSH FOLDING)
22P9 FLAT (COLLAPSIBLE)
22PF FLAT (FIXED ENDS) 22P1 FLAT (FIXED ENDS)
22P7 FLAT (GENSET CARRIER)
22RC REEFER CONT.(NO FOOD) 22R9 REEFER CONT.(NO FOOD)
22RS BUILT-IN GEN. F. POWER SPLY OF REEF 22R7 BUILT-IN GEN. F. POWER SPLY OF REEF
22RT REEFER CONTAINER 22R1 REEFER CONTAINER
22SN NAMED CARGO CONTAINER 22S1 NAMED CARGO CONTAINER
22TD TANK CONTAINER 22T3 TANK CONTAINER
22T4 TANK CONTAINER
22T5 TANK CONTAINER
22T6 TANK CONTAINER
22TG TANK CONTAINER 22T7 TANK CONTAINER
22T8 TANK CONTAINER
22TN TANK CONTAINER 22T0 TANK CONTAINER
22T1 TANK CONTAINER
22T2 TANK CONTAINER
22UP HARDTOP CONTAINER 22U6 HARDTOP CONTAINER
22UT OPEN TOP CONTAINER 22U1 OPEN TOP CONTAINER
22VH VENTILATED CONTAINER 22V0 VENTILATED CONTAINER
22V2 VENTILATED CONTAINER
22V3 VENTILATED CONTAINER
25GP GP-CONTAINER OVER-HEIGHT 25G0 GP-CONTAINER OVER-HEIGHT
26GP GP-CONTAINER OVER-HEIGHT 26G0 GP-CONTAINER OVER-HEIGHT
26HR INSULATED CONTAINER 26H0 INSULATED CONTAINER
28TG TANK FOR GAS 28T8 TANK FOR GAS
28UT OPEN TOP (HALF HEIGHT) 28U1 OPEN TOP (HALF HEIGHT)
28VH VE-HALF-HEIGHT =1448 MM HEIGHT 28V0 VE-HALF-HEIGHT =1448 MM HEIGHT
29PL PLATFORM 29P0 PLATFORM
2EGP GEN. PURP. WITHOUT VENT WIDTH 2.5M 2EG0 HIGH CUBE CONT. (WIDTH 2.5M)
42GP GENERAL PURPOSE CONT. 42G0 GENERAL PURPOSE CONT.
42G1 GENERAL PURPOSE CONT.
42HR INSULATED CONTAINER 42H0 INSULATED CONTAINER
42PC FLAT (COLLAPSIBLE) 42P3 FLAT (COLLAPSIBLE)
42P8 FLAT (COLL.FLUSH FOLDING)
42P9 FLAT (COLLAPSIBLE)
42PF FLAT (FIXED ENDS) 42P1 FLAT (FIXED ENDS)
42PS FLAT (SPACE SAVER) 42P6 FLAT SPACE SAVER
42RC REEFER CONT.(NO FOOD) 42R9 REEFER CONT.(NO FOOD)
42RS REEFER CONT.(DIESEL GEN.) 42R3 REEFER CONT.(DIESEL GEN.)
42RT REEFER CONTAINER 42R1 REEFER CONTAINER
42SN NAMED CARGO CONTAINER 42S1 NAMED CARGO CONTAINER
42TD TANK CONTAINER 42T5 TANK CONTAINER
42T6 TANK CONTAINER
42TG TANK CONTAINER 42T8 TANK CONTAINER
42TN TANK CONTAINER 42T2 TANK CONTAINER
42UP HARDTOP CONTAINER 42U6 HARDTOP CONTAINER
42UT OPEN TOP CONTAINER 42U1 OPEN TOP CONTAINER
45BK BULK CONTAINER 45B3 BULK CONTAINER
45GP HIGH CUBE CONT. 45G0 HIGH CUBE CONT.
45G1 HIGH CUBE CONT.
45PC FLAT (COLLAPSIBLE) 45P3 FLAT (COLLAPSIBLE)
45P8 FLAT (COLL.FLUSH FOLDING)
45RC REEFER CONT.(NO FOOD) 45R9 REEFER CONT.(NO FOOD)
45RT REEFER HIGHCUBE CONTAINER 45R1 REEFER HIGHCUBE CONTAINER
45UT OPEN TOP CONTAINER 45U1 OPEN TOP CONTAINER
45UP HIGH CUBE HARDTOP CONT. 45U6 HIGH CUBE HARDTOP CONT.
46HR INSULATED CONTAINER 46H0 INSULATED CONTAINER
48TG TANK FOR GAS 48T8 TANK FOR GAS
49PL PLATFORM 49P0 PLATFORM
4CGP GP CONTAINER 4CG0 GP CONTAINER (WIDTH 2.5 M)
L0GP HIGH CUBE CONT. L0G1 HIGH CUBE CONT.
L2GP HIGH CUBE CONT. L2G1 HIGH CUBE CONT.
L5GP HIGH CUBE CONT. L5G1 HIGH CUBE CONT.

Use the below to calculate Size/Type of a less commonly used ISO 6346 containers:

ISO Length Codes Second size code character
Code Container length Code Container height Width
1 10′ 0 8′ 8′
1 10′ 2 8′6″
2 20′ 2 8′6″
3 30′ 4 9′
4 40′ 5 9′6″
B 24′ 6 > 9′6″
C 24′6″ 8 4′3″
G 41′ 9 <= 4′
H 43′ C 8′6″ 2438mm < x <= 2500mm
L 45′ D 9′
M 48′ E 9′6″
N 49′ F > 9′6″
ISO Type Codes
Code Description
G0 General - Openings at one or both ends
G1 General - Passive vents at upper part of cargo space
G2 General - Openings at one or both ends + full openings on one or both sides
G3 General - Openings at one or both ends + partial openings on one or both sides
V0 Fantainer - Non-mechanical, vents at lower and upper parts of cargo space
V2 Fantainer - Mechanical ventilation system located internally
V4 Fantainer - Mechanical ventilation system located externally
R0 Integral Reefer - Mechanically refrigerated
R1 Integral Reefer - Mechanically refrigerated and heated
R2 Integral Reefer - Self-powered mechanically refrigerated
R3 Integral Reefer - Self-powered mechanically refrigerated and heated
H0 Refrigerated or heated with removable equipment located externally; heat transfer coefficient K=0.4W/M2.K
H1 Refrigerated or heated with removable equipment located internally
H2 Refrigerated or heated with removable equipment located externally; heat transfer coefficient K=0.7W/M2.K
H5 Insulated - Heat transfer coefficient K=0.4W/M2.K
H6 Insulated - Heat transfer coefficient K=0.7W/M2.K
U0 Open Top - Openings at one or both ends
U1 Open Top - Idem + removable top members in end frames
U2 Open Top - Openings at one or both ends + openings at one or both sides
U3 Open Top - Idem + removable top members in end frames
U4 Open Top - Openings at one or both ends + partial on one and full at other side
U5 Open Top - Complete, fixed side and end walls ( no doors )
T0 Tank - Non-dangerous liquids, minimum pressure 0.45 bar
T1 Tank - Non-dangerous liquids, minimum pressure 1.50 bar
T2 Tank - Non-dangerous liquids, minimum pressure 2.65 bar
T3 Tank - Dangerous liquids, minimum pressure 1.50 bar
T4 Tank - Dangerous liquids, minimum pressure 2.65 bar
T5 Tank - Dangerous liquids, minimum pressure 4.00 bar
T6 Tank - Dangerous liquids, minimum pressure 6.00 bar
T7 Tank - Gases, minimum pressure 9.10 bar
T8 Tank - Gases, minimum pressure 22.00 bar
T9 Tank - Gases, minimum pressure to be decided
B0 Bulk - Closed
B1 Bulk - Airtight
B3 Bulk - Horizontal discharge, test pressure 1.50 bar
B4 Bulk - Horizontal discharge, test pressure 2.65 bar
B5 Bulk - Tipping discharge, test pressure 1.50 bar
B6 Bulk - Tipping discharge, test pressure 2.65 bar
P0 Flat or Bolster - Plain platform
P1 Flat or Bolster - Two complete and fixed ends
P2 Flat or Bolster - Fixed posts, either free-standing or with removable top member
P3 Flat or Bolster - Folding complete end structure
P4 Flat or Bolster - Folding posts, either free-standing or with removable top member
P5 Flat or Bolster - Open top, open ends (skeletal)
S0 Livestock carrier
S1 Automobile carrier
S2 Live fish carrier

Country Code (Optional)

The country code consists of two capital letters of the Latin alphabet as described in ISO 3166. It indicates the country where the code is registered not the nationality of the owner or operator of the container. The letters of the code shall not be less than 100 mm high.

Mandatory Operational Marks

Operational marks are intended solely to convey information requested for the movement of containers or give visual warnings. They relate to

  • the weight of containers
  • a symbol to denote air-surface container
  • a sign warning of overhead electrical danger
  • height marks for containers higher than 2.6 m (8 ft 6 in)

See also

The following is a list of further freight container related ISO specifications, where not all have an article assigned yet (you can help improve Wikipedia and start one):

  • ISO 668 - Freight containers - Classification, dimensions and ratings
  • ISO 830 - Freight containers - Terminology
  • ISO 1161 - Freight containers - Corner fittings - Specification
  • ISO 1496 - Freight containers - Specification and testing
  • ISO 2308 - Hooks for lifting freight containers of up to 30 tons capacity - Basic requirements
  • ISO 3874 - Freight containers - Handling and securing
  • ISO 8323 - Freight containers - Air/surface (intermodal) general purpose containers - Specification and tests
  • ISO 9669 - Freight containers - Interface connections for tank containers
  • ISO 9711 - Freight containers - Information related to containers on board vessels
  • ISO 9897 - Container equipment data exchange (CEDEX)
  • ISO 10368 - Freight thermal containers - Remote condition monitoring
  • ISO 10374 - Freight containers - Automatic identification

References

Notes
  1. ^ "ISO 6346:1995 - Freight containers -- Coding, identification and marking". www.iso.org.
  2. ^ BIC Codes online, accessed 22 March 2018
Sources

External links

20 (number)

20 (twenty) is the natural number following 19 and preceding 21. A group of twenty units may also be referred to as a score.

28 (number)

28 (twenty-eight) is the natural number following 27 and preceding 29.

6346

6346 may refer to:

6346 (number), a number of verses in the Qu'ran

6346 Syukumeguri, a minor planet

ISO 6346, an international standard covering the coding

The year in the 7th millennium

BIC code

BIC or BIC code can refer to:

ISO 6346 – shipping container owner code, defined by the Bureau International des Containers (BIC)

ISO 9362 – business identifier code for banks and other institutions, defined by SWIFT

Bureau International des Containers

The Bureau International des Containers et du Transport Intermodal, originally French: Bureau International des Conteneurs, and still abbreviated BIC, and in English parlance sometimes called International Container Bureau oversees standards for intermodal containers, commonly referred to as "shipping containers".

The goal of the organization is to promote cooperation among corporations, governments and independent organizations relating to intermodal freight transport, the process of containerization, and the transport and handling of shipping containers.

Conex box

The CONEX box was developed during the Korean War and was used to transport and store supplies during the Korean and Vietnam war. It was reinvented by Malcom McLean to form the standard Intermodal shipping container (often called an ISO box, after ISO 6346) that is used widely by container shipping companies today.

Ellen Rothenberg

Ellen Rothenberg (1949-) is an American visual artist and writer whose socio-political art manifests itself in performance, installation, objects, and visual essays. The content of her art addresses the politics of everyday life and how communities engage through collaborative practices. She has exhibited her work internationally at the Museum der Moderne Salzburg, Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, the Brukenthal National Museum, Romania, the Neues Museum Weserburg, Bremen, Germany, among other institutions. Her writing has been published in "Immersive Life," University of Chicago Press; "Experimental Geography,” ICI NYC; Art Journal; and Woman Studies Quarterly, among other publications.

ISO 668

ISO 668 - Series 1 freight containers — Classification, dimensions and ratings is an ISO international standard which classifies intermodal freight shipping containers and standardises their size and weight specifications. Introduced in 1968, ISO 668 regulates both external and internal dimensions of containers, as well as the minimum door opening size, where applicable. It also specifies the associated gross weight ratings, and requirements for load transfer areas in the base structures of containers, since amendment 1 of 2005.The current edition of the standard is version E of 2013, which integrates version E from 1995 with its two amendments of 2005.

Intermodal container

An intermodal container is a large standardized shipping container, designed and built for intermodal freight transport, meaning these containers can be used across different modes of transport – from ship to rail to truck – without unloading and reloading their cargo. Intermodal containers are primarily used to store and transport materials and products efficiently and securely in the global containerized intermodal freight transport system, but smaller numbers are in regional use as well. These containers are known under a number of names, such as simply container, cargo or freight container, ISO container, shipping, sea or ocean container, container van or (Conex) box, sea can or c can.Intermodal containers exist in many types and a number of standardized sizes, but ninety percent of the global container fleet are so-called "dry freight" or "general purpose" containers, durable closed steel boxes, mostly of either twenty or forty feet (6.1 or 12.2 m) standard length. The common heights are 8 feet 6 inches (2.6 m) and 9 feet 6 inches (2.9 m) – the latter are known as High Cube or Hi-Cube containers.Just like cardboard boxes and pallets, these containers are a means to bundle cargo and goods into larger, unitized loads, that can be easily handled, moved, and stacked, and that will pack tightly in a ship or yard. Intermodal containers share a number of key construction features to withstand the stresses of intermodal shipping, to facilitate their handling and to allow stacking, as well as being identifiable through their individual, unique ISO 6346 reporting mark.

In 2012, there were about 20.5 million intermodal containers in the world of varying types to suit different cargoes. Containers have largely supplanted the traditional break bulk cargo – in 2010 containers accounted for 60% of the world's seaborne trade. The predominant alternative methods of transport carry bulk cargo – whether gaseous, liquid or solid – e.g. by bulk carrier or tank ship, tank car or truck. For air freight, the more light-weight IATA-defined unit load device is used.

List of International Organization for Standardization standards, 5000-7999

This is a list of published International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards and other deliverables. For a complete and up-to-date list of all the ISO standards, see the ISO catalogue.The standards are protected by copyright and most of them must be purchased. However, about 300 of the standards produced by ISO and IEC's Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC1) have been made freely and publicly available.

List of UIC country codes

The UIC Country Code is a two digit-number identifying countries in which members of the International Union of Railways (UIC) are active. The UIC has issued numbering systems for rolling stock (UIC wagon numbers) and stations that include the country code. The values are defined in UIC leaflet 920-14.

The country code had originally been designed as a company code but mainly as a consequence of the reorganisation of the rail sector in Europe changes were necessary. When the former UIC vehicle number became a vehicle register number (European Vehicle Number, EVN) issued by governmental organisations, the code was attributed to the countries. Vehicle numbering is now governed by the Intergovernmental Organisation for International Carriage by Rail and in Technical Specifications for Interoperability (TSI) of the European Union.

Railroads in North America use a system based on company-specific reporting marks, and a similar system, ISO 6346, is used for intermodal containers.

MACS3

The MACS3 Loading Computer System is a computer controlled loading system for commercial vessels, developed by Navis. Prior to October, 2017 it was offered by Interschalt maritime systems GmbH, before by Seacos Computersysteme & Software GmbH.

MACS3 consists of computer hardware and a range of software, which aim to minimize the operational load while loading a vessel, and to prevent any hard limitations from being breached.

Registration authority

Registration authorities exist for many standards organizations, such as ANNA (Association of National Numbering Agencies for ISIN), the Object Management Group, W3C, IEEE and others. In general, registration authorities all perform a similar function, in promoting the use of a particular standard through facilitating its use. This may be by applying the standard, where appropriate, or by verifying that a particular application satisfies the standard's tenants. Maintenance agencies, in contrast, may change an element in a standard based on set rules – such as the creation or change of a currency code when a currency is created or revalued (i.e. TRL to TRY for Turkish lira). The Object Management Group has an additional concept of certified provider, which is deemed an entity permitted to perform some functions on behalf of the registration authority, under specific processes and procedures documented within the standard for such a role.

An ISO registration authority (RAs) is not authorized to update standards but provides a registration function to facilitate implementation of an International Standard (e.g. ISBN number for books). Frequently, facilitating the implementation of an ISO standard’s requirements is best suited, by its nature, to one entity, an RA. This, de facto, creates a monopoly situation and this is why care needs to be taken with respect to the functions carried out and the fees charged to avoid an abuse of such a situation. In most cases, there is a formal legal contract in place between the standards body, such as the ISO General Secretariat, and the selected registration authority.

ISO registration authorities differ from a maintenance agency. Maintenance agencies are authorized to update particular elements in an International Standard and as a matter of policy, the secretariats of MAs are assigned to bodies forming part of the ISO system (member bodies or organizations to which a member body delegates certain tasks in its country). The membership of MAs and their operating procedures are subject to approval by the Technical Management Board.

While registration authorities for a particular standard typically do not change, the position is not formally guaranteed and is subject to review and reassignment to a different firm or organization. In some cases, the concept of a registration authority may not exist for a standard at all.

By further example, the equivalent registration authority organization for Internet standards is the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.

Reporting mark

A reporting mark is an alphabetic code of one to four letters used to identify owners or lessees of rolling stock and other equipment used on certain railroad networks.

In North America the mark, which consists of an alphabetic code of one to four letters, is stenciled on each piece of equipment, along with a one- to six-digit number. This information is used to uniquely identify every such rail car or locomotive, thus allowing it to be tracked by the railroad they are traveling over, which shares the information with other railroads and customers.

Standard Carrier Alpha Code

The Standard Carrier Alpha Code (SCAC) is a privately controlled US code used to identify road transport companies. It is typically two to four letters long. The National Motor Freight Traffic Association developed the SCAC code in the 1960s to help road transport companies computerize data and records.

Unique identifier

With reference to a given (possibly implicit) set of objects, a unique identifier (UID) is any identifier which is guaranteed to be unique among all identifiers used for those objects and for a specific purpose. There are three main types of unique identifiers, each corresponding to a different generation strategy:

serial numbers, assigned incrementally or sequentially

random numbers, selected from a number space much larger than the maximum (or expected) number of objects to be identified. Although not really unique, some identifiers of this type may be appropriate for identifying objects in many practical applications and are, with abuse of language, still referred to as "unique"

names or codes allocated by choice which are forced to be unique by keeping a central registry such as the EPC Information Services.The above methods can be combined, hierarchically or singly, to create other generation schemes which guarantee uniqueness. In many cases, a single object may have more than one unique identifier, each of which identifies it for a different purpose. In relational databases, certain attributes of an entity that serve as unique identifiers are called primary keys.

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